Element Information, Facts, Properties, Trends, Uses, Comparison with other elements
Radon is a chemical element with symbol Rn and atomic number 86. It is a radioactive, colorless, odorless, tasteless Noble Gas, occurring naturally as a decay product of radium. Its most stable isotope, 222Rn, has a half-life of 3.8 days.
It belongs to group 18 of the periodic table having trivial name noble gases, aerogens.
Read key information and facts about element Radon
|Phase||Gas (Monoatomic Gas )|
|Appearance||colorless gas, occasionally glows green or red in discharge tubes|
|Group in Periodic Table||18|
|Group Name||helium family or neon family|
|Period in Periodic Table||period 6|
|Block in Periodic Table||p -block|
|Electronic Configuration||[Xe] 4f14 5d10 6s2 6p6|
|Electronic Shell Structure (Electrons per shell)||2, 8, 18, 32, 18, 8|
|Melting Point||202 K|
|Boiling Point||211.3 K|
How to Locate Radon on Periodic Table
Periodic table is arranged by atomic number, number of protons in the nucleus which is same as number of electrons. The atomic number increases from left to right. Periodic table starts at top left ( Atomic number 1) and ends at bottom right (atomic number 118). Therefore you can directly look for atomic number 86 to find Radon on periodic table.
Another way to read periodic table and locate an element is by using group number (column) and period number (row). To locate Radon on periodic table look for cross section of group 18 and period 6 in the modern periodic table.
The element Radon was discovered by E. Rutherford and R. B. Owens in year 1899 in Germany. Radon was first isolated by W. Ramsay and R. Whytlaw-Gray in 1910. Radon derived its name From radium, as it was first detected as an emission from radium during radioactive decay.
Rutherford and Owens discovered a radioactive gas resulting from the radioactive decay of thorium, isolated later by Ramsay and Gray. In 1900,Friedrich Ernst Dorndiscovered a longer-lived isotope of the same gas from the radioactive decay of radium. Since "radon" was first used to specifically designate Dorn's isotope before it became the name for the element, he is often mistakenly given credit for the latter instead of the former.
Radon Presence: Abundance in Nature and Around Us
The table below shows the abundance of Radon in Universe, Sun, Meteorites, Earth's Crust, Oceans and Human Body.
|ppb by weight (1ppb =10^-7 %)||ppb by atoms (1ppb =10^-7 %)|
|Abundance in Universe||-||-|
|Abundance in Sun||-||-|
|Abundance in Meteorites||-||-|
|Abundance in Earth's Crust||-||-|
|Abundance in Oceans||0.0000000000006||0.00000000000002|
|Abundance in Humans||-||-|
Crystal Structure of Radon
The solid state structure of Radon is Face Centered Cubic.
The Crystal structure can be described in terms of its unit Cell. The unit Cells repeats itself in three dimensional space to form the structure.
Unit Cell Parameters
The unit cell is represented in terms of its lattice parameters, which are the lengths of the cell edges Lattice Constants (a, b and c)
and the angles between them Lattice Angles (alpha, beta and gamma).
The positions of the atoms inside the unit cell are described by the set of atomic positions ( xi, yi, zi) measured from a reference lattice point.
The symmetry properties of the crystal are described by the concept of space groups. All possible symmetric arrangements of particles in three-dimensional space are described by the 230 space groups (219 distinct types, or 230 if chiral copies are considered distinct.
|Space Group Name||-|
|Oxidation States||Space Group Number||-|
|Crystal Structure||Face Centered Cubic|
Radon Atomic and Orbital Properties
Radon atoms have 86 electrons and the electronic shell structure is [2, 8, 18, 32, 18, 8] with Atomic Term Symbol (Quantum Numbers) 1S0.
|Number of Electrons (with no charge)||86|
|Number of Protons||86|
|Number of Neutrons||136|
|Shell structure (Electrons per energy level)||2, 8, 18, 32, 18, 8|
|Electron Configuration||[Xe] 4f14 5d10 6s2 6p6|
|Valence Electrons||6s2 6p6|
|Main Oxidation States||2|
|Oxidation States||2, 6|
|Atomic Term Symbol (Quantum Numbers)||1S0|
Bohr Atomic Model of Radon - Electrons per energy level
Ground State Electronic Configuration of Radon - neutral Radon atom
Abbreviated electronic configuration of Radon
The ground state abbreviated electronic configuration of Neutral Radon atom is [Xe] 4f14 5d10 6s2 6p6. The portion of Radon configuration that is equivalent to the noble gas of the preceding period, is abbreviated as [Xe]. For atoms with many electrons, this notation can become lengthy and so an abbreviated notation is used. This is important as it is the Valence electrons 6s2 6p6, electrons in the outermost shell that determine the chemical properties of the element.
Unabbreviated electronic configuration of neutral Radon
Complete ground state electronic configuration for the Radon atom, Unabbreviated electronic configuration
1s2 2s2 2p6 3s2 3p6 3d10 4s2 4p6 4d10 5s2 5p6 4f14 5d10 6s2 6p6
Electrons are filled in atomic orbitals as per the order determined by the Aufbau principle, Pauli Exclusion Principle and Hund’s Rule.
Atomic Structure of Radon
Radon atomic radius is 120 pm, while it's covalent radius is 145 pm.
|Atomic Radius Calculated|
120 pm (1.2 Å)
|Atomic Radius Empirical|
- (0 Å)
|Atomic Volume||50.5 cm3/mol|
|Covalent Radius||145 pm (1.45 Å)|
|Van der Waals Radius||220 pm|
|Neutron Cross Section||0.7|
|Neutron Mass Absorption||-|
Atomic Spectrum of Radon
Radon Chemical Properties: Radon Ionization Energies and electron affinity
The electron affinity of Radon is 0 kJ/mol.
Ionization Energy of Radon
Refer to table below for Ionization energies of Radon
|Ionization energy number||Enthalpy - kJ/mol|
Radon Physical Properties
Refer to below table for Radon Physical Properties
|Molar Volume||50.5 cm3/mol|
Hardness of Radon - Tests to Measure of Hardness of Element
Radon Electrical Properties
Radon is Conductor of electricity. Refer to table below for the Electrical properties ofRadon
Radon Heat and Conduction Properties
|Thermal Conductivity||0.00361 W/(m K)|
Radon Magnetic Properties
|Mass Magnetic Susceptibility||-|
|Molar Magnetic Susceptibility||-|
|Volume Magnetic Susceptibility||-|
Optical Properties of Radon
Acoustic Properties of Radon
|Speed of Sound||-|
Radon Thermal Properties - Enthalpies and thermodynamics
Refer to table below for Thermal properties of Radon
|Melting Point||202 K (-71.15°C, -96.06999999999996 °F)|
|Boiling Point||211.3 K (-61.85°C, -79.32999999999993 °F)|
|Critical Temperature||377 K|
Enthalpies of Radon
|Heat of Fusion||3 kJ/mol|
|Heat of Vaporization||17 kJ/mol|
|Heat of Combustion||-|
Radon Isotopes - Nuclear Properties of Radon
Radon has 34 isotopes, with between 195 and 228 nucleons. Radon has 0 stable naturally occuring isotopes.
Isotopes of Radon - Naturally occurring stable Isotopes: -.
|Isotope||Z||N||Isotope Mass||% Abundance||T half||Decay Mode|