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Hg Mercury
Element Information, Facts, Properties, Trends, Uses, Comparison with other elements

80
Hg
Mercury
Element 80 of Periodic table is Mercury with atomic number 80, atomic weight 200.59. Mercury, symbol Hg, has a Simple Trigonal structure and Silver color. Mercury is a Transition Metal element. It is part of group 12 (zinc family). Know everything about Mercury Facts, Physical Properties, Chemical Properties, Electronic configuration, Atomic and Crystal Structure.
80 Hg - Mercury | SchoolMyKids

Mercury is a chemical element with symbol Hg and atomic number 80. It is commonly known as quicksilver and was formerly named hydrargyrum (/haɪˈdrɑːrdʒərəm/). A heavy, silvery d-block element, mercury is the only metallic element that is liquid at standard conditions for temperature and pressure; the only other element that is liquid under these conditions is bromine, though metals such as caesium, gallium, and rubidium melt just above room temperature.

It belongs to group 12 of the periodic table having trivial name volatile metals.

Mercury Facts

Read key information and facts about element Mercury

NameMercury
Atomic Number80
Atomic SymbolHg
Atomic Weight200.59
PhaseLiquid
ColorSilver
Appearancesilvery
ClassificationTransition Metal
Group in Periodic Table12
Group Namezinc family
Period in Periodic Tableperiod 6
Block in Periodic Tabled -block
Electronic Configuration[Xe] 4f14 5d10 6s2
Electronic Shell Structure (Electrons per shell)2, 8, 18, 32, 18, 2
Melting Point234.32 K
Boiling Point629.88 K
CAS NumberCAS7439-97-6
123456789101112131415161718
1
1
H
Hydrogen
1.008

Atomic #

Electronic Shell #

Symbol
Name
Atomic Weight
HGas
HgLiquid
CSolid
Metals
Metalloids
NonMetals
Alkali metals
Alkali earth metals
Lanthanoids
Transition metals
Post-transition metals
Other nonmetals
Halogens
Nobel gas
Actinoids
2
He
Helium
4.003
2
3
Li
Lithium
6.941
4
Be
Beryllium
9.012
5
B
Boron
10.811
6
C
Carbon
12.011
7
N
Nitrogen
14.007
8
O
Oxygen
15.999
9
F
Fluorine
18.998
10
Ne
Neon
20.180
3
11
Na
Sodium
22.990
12
Mg
Magnesium
24.305
13
Al
Aluminium
26.982
14
Si
Silicon
28.085
15
P
Phosphorus
30.974
16
S
Sulfur
32.065
17
Cl
Chlorine
35.453
18
Ar
Argon
39.948
4
19
K
Potassium
39.098
20
Ca
Calcium
40.078
21
Sc
Scandium
44.956
22
Ti
Titanium
47.867
23
V
Vanadium
50.941
24
Cr
Chromium
51.996
25
Mn
Manganese
54.938
26
Fe
Iron
55.845
27
Co
Cobalt
58.933
28
Ni
Nickel
58.693
29
Cu
Copper
63.546
30
Zn
Zinc
65.409
31
Ga
Gallium
69.723
32
Ge
Germanium
72.640
33
As
Arsenic
74.922
34
Se
Selenium
78.960
35
Br
Bromine
79.904
36
Kr
Krypton
83.798
5
37
Rb
Rubidium
85.468
38
Sr
Strontium
87.620
39
Y
Yttrium
88.906
40
Zr
Zirconium
91.224
41
Nb
Niobium
92.906
42
Mo
Molybdenum
95.940
43
Tc
Technetium
98
44
Ru
Ruthenium
101.070
45
Rh
Rhodium
102.906
46
Pd
Palladium
106.420
47
Ag
Silver
107.868
48
Cd
Cadmium
112.411
49
In
Indium
114.818
50
Sn
Tin
118.710
51
Sb
Antimony
121.760
52
Te
Tellurium
127.600
53
I
Iodine
126.904
54
Xe
Xenon
131.293
6
55
Cs
Cesium
132.905
56
Ba
Barium
137.327
57 - 71
La - Lu
Lanthanides
72
Hf
Hafnium
178.490
73
Ta
Tantalum
180.948
74
W
Tungsten
183.840
75
Re
Rhenium
186.207
76
Os
Osmium
190.230
77
Ir
Iridium
192.217
78
Pt
Platinum
195.078
79
Au
Gold
196.967
80
Hg
Mercury
200.590
81
Tl
Thallium
204.383
82
Pb
Lead
207.200
83
Bi
Bismuth
208.980
84
Po
Polonium
209
85
At
Astatine
210
86
Rn
Radon
222
7
87
Fr
Francium
223
88
Ra
Radium
226
89 - 103
Ac - Lr
Actinides
104
Rf
Rutherfordium
261
105
Db
Dubnium
262
106
Sg
Seaborgium
266
107
Bh
Bohrium
264
108
Hs
Hassium
277
109
Mt
Meitnerium
268
110
Ds
Darmstadtium
281
111
Rg
Roentgenium
272
112
Cn
Copernicium
285
113
Nh
Nihonium
284
114
Fl
Flerovium
289
115
Mc
Moscovium
288
116
Lv
Livermorium
292
117
Ts
Tennessine
294
118
Og
Oganesson
294
Lanthanides
57
La
Lanthanum
138.905
58
Ce
Cerium
140.116
59
Pr
Praseodymium
140.908
60
Nd
Neodymium
144.240
61
Pm
Promethium
145
62
Sm
Samarium
150.360
63
Eu
Europium
151.964
64
Gd
Gadolinium
157.250
65
Tb
Terbium
158.925
66
Dy
Dysprosium
162.500
67
Ho
Holmium
164.930
68
Er
Erbium
167.259
69
Tm
Thulium
168.934
70
Yb
Ytterbium
173.040
71
Lu
Lutetium
174.967
Actinides
89
Ac
Actinium
227
90
Th
Thorium
232.038
91
Pa
Protactinium
231.036
92
U
Uranium
238.029
93
Np
Neptunium
237
94
Pu
Plutonium
244
95
Am
Americium
243
96
Cm
Curium
247
97
Bk
Berkelium
247
98
Cf
Californium
251
99
Es
Einsteinium
252
100
Fm
Fermium
257
101
Md
Mendelevium
258
102
No
Nobelium
259
103
Lr
Lawrencium
262

