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O Oxygen
Element Information, Facts, Properties, Trends, Uses, Comparison with other elements

8
O
Oxygen
Element 8 of Periodic table is Oxygen with atomic number 8, atomic weight 15.9994. Oxygen, symbol O, has a Base Centered Monoclinic structure and Colorless color. Oxygen is a Other Nonmetal element. It is part of group 16 (oxygen family). Know everything about Oxygen Facts, Physical Properties, Chemical Properties, Electronic configuration, Atomic and Crystal Structure.
8 O - Oxygen | SchoolMyKids

Oxygen is a chemical element with symbol O and atomic number 8. It is a member of the chalcogen group on the periodic table and is a highly reactive nonmetal and oxidizing agent that readily forms compounds (notably oxides) with most elements. By mass, oxygen is the third-most abundant element in the universe, after hydrogen and helium.

It belongs to group 16 of the periodic table having trivial name chalcogens.

Oxygen Facts

Read key information and facts about element Oxygen

NameOxygen
Atomic Number8
Atomic SymbolO
Atomic Weight15.9994
PhaseGas (Diatomic Gas )
ColorColorless
Appearance-
ClassificationOther Nonmetal
Group in Periodic Table16
Group Nameoxygen family
Period in Periodic Tableperiod 2
Block in Periodic Tablep -block
Electronic Configuration[He] 2s2 2p4
Electronic Shell Structure (Electrons per shell)2, 6
Melting Point54.8 K
Boiling Point90.2 K
CAS NumberCAS7782-44-7
Neighborhood Elements
123456789101112131415161718
1
1
H
Hydrogen
1.008

Atomic #

Electronic Shell #

Symbol
Name
Atomic Weight
HGas
HgLiquid
CSolid
Metals
Metalloids
NonMetals
Alkali metals
Alkali earth metals
Lanthanoids
Transition metals
Post-transition metals
Other nonmetals
Halogens
Nobel gas
Actinoids
2
He
Helium
4.003
2
3
Li
Lithium
6.941
4
Be
Beryllium
9.012
5
B
Boron
10.811
6
C
Carbon
12.011
7
N
Nitrogen
14.007
8
O
Oxygen
15.999
9
F
Fluorine
18.998
10
Ne
Neon
20.180
3
11
Na
Sodium
22.990
12
Mg
Magnesium
24.305
13
Al
Aluminium
26.982
14
Si
Silicon
28.085
15
P
Phosphorus
30.974
16
S
Sulfur
32.065
17
Cl
Chlorine
35.453
18
Ar
Argon
39.948
4
19
K
Potassium
39.098
20
Ca
Calcium
40.078
21
Sc
Scandium
44.956
22
Ti
Titanium
47.867
23
V
Vanadium
50.941
24
Cr
Chromium
51.996
25
Mn
Manganese
54.938
26
Fe
Iron
55.845
27
Co
Cobalt
58.933
28
Ni
Nickel
58.693
29
Cu
Copper
63.546
30
Zn
Zinc
65.409
31
Ga
Gallium
69.723
32
Ge
Germanium
72.640
33
As
Arsenic
74.922
34
Se
Selenium
78.960
35
Br
Bromine
79.904
36
Kr
Krypton
83.798
5
37
Rb
Rubidium
85.468
38
Sr
Strontium
87.620
39
Y
Yttrium
88.906
40
Zr
Zirconium
91.224
41
Nb
Niobium
92.906
42
Mo
Molybdenum
95.940
43
Tc
Technetium
98
44
Ru
Ruthenium
101.070
45
Rh
Rhodium
102.906
46
Pd
Palladium
106.420
47
Ag
Silver
107.868
48
Cd
Cadmium
112.411
49
In
Indium
114.818
50
Sn
Tin
118.710
51
Sb
Antimony
121.760
52
Te
Tellurium
127.600
53
I
Iodine
126.904
54
Xe
Xenon
131.293
6
55
Cs
Cesium
132.905
56
Ba
Barium
137.327
57 - 71
La - Lu
Lanthanides
72
Hf
Hafnium
178.490
73
Ta
Tantalum
180.948
74
W
Tungsten
183.840
75
Re
Rhenium
186.207
76
Os
Osmium
190.230
77
Ir
Iridium
192.217
78
Pt
Platinum
195.078
79
Au
Gold
196.967
80
Hg
Mercury
200.590
81
Tl
Thallium
204.383
82
Pb
Lead
207.200
83
Bi
Bismuth
208.980
84
Po
Polonium
209
85
At
Astatine
210
86
Rn
Radon
222
7
87
Fr
Francium
223
88
Ra
Radium
226
89 - 103
Ac - Lr
Actinides
104
Rf
Rutherfordium
261
105
Db
Dubnium
262
106
Sg
Seaborgium
266
107
Bh
Bohrium
264
108
Hs
Hassium
277
109
Mt
Meitnerium
268
110
Ds
Darmstadtium
281
111
Rg
Roentgenium
272
112
Cn
Copernicium
285
113
Nh
Nihonium
284
114
Fl
Flerovium
289
115
Mc
Moscovium
288
116
Lv
Livermorium
292
117
Ts
Tennessine
294
118
Og
Oganesson
294
Lanthanides
57
La
Lanthanum
138.905
58
Ce
Cerium
140.116
59
Pr
Praseodymium
140.908
60
Nd
Neodymium
144.240
61
Pm
Promethium
145
62
Sm
Samarium
150.360
63
Eu
Europium
151.964
64
Gd
Gadolinium
157.250
65
Tb
Terbium
158.925
66
Dy
Dysprosium
162.500
67
Ho
Holmium
164.930
68
Er
Erbium
167.259
69
Tm
Thulium
168.934
70
Yb
Ytterbium
173.040
71
Lu
Lutetium
174.967
Actinides
89
Ac
Actinium
227
90
Th
Thorium
232.038
91
Pa
Protactinium
231.036
92
U
Uranium
238.029
93
Np
Neptunium
237
94
Pu
Plutonium
244
95
Am
Americium
243
96
Cm
Curium
247
97
Bk
Berkelium
247
98
Cf
Californium
251
99
Es
Einsteinium
252
100
Fm
Fermium
257
101
Md
Mendelevium
258
102
No
Nobelium
259
103
Lr
Lawrencium
262

