Zr Zirconium – Element Information, Facts, Properties, Trends,Uses, Comparison with other elements

40
Zr
Zirconium

Zirconium

Element 40 of Periodic table is Zirconium with atomic number 40, atomic weight 91.224. Zirconium, symbol Zr, has a Simple Hexagonal structure and Silver color. Zirconium is a transition metal element. Know everything about Zirconium Facts, Physical Properties, Chemical Properties, Electronic configuration, Atomic and Crystal Structure.

40 Zr - Zirconium | SchoolMyKids

Zirconium is a chemical element with symbol Zr and atomic number 40. The name of zirconium is taken from the name of the mineral zircon, the most important source of zirconium. The word zircon comes from the Persian word zargun زرگون, meaning "gold-colored".

How to Locate Zirconium on Periodic Table

Periodic table is arranged by atomic number, number of protons in the nucleus which is same as number of electrons. The atomic number increases from left to right. Periodic table starts at top left ( Atomic number 1) and ends at bottom right (atomic number 118). Therefore you can directly look for atomic number 40 to find Zirconium on periodic table.

Another way to read periodic table and locate an element is by using group number (column) and period number (row). To locate Zirconium on periodic table look for cross section of group 4 and period 5 in the modern periodic table.

Table of Contents

Zirconium History

The element Zirconium was discovered by Martin Heinrich Klaproth in year 1789 in Germany . Zirconium derived its name from Persian Zargun, 'gold-colored'; German Zirkoon, 'jargoon'

Zirconium Presence: Abundance in Nature and Around Us

The table below shows the abundance of Zirconium in Universe, Sun, Meteorites, Earth's Crust, Oceans and Human Body.

  Ppb by weight (1ppb =10^-7 %)
Abundance in Universe 5×10-6%
Abundance in Sun 4×10-6%
Abundance in Meteorites 6.6e-06
Abundance in Earth's Crust 0.00013
Abundance in Oceans 2.6×10-9%
Abundance in Humans 5×10-6%

Crystal Structure of Zirconium

The solid state structure of Zirconium is Simple Hexagonal.

The Crystal structure can be described in terms of its unit Cell. The unit Cells repeats itself in three dimensional space to form the structure.

Unit Cell Parameters

The unit cell is represented in terms of its lattice parameters, which are the lengths of the cell edges Lattice Constants (a, b and c)

a b c
323.2 323.2 514.7 pm

and the angles between them Lattice Angles (alpha, beta and gamma).

alpha beta gamma
π/2 π/2 2 π/3

The positions of the atoms inside the unit cell are described by the set of atomic positions ( xi, yi, zi) measured from a reference lattice point.

The symmetry properties of the crystal are described by the concept of space groups. All possible symmetric arrangements of particles in three-dimensional space are described by the 230 space groups (219 distinct types, or 230 if chiral copies are considered distinct.

Space Group Name P63/mmc 40 Zr Zirconium - Crystal Structure | SchoolMyKids
Space Group Number 194
Crystal Structure Simple Hexagonal

Zirconium Atomic and Orbital Properties

Zirconium atoms have 40 electrons and the electronic shell structure is [2, 8, 18, 10, 2] with Atomic Term Symbol (Quantum Numbers) 3F2.

Atomic Number 40
Number of Electrons (with no charge) 40
Number of Protons 40
Mass Number 91
Number of Neutrons 51
Shell structure (Electrons per energy level) [2, 8, 18, 10, 2]
Electron Configuration [Kr] 4d2 5s2
Valence Electrons 4d2 5s2
Oxidation State -2
1;2;3;4
Atomic Term Symbol (Quantum Numbers) 3F2

Shell Structure of Zirconium - Electrons per energy level

40 Zr Zirconium - Electron Shell Structure | SchoolMyKids
n s p d f
1 K 2
2 L 2 6
3 M 2 6 10
4 N 2 6 2
5 O 2

Ground State Electronic Configuration of Zirconium - neutral Zirconium atom

The ground state electronic configuration of Neutral Zirconium atom is [Kr] 4d2 5s2. The portion of Zirconium configuration that is equivalent to the noble gas of the preceding period, is abbreviated as [Kr]. For atoms with many electrons, this notation can become lengthy and so an abbreviated notation is used.This is important as it is the Valence electrons 4d2 5s2, electrons in the outermost shell that determine the chemical properties of the element.