How to Locate Mercury on Periodic Table

Periodic table is arranged by atomic number, number of protons in the nucleus which is same as number of electrons. The atomic number increases from left to right. Periodic table starts at top left ( Atomic number 1) and ends at bottom right (atomic number 118). Therefore you can directly look for atomic number 80 to find Mercury on periodic table.

Another way to read periodic table and locate an element is by using group number (column) and period number (row). To locate Mercury on periodic table look for cross section of group 12 and period 6 in the modern periodic table.

Mercury History

The element Mercury was discovered by Indians/Chinese in year Before 2000 BCE . Mercury was first isolated by Egypt in 1500 BCE. Mercury derived its name from the New Latin name mercurius, named after the Roman god (Hg from former name hydrargyrum, from Greek hydr-, 'water', and argyros, 'silver').

Known to ancient Chinese and Indians before 2000 BCE, and found in Egyptian tombs dating from 1500 BCE.

Mercury Presence: Abundance in Nature and Around Us

The table below shows the abundance of Mercury in Universe, Sun, Meteorites, Earth's Crust, Oceans and Human Body.

 ppb by weight (1ppb =10^-7 %)ppb by atoms (1ppb =10^-7 %)
Abundance in Universe10.006
Abundance in Sun200.12
Abundance in Meteorites25020
Abundance in Earth's Crust677
Abundance in Oceans0.050.0015
Abundance in Humans--

Crystal Structure of Mercury

The solid state structure of Mercury is Simple Trigonal.

The Crystal structure can be described in terms of its unit Cell. The unit Cells repeats itself in three dimensional space to form the structure.