How to Locate Oxygen on Periodic Table

Periodic table is arranged by atomic number, number of protons in the nucleus which is same as number of electrons. The atomic number increases from left to right. Periodic table starts at top left ( Atomic number 1) and ends at bottom right (atomic number 118). Therefore you can directly look for atomic number 8 to find Oxygen on periodic table.

Another way to read periodic table and locate an element is by using group number (column) and period number (row). To locate Oxygen on periodic table look for cross section of group 16 and period 2 in the modern periodic table.

Oxygen History

The element Oxygen was discovered by W. Scheele in year 1771 in Sweden and United Kingdom. Oxygen was first isolated by W. Scheele in 1771. Oxygen derived its name from the Greek word oxy-, both 'sharp' and 'acid', and -gen, meaning 'acid-forming'.

W. Scheele obtained it by heating mercuric oxide and nitrates in 1771, but did not publish his findings until 1777. Joseph Priestley also prepared this new air by 1774, but only Lavoisier recognized it as a true element; he named it in 1777.

Oxygen Presence: Abundance in Nature and Around Us

The table below shows the abundance of Oxygen in Universe, Sun, Meteorites, Earth's Crust, Oceans and Human Body.

 ppb by weight (1ppb =10^-7 %)ppb by atoms (1ppb =10^-7 %)
Abundance in Universe10000000800000
Abundance in Sun9000000700000
Abundance in Meteorites410000000480000000
Abundance in Earth's Crust460000000600000000
Abundance in Oceans857000000331000000
Abundance in Humans610000000240000000

Crystal Structure of Oxygen

The solid state structure of Oxygen is Base Centered Monoclinic.

The Crystal structure can be described in terms of its unit Cell. The unit Cells repeats itself in three dimensional space to form the structure.

Unit Cell Parameters

The unit cell is represented in terms of its lattice parameters, which are the lengths of the cell edges Lattice Constants (a, b and c)

abc
540.3 pm342.9 pm508.6 pm

and the angles between them Lattice Angles (alpha, beta and gamma).

alphabetagamma
π/2 2.313085 π/2

The positions of the atoms inside the unit cell are described by the set of atomic positions ( xi, yi, zi) measured from a reference lattice point.

The symmetry properties of the crystal are described by the concept of space groups. All possible symmetric arrangements of particles in three-dimensional space are described by the 230 space groups (219 distinct types, or 230 if chiral copies are considered distinct.

Space Group NameC12/m1 8 O Oxygen - Crystal Structure | SchoolMyKids
Oxidation StatesSpace Group Number12
Crystal StructureBase Centered Monoclinic

Oxygen Atomic and Orbital Properties

Oxygen atoms have 8 electrons and the electronic shell structure is [2, 6] with Atomic Term Symbol (Quantum Numbers) 3P2.

Atomic Number8
Number of Electrons (with no charge)8
Number of Protons8
Mass Number16
Number of Neutrons8
Shell structure (Electrons per energy level)2, 6
Electron Configuration[He] 2s2 2p4
Valence Electrons2s2 2p4
Valence (Valency)2
Main Oxidation States-2
Oxidation States-2, -1, 0, 1, 2
Atomic Term Symbol (Quantum Numbers)3P2

Bohr Atomic Model of Oxygen - Electrons per energy level

8 O Oxygen - Electron Shell Structure | SchoolMyKids
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Ground State Electronic Configuration of Oxygen - neutral Oxygen atom

Abbreviated electronic configuration of Oxygen

The ground state abbreviated electronic configuration of Neutral Oxygen atom is [He] 2s2 2p4. The portion of Oxygen configuration that is equivalent to the noble gas of the preceding period, is abbreviated as [He]. For atoms with many electrons, this notation can become lengthy and so an abbreviated notation is used. This is important as it is the Valence electrons 2s2 2p4, electrons in the outermost shell that determine the chemical properties of the element.