Unabbreviated electronic configuration of neutral Zirconium

Complete ground state electronic configuration for the Zirconium atom, Unabbreviated electronic configuration

1s2 2s2 2p6 3s2 3p6 3d10 4s2 4p6 4d2 5s2

Atomic Structure of Zirconium

Zirconium atomic radius is 206 pm, while it's covalent radius is 148 pm.

Atomic Radius

206 pm (2.06 Å)

Atomic Volume 14.0107510367 cm3
Covalent Radius 148 pm (1.48 Å)
Van der Waals Radius N/A
Neutron Cross Section 0.184 σa/barns

Atomic Spectrum of Zirconium

Atomic Spectrum of Zirconium | SchoolMyKids

Zirconium Chemical Properties: Zirconium Ionization Energies and electron affinity

The electron affinity of Zirconium is 41.1 kJ/mol

Valence 4
Electronegativity 1.33
ElectronAffinity 41.1 kJ/mol

Ionization Energy of Zirconium

Refer to table below for Ionization energies of Zirconium

Ionization energy number Enthalpy - kJ/mol
1 640.1
2 1270
3 2218
4 3313
5 7752
6 9.5×103

Zirconium Physical Properties

Refer to below table for Zirconium Physical Properties

Density 6.511 g/cm3
Molar Volume 14.0107510367 cm3

Elastic Properties

Young Modulus 68 GPa
Shear Modulus 33 GPa
Bulk Modulus N/A
Poisson Ratio 0.34

Hardness of Zirconium - Tests to Measure of Hardness of Element

Mohs Hardness 5 MPa
Vickers Hardness 903 MPa
Brinell Hardness 650 MPa

Zirconium Electrical Properties

Zirconium is Conductor of electricity. Refer to table below for the Electrical properties of Zirconium

Electrical Conductivity 2.4×106 S/m
Resistivity 4.2×10-7 m Ω
Superconducting Point 0.61

Zirconium Heat and Conduction Properties

Thermal Conductivity 23 W/(m K)
Thermal Expansion 5.7×10-6 K-1

Zirconium Magnetic Properties

Magnetic Type Paramagnetic
Curie Point N/A
Mass Magnetic Susceptibility 1.68×10-8
Molar Magnetic Susceptibility 1.53×10-9
Volume Magnetic Susceptibility 0.000109

Optical Properties of Zirconium

Refractive Index N/A

Acoustic Properties of Zirconium

Speed of Sound 3.8×103 m/s

Zirconium Thermal Properties - Enthalpies and thermodynamics

Refer to table below for Thermal properties of Zirconium

Melting Point 2128 K (1855 °C)
Boiling Point 4682 K (4409 °C)
Critical Temperature N/A
Superconducting Point 0.61

Enthalpies of Zirconium

Heat of Fusion 21 kJ/mol
Heat of Vaporization 580 kJ/mol
Heat of Combustion N/A

Zirconium Isotopes - Nuclear Properties of Zirconium

Isotopes of rhodium. Naturally occurring Zirconium has 4 stable isotope - 90Zr, 91Zr, 92Zr, 94Zr.

Isotope Isotope Mass % Abundance T half Decay Mode
78Zr  
79Zr  
80Zr  
81Zr  
82Zr  
83Zr  
84Zr  
85Zr  
86Zr  
87Zr  
88Zr  
89Zr  
90Zr   51.45% Stable N/A
91Zr   11.22% Stable N/A
92Zr   17.15% Stable N/A
93Zr  
94Zr   17.38% Stable N/A
95Zr  
96Zr   2.8%
97Zr  
98Zr  
99Zr  
100Zr  
101Zr  
102Zr  
103Zr  
104Zr  
105Zr  
106Zr  
107Zr  
108Zr  
109Zr  
110Zr  