Unit Cell Parameters

The unit cell is represented in terms of its lattice parameters, which are the lengths of the cell edges Lattice Constants (a, b and c)

abc
300.5 pm300.5 pm300.5 pm

and the angles between them Lattice Angles (alpha, beta and gamma).

alphabetagamma
1.23081 1.23081 1.23081

The positions of the atoms inside the unit cell are described by the set of atomic positions ( xi, yi, zi) measured from a reference lattice point.

The symmetry properties of the crystal are described by the concept of space groups. All possible symmetric arrangements of particles in three-dimensional space are described by the 230 space groups (219 distinct types, or 230 if chiral copies are considered distinct.

Space Group NameR_ 3m 80 Hg Mercury - Crystal Structure | SchoolMyKids
Oxidation StatesSpace Group Number166
Crystal StructureSimple Trigonal

Mercury Atomic and Orbital Properties

Mercury atoms have 80 electrons and the electronic shell structure is [2, 8, 18, 32, 18, 2] with Atomic Term Symbol (Quantum Numbers) 1S0.

Atomic Number80
Number of Electrons (with no charge)80
Number of Protons80
Mass Number201
Number of Neutrons121
Shell structure (Electrons per energy level)2, 8, 18, 32, 18, 2
Electron Configuration[Xe] 4f14 5d10 6s2
Valence Electrons5d10 6s2
Valence (Valency)2
Main Oxidation States1, 2
Oxidation States-2, 1, 2
Atomic Term Symbol (Quantum Numbers)1S0

Bohr Atomic Model of Mercury - Electrons per energy level

80 Hg Mercury - Electron Shell Structure | SchoolMyKids
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Ground State Electronic Configuration of Mercury - neutral Mercury atom

Abbreviated electronic configuration of Mercury

The ground state abbreviated electronic configuration of Neutral Mercury atom is [Xe] 4f14 5d10 6s2. The portion of Mercury configuration that is equivalent to the noble gas of the preceding period, is abbreviated as [Xe]. For atoms with many electrons, this notation can become lengthy and so an abbreviated notation is used. This is important as it is the Valence electrons 5d10 6s2, electrons in the outermost shell that determine the chemical properties of the element.

Unabbreviated electronic configuration of neutral Mercury

Complete ground state electronic configuration for the Mercury atom, Unabbreviated electronic configuration

1s2 2s2 2p6 3s2 3p6 3d10 4s2 4p6 4d10 5s2 5p6 4f14 5d10 6s2

Electrons are filled in atomic orbitals as per the order determined by the Aufbau principle, Pauli Exclusion Principle and Hund’s Rule.

  • As per the Aufbau principle the electrons will occupy the orbitals having lower energies before occupying higher energy orbitals. According to this principle, electrons are filled in the following order: 1s, 2s, 2p, 3s, 3p, 4s, 3d, 4p, 5s, 4d, 5p, 6s, 4f, 5d, 6p, 7s, 5f, 6d, 7p…
  • The Pauli exclusion principle states that a maximum of two electrons, each having opposite spins, can fit in an orbital.
  • Hund's rule states that every orbital in a given subshell is singly occupied by electrons before a second electron is filled in an orbital.
  • Electron configuration of Mercury
    Atomic Structure of Mercury

    Mercury atomic radius is 171 pm, while it's covalent radius is 149 pm.

    Atomic Radius Calculated

    171 pm (1.71 Å)

    Atomic Radius Empirical

    150 pm (1.5 Å)

    Atomic Volume14.09 cm3/mol
    Covalent Radius149 pm (1.49 Å)
    Van der Waals Radius155 pm
    Neutron Cross Section374
    Neutron Mass Absorption 0.063

    Atomic Spectrum of Mercury

    Atomic Spectrum of Mercury | SchoolMyKids

    Mercury Chemical Properties: Mercury Ionization Energies and electron affinity

    The electron affinity of Mercury is 0 kJ/mol.

