Element Information, Facts, Properties, Trends, Uses, Comparison with other elements
Lawrencium is a synthetic chemical element with chemical symbol Lr (formerly Lw) and atomic number 103. It is named in honor of Ernest Lawrence, inventor of the cyclotron, a device that was used to discover many artificial radioactive elements. A radioactive metal, lawrencium is the eleventh transuranic element and is also the final member of the Actinide series.
It belongs to group 3 of the periodic table having trivial name . Scandium family is a periodic table group consisting of rare earth elements plus actinides.
Read key information and facts about element Lawrencium
|Group in Periodic Table||3|
|Group Name||scandium family|
|Period in Periodic Table||period 7|
|Block in Periodic Table||d -block|
|Electronic Configuration||[Rn] 5f14 7s2 7p1|
|Electronic Shell Structure (Electrons per shell)||2, 8, 18, 32, 32, 8, 3|
|Melting Point||1900 K|
How to Locate Lawrencium on Periodic Table
Periodic table is arranged by atomic number, number of protons in the nucleus which is same as number of electrons. The atomic number increases from left to right. Periodic table starts at top left ( Atomic number 1) and ends at bottom right (atomic number 118). Therefore you can directly look for atomic number 103 to find Lawrencium on periodic table.
Another way to read periodic table and locate an element is by using group number (column) and period number (row). To locate Lawrencium on periodic table look for cross section of group 3 and period 7 in the modern periodic table.
The element Lawrencium was discovered by A. Ghiorso,T. Sikkeland,E. Larsh and M. Latimer in year 1961 in United States. Lawrencium was first isolated by in . Lawrencium derived its name from Ernest O. Lawrence, physicist.
First prepared by bombardment of californium with boron atoms.
Lawrencium Presence: Abundance in Nature and Around Us
The table below shows the abundance of Lawrencium in Universe, Sun, Meteorites, Earth's Crust, Oceans and Human Body.
|ppb by weight (1ppb =10^-7 %)||ppb by atoms (1ppb =10^-7 %)|
|Abundance in Universe||-||-|
|Abundance in Sun||-||-|
|Abundance in Meteorites||-||-|
|Abundance in Earth's Crust||-||-|
|Abundance in Oceans||-||-|
|Abundance in Humans||-||-|
Crystal Structure of Lawrencium
The solid state structure of Lawrencium is Simple Hexagonal.
The Crystal structure can be described in terms of its unit Cell. The unit Cells repeats itself in three dimensional space to form the structure.
Unit Cell Parameters
The unit cell is represented in terms of its lattice parameters, which are the lengths of the cell edges Lattice Constants (a, b and c)
and the angles between them Lattice Angles (alpha, beta and gamma).
The positions of the atoms inside the unit cell are described by the set of atomic positions ( xi, yi, zi) measured from a reference lattice point.
The symmetry properties of the crystal are described by the concept of space groups. All possible symmetric arrangements of particles in three-dimensional space are described by the 230 space groups (219 distinct types, or 230 if chiral copies are considered distinct.
|Space Group Name||-|
|Oxidation States||Space Group Number||-|
|Crystal Structure||Simple Hexagonal|
Lawrencium Atomic and Orbital Properties
Lawrencium atoms have 103 electrons and the electronic shell structure is [2, 8, 18, 32, 32, 8, 3] with Atomic Term Symbol (Quantum Numbers) 2P1/2.
|Number of Electrons (with no charge)||103|
|Number of Protons||103|
|Number of Neutrons||159|
|Shell structure (Electrons per energy level)||2, 8, 18, 32, 32, 8, 3|
|Electron Configuration||[Rn] 5f14 7s2 7p1|
|Valence Electrons||7s2 7p1|
|Main Oxidation States||3|
|Atomic Term Symbol (Quantum Numbers)||2P1/2|
Bohr Atomic Model of Lawrencium - Electrons per energy level
Ground State Electronic Configuration of Lawrencium - neutral Lawrencium atom
Abbreviated electronic configuration of Lawrencium
The ground state abbreviated electronic configuration of Neutral Lawrencium atom is [Rn] 5f14 7s2 7p1. The portion of Lawrencium configuration that is equivalent to the noble gas of the preceding period, is abbreviated as [Rn]. For atoms with many electrons, this notation can become lengthy and so an abbreviated notation is used. This is important as it is the Valence electrons 7s2 7p1, electrons in the outermost shell that determine the chemical properties of the element.
Unabbreviated electronic configuration of neutral Lawrencium
Complete ground state electronic configuration for the Lawrencium atom, Unabbreviated electronic configuration
1s2 2s2 2p6 3s2 3p6 3d10 4s2 4p6 4d10 5s2 5p6 4f14 5d10 6s2 6p6 5f14 7s2 7p1
Electrons are filled in atomic orbitals as per the order determined by the Aufbau principle, Pauli Exclusion Principle and Hund’s Rule.
Atomic Structure of Lawrencium
Lawrencium atomic radius is - , while it's covalent radius is - .
|Atomic Radius Calculated|
- (0 Å)
|Atomic Radius Empirical|
- (0 Å)
|Van der Waals Radius||-|
|Neutron Cross Section||-|
|Neutron Mass Absorption||-|
Atomic Spectrum of Lawrencium
Lawrencium Chemical Properties: Lawrencium Ionization Energies and electron affinity
The electron affinity of Lawrencium is - .
Ionization Energy of Lawrencium
Refer to table below for Ionization energies of Lawrencium
|Ionization energy number||Enthalpy - kJ/mol|
Lawrencium Physical Properties
Refer to below table for Lawrencium Physical Properties
Hardness of Lawrencium - Tests to Measure of Hardness of Element
Lawrencium Electrical Properties
Lawrencium is Conductor of electricity. Refer to table below for the Electrical properties ofLawrencium
Lawrencium Heat and Conduction Properties
Lawrencium Magnetic Properties
|Mass Magnetic Susceptibility||-|
|Molar Magnetic Susceptibility||-|
|Volume Magnetic Susceptibility||-|
Optical Properties of Lawrencium
Acoustic Properties of Lawrencium
|Speed of Sound||-|
Lawrencium Thermal Properties - Enthalpies and thermodynamics
Refer to table below for Thermal properties of Lawrencium
|Melting Point||1900 K (1626.85°C, 2960.33 °F)|
|Boiling Point||- (-273.15°C, -459.66999999999996 °F)|
Enthalpies of Lawrencium
|Heat of Fusion||-|
|Heat of Vaporization||-|
|Heat of Combustion||-|
Lawrencium Isotopes - Nuclear Properties of Lawrencium
Lawrencium has 16 isotopes, with between 251 and 266 nucleons. Lawrencium has 0 stable naturally occuring isotopes.
Isotopes of Lawrencium - Naturally occurring stable Isotopes: -.
|Isotope||Z||N||Isotope Mass||% Abundance||T half||Decay Mode|