Regulatory and Health - Health and Safety Parameters and Guidelines

CAS Number CAS7440-67-7
RTECS Number N/A
DOT Hazard Class 4.2
DOT Numbers 2008
EU Number N/A
NFPA Fire Rating 1
NFPA Hazards N/A
NFPA Health Rating 1
NFPA Reactivity Rating 0
Autoignition Point N/A
Flashpoint N/A

Database Search

List of unique identifiers to search the element in various chemical registry databases

Database Identifier number
CAS Number - Chemical Abstracts Service (CAS) CAS7440-67-7
CID Number CID23995
Gmelin Number N/A
NSC Number N/A
RTECS Number N/A

List of Elements
1 H - Hydrogen
2 He - Helium
3 Li - Lithium
4 Be - Beryllium
5 B - Boron
6 C - Carbon
7 N - Nitrogen
8 O - Oxygen
9 F - Fluorine
10 Ne - Neon
11 Na - Sodium
12 Mg - Magnesium
13 Al - Aluminium
14 Si - Silicon
15 P - Phosphorus
16 S - Sulfur
17 Cl - Chlorine
18 Ar - Argon
19 K - Potassium
20 Ca - Calcium
21 Sc - Scandium
22 Ti - Titanium
23 V - Vanadium
24 Cr - Chromium
25 Mn - Manganese
26 Fe - Iron
27 Co - Cobalt
28 Ni - Nickel
29 Cu - Copper
30 Zn - Zinc
31 Ga - Gallium
32 Ge - Germanium
33 As - Arsenic
34 Se - Selenium
35 Br - Bromine
36 Kr - Krypton
37 Rb - Rubidium
38 Sr - Strontium
39 Y - Yttrium
40 Zr - Zirconium
41 Nb - Niobium
42 Mo - Molybdenum
43 Tc - Technetium
44 Ru - Ruthenium
45 Rh - Rhodium
46 Pd - Palladium
47 Ag - Silver
48 Cd - Cadmium
49 In - Indium
50 Sn - Tin
51 Sb - Antimony
52 Te - Tellurium
53 I - Iodine
54 Xe - Xenon
55 Cs - Cesium
56 Ba - Barium
57 La - Lanthanum
58 Ce - Cerium
59 Pr - Praseodymium
60 Nd - Neodymium
61 Pm - Promethium
62 Sm - Samarium
63 Eu - Europium
64 Gd - Gadolinium
65 Tb - Terbium
66 Dy - Dysprosium
67 Ho - Holmium
68 Er - Erbium
69 Tm - Thulium
70 Yb - Ytterbium
71 Lu - Lutetium
72 Hf - Hafnium
73 Ta - Tantalum
74 W - Tungsten
75 Re - Rhenium
76 Os - Osmium
77 Ir - Iridium
78 Pt - Platinum
79 Au - Gold
80 Hg - Mercury
81 Tl - Thallium
82 Pb - Lead
83 Bi - Bismuth
84 Po - Polonium
85 At - Astatine
86 Rn - Radon
87 Fr - Francium
88 Ra - Radium
89 Ac - Actinium
90 Th - Thorium
91 Pa - Protactinium
92 U - Uranium
93 Np - Neptunium
94 Pu - Plutonium
95 Am - Americium
96 Cm - Curium
97 Bk - Berkelium
98 Cf - Californium
99 Es - Einsteinium
100 Fm - Fermium
101 Md - Mendelevium
102 No - Nobelium
103 Lr - Lawrencium
104 Rf - Rutherfordium
105 Db - Dubnium
106 Sg - Seaborgium
107 Bh - Bohrium
108 Hs - Hassium
109 Mt - Meitnerium
110 Ds - Darmstadtium
111 Rg - Roentgenium
112 Cn - Copernicium
113 Nh - Nihonium
114 Fl - Flerovium
115 Mc - Moscovium
116 Lv - Livermorium
117 Ts - Tennessine
118 Og - Oganesson
Metalloid
Nonmetals
Other Nonmetals
Halogens Noble Gas
Metals
Alkali Metals Alkaline Earth Metals
Transition Metals Post-Transition Metals
Lanthanide Actinide