    Valence2
    Electronegativity2
    ElectronAffinity0 kJ/mol

    Ionization Energy of Mercury

    Refer to table below for Ionization energies of Mercury

    Ionization energy numberEnthalpy - kJ/mol
    1st1007.1
    2nd1810
    3rd3300

    Mercury Physical Properties

    Refer to below table for Mercury Physical Properties

    Density13.534 g/cm3(when liquid at m.p density is $13.534 g/cm3)
    Molar Volume14.09 cm3/mol

    Elastic Properties

    Young Modulus-
    Shear Modulus-
    Bulk Modulus 25 GPa
    Poisson Ratio-

    Hardness of Mercury - Tests to Measure of Hardness of Element

    Mohs Hardness-
    Vickers Hardness-
    Brinell Hardness-

    Mercury Electrical Properties

    Mercury is Conductor of electricity. Refer to table below for the Electrical properties ofMercury

    Electrical Conductivity1000000 S/m
    Resistivity9.6e-7 m Ω
    Superconducting Point4.154

    Mercury Heat and Conduction Properties

    Thermal Conductivity8.3 W/(m K)
    Thermal Expansion-

    Mercury Magnetic Properties

    Magnetic TypeDiamagnetic
    Curie Point-
    Mass Magnetic Susceptibility-2.1e-9 m3/kg
    Molar Magnetic Susceptibility-4.21e-10 m3/mol
    Volume Magnetic Susceptibility-0.0000284

    Optical Properties of Mercury

    Refractive Index1.000933

    Acoustic Properties of Mercury

    Speed of Sound1407 m/s

    Mercury Thermal Properties - Enthalpies and thermodynamics

    Refer to table below for Thermal properties of Mercury

    Melting Point234.32 K (-38.83°C, -37.89399999999998 °F)
    Boiling Point629.88 K (356.73°C, 674.114 °F)
    Critical Temperature1750 K
    Superconducting Point4.154

    Enthalpies of Mercury

    Heat of Fusion2.29 kJ/mol
    Heat of Vaporization59.2 kJ/mol
    Heat of Combustion-

    Mercury Isotopes - Nuclear Properties of Mercury

    Mercury has 40 isotopes, with between 171 and 210 nucleons. Mercury has 7 stable naturally occuring isotopes.

    Isotopes of Mercury - Naturally occurring stable Isotopes: 196Hg, 198Hg, 199Hg, 200Hg, 201Hg, 202Hg, 204Hg.

    IsotopeZNIsotope Mass% AbundanceT halfDecay Mode
    171Hg8091171Synthetic
    172Hg8092172Synthetic
    173Hg8093173Synthetic
    174Hg8094174Synthetic
    175Hg8095175Synthetic
    176Hg8096176Synthetic
    177Hg8097177Synthetic
    178Hg8098178Synthetic
    179Hg8099179Synthetic
    180Hg80100180Synthetic
    181Hg80101181Synthetic
    182Hg80102182Synthetic
    183Hg80103183Synthetic
    184Hg80104184Synthetic
    185Hg80105185Synthetic
    186Hg80106186Synthetic
    187Hg80107187Synthetic
    188Hg80108188Synthetic
    189Hg80109189Synthetic
    190Hg80110190Synthetic
    191Hg80111191Synthetic
    192Hg80112192Synthetic
    193Hg80113193Synthetic
    194Hg80114194Synthetic
    195Hg80115195Synthetic
    196Hg801161960.15%StableN/A
    197Hg80117197Synthetic
    198Hg801181989.97%StableN/A
    199Hg8011919916.87%StableN/A
    200Hg8012020023.1%StableN/A
    201Hg8012120113.18%Stable
    202Hg8012220229.86%StableN/A
    203Hg80123203Synthetic
    204Hg801242046.87%StableN/A
    205Hg80125205Synthetic
    206Hg80126206Synthetic
    207Hg80127207Synthetic
    208Hg80128208Synthetic
    209Hg80129209Synthetic
    210Hg80130210Synthetic

    Regulatory and Health - Health and Safety Parameters and Guidelines

    Database Search

    List of unique identifiers to search the element in various chemical registry databases

    DatabaseIdentifier number
    CAS Number - Chemical Abstracts Service (CAS)CAS7439-97-6
    RTECS NumberRTECSOV4550000
    CID Number CID23931
    Gmelin Number-
    NSC Number-

    Compare Mercury with other elements

    Compare Mercury with all Group 12 elements

    Compare Mercury with all Period 6 elements

    Compare Mercury with all Transition Metal elements