Unabbreviated electronic configuration of neutral Oxygen

Complete ground state electronic configuration for the Oxygen atom, Unabbreviated electronic configuration

1s2 2s2 2p4

Electrons are filled in atomic orbitals as per the order determined by the Aufbau principle, Pauli Exclusion Principle and Hund’s Rule.

  • As per the Aufbau principle the electrons will occupy the orbitals having lower energies before occupying higher energy orbitals. According to this principle, electrons are filled in the following order: 1s, 2s, 2p, 3s, 3p, 4s, 3d, 4p, 5s, 4d, 5p, 6s, 4f, 5d, 6p, 7s, 5f, 6d, 7p…
  • The Pauli exclusion principle states that a maximum of two electrons, each having opposite spins, can fit in an orbital.
  • Hund's rule states that every orbital in a given subshell is singly occupied by electrons before a second electron is filled in an orbital.
  • Electron configuration of Oxygen
    Atomic Structure of Oxygen

    Oxygen atomic radius is 48 pm, while it's covalent radius is 73 pm.

    Atomic Radius Calculated

    48 pm (0.48 Å)

    Atomic Radius Empirical

    60 pm (0.6 Å)

    Atomic Volume22.4134 cm3/mol
    Covalent Radius73 pm (0.73 Å)
    Van der Waals Radius152 pm
    Neutron Cross Section0.00028
    Neutron Mass Absorption 0.000001

    Atomic Spectrum of Oxygen

    Atomic Spectrum of Oxygen | SchoolMyKids

    Oxygen Chemical Properties: Oxygen Ionization Energies and electron affinity

    The electron affinity of Oxygen is 141 kJ/mol.

    Valence2
    Electronegativity3.44
    ElectronAffinity141 kJ/mol

    Ionization Energy of Oxygen

    Refer to table below for Ionization energies of Oxygen

    Ionization energy numberEnthalpy - kJ/mol
    1st1313.9
    2nd3388.3
    3rd5300.5
    4th7469.2
    5th10989.5
    6th13326.5
    7th71330
    8th84078

    Oxygen Physical Properties

    Refer to below table for Oxygen Physical Properties

    Density0.001429 g/cm3
    Molar Volume22.4134 cm3/mol

    Elastic Properties

    Young Modulus-
    Shear Modulus-
    Bulk Modulus -
    Poisson Ratio-

    Hardness of Oxygen - Tests to Measure of Hardness of Element

    Mohs Hardness-
    Vickers Hardness-
    Brinell Hardness-

    Oxygen Electrical Properties

    Oxygen is Conductor of electricity. Refer to table below for the Electrical properties ofOxygen

    Electrical Conductivity-
    Resistivity-
    Superconducting Point-

    Oxygen Heat and Conduction Properties

    Thermal Conductivity0.02658 W/(m K)
    Thermal Expansion-

    Oxygen Magnetic Properties

    Magnetic TypeParamagnetic
    Curie Point-
    Mass Magnetic Susceptibility0.000001335 m3/kg
    Molar Magnetic Susceptibility4.27184e-8 m3/mol
    Volume Magnetic Susceptibility0.00000190772

    Optical Properties of Oxygen

    Refractive Index1.000271

    Acoustic Properties of Oxygen

    Speed of Sound317.5 m/s

    Oxygen Thermal Properties - Enthalpies and thermodynamics

    Refer to table below for Thermal properties of Oxygen

    Melting Point54.8 K (-218.35°C, -361.0299999999999 °F)
    Boiling Point90.2 K (-182.95°C, -297.31 °F)
    Critical Temperature154.59 K
    Superconducting Point-

    Enthalpies of Oxygen

    Heat of Fusion0.222 kJ/mol
    Heat of Vaporization3.41 kJ/mol
    Heat of Combustion-

    Oxygen Isotopes - Nuclear Properties of Oxygen

    Oxygen has 17 isotopes, with between 12 and 28 nucleons. Oxygen has 3 stable naturally occuring isotopes.

    Isotopes of Oxygen - Naturally occurring stable Isotopes: 16O, 17O, 18O.

    IsotopeZNIsotope Mass% AbundanceT halfDecay Mode
    12O8412Synthetic
    13O8513Synthetic
    14O8614Synthetic
    15O8715Synthetic
    16O881699.757%Stable
    17O89170.038%StableN/A
    18O810180.205%StableN/A
    19O81119Synthetic
    20O81220Synthetic
    21O81321Synthetic
    22O81422Synthetic
    23O81523Synthetic
    24O81624Synthetic
    25O81725Synthetic
    26O81826Synthetic
    27O81927Synthetic
    28O82028Synthetic

    Regulatory and Health - Health and Safety Parameters and Guidelines

    Database Search

    List of unique identifiers to search the element in various chemical registry databases

    DatabaseIdentifier number
    CAS Number - Chemical Abstracts Service (CAS)CAS7782-44-7
    RTECS NumberRTECSRS2060000
    CID Number CID977
    Gmelin Number-
    NSC Number-