Element Information, Facts, Properties, Trends, Uses, Comparison with other elements
Oxygen is a chemical element with symbol O and atomic number 8. It is a member of the chalcogen group on the periodic table and is a highly reactive nonmetal and oxidizing agent that readily forms compounds (notably oxides) with most elements. By mass, oxygen is the third-most abundant element in the universe, after hydrogen and helium.
It belongs to group 16 of the periodic table having trivial name chalcogens.
Read key information and facts about element Oxygen
|Phase||Gas (Diatomic Gas )|
|Group in Periodic Table||16|
|Group Name||oxygen family|
|Period in Periodic Table||period 2|
|Block in Periodic Table||p -block|
|Electronic Configuration||[He] 2s2 2p4|
|Electronic Shell Structure (Electrons per shell)||2, 6|
|Melting Point||54.8 K|
|Boiling Point||90.2 K|
How to Locate Oxygen on Periodic Table
Periodic table is arranged by atomic number, number of protons in the nucleus which is same as number of electrons. The atomic number increases from left to right. Periodic table starts at top left ( Atomic number 1) and ends at bottom right (atomic number 118). Therefore you can directly look for atomic number 8 to find Oxygen on periodic table.
Another way to read periodic table and locate an element is by using group number (column) and period number (row). To locate Oxygen on periodic table look for cross section of group 16 and period 2 in the modern periodic table.
The element Oxygen was discovered by W. Scheele in year 1771 in Sweden and United Kingdom. Oxygen was first isolated by W. Scheele in 1771. Oxygen derived its name from the Greek word oxy-, both 'sharp' and 'acid', and -gen, meaning 'acid-forming'.
W. Scheele obtained it by heating mercuric oxide and nitrates in 1771, but did not publish his findings until 1777. Joseph Priestley also prepared this new air by 1774, but only Lavoisier recognized it as a true element; he named it in 1777.
Oxygen Presence: Abundance in Nature and Around Us
The table below shows the abundance of Oxygen in Universe, Sun, Meteorites, Earth's Crust, Oceans and Human Body.
|ppb by weight (1ppb =10^-7 %)||ppb by atoms (1ppb =10^-7 %)|
|Abundance in Universe||10000000||800000|
|Abundance in Sun||9000000||700000|
|Abundance in Meteorites||410000000||480000000|
|Abundance in Earth's Crust||460000000||600000000|
|Abundance in Oceans||857000000||331000000|
|Abundance in Humans||610000000||240000000|
Crystal Structure of Oxygen
The solid state structure of Oxygen is Base Centered Monoclinic.
The Crystal structure can be described in terms of its unit Cell. The unit Cells repeats itself in three dimensional space to form the structure.
Unit Cell Parameters
The unit cell is represented in terms of its lattice parameters, which are the lengths of the cell edges Lattice Constants (a, b and c)
|540.3 pm||342.9 pm||508.6 pm|
and the angles between them Lattice Angles (alpha, beta and gamma).
The positions of the atoms inside the unit cell are described by the set of atomic positions ( xi, yi, zi) measured from a reference lattice point.
The symmetry properties of the crystal are described by the concept of space groups. All possible symmetric arrangements of particles in three-dimensional space are described by the 230 space groups (219 distinct types, or 230 if chiral copies are considered distinct.
|Space Group Name||C12/m1|
|Oxidation States||Space Group Number||12|
|Crystal Structure||Base Centered Monoclinic|
Oxygen Atomic and Orbital Properties
Oxygen atoms have 8 electrons and the electronic shell structure is [2, 6] with Atomic Term Symbol (Quantum Numbers) 3P2.
|Number of Electrons (with no charge)||8|
|Number of Protons||8|
|Number of Neutrons||8|
|Shell structure (Electrons per energy level)||2, 6|
|Electron Configuration||[He] 2s2 2p4|
|Valence Electrons||2s2 2p4|
|Main Oxidation States||-2|
|Oxidation States||-2, -1, 0, 1, 2|
|Atomic Term Symbol (Quantum Numbers)||3P2|
Bohr Atomic Model of Oxygen - Electrons per energy level
Ground State Electronic Configuration of Oxygen - neutral Oxygen atom
Abbreviated electronic configuration of Oxygen
The ground state abbreviated electronic configuration of Neutral Oxygen atom is [He] 2s2 2p4. The portion of Oxygen configuration that is equivalent to the noble gas of the preceding period, is abbreviated as [He]. For atoms with many electrons, this notation can become lengthy and so an abbreviated notation is used. This is important as it is the Valence electrons 2s2 2p4, electrons in the outermost shell that determine the chemical properties of the element.
Unabbreviated electronic configuration of neutral Oxygen
Complete ground state electronic configuration for the Oxygen atom, Unabbreviated electronic configuration
1s2 2s2 2p4
Electrons are filled in atomic orbitals as per the order determined by the Aufbau principle, Pauli Exclusion Principle and Hund’s Rule.
Atomic Structure of Oxygen
Oxygen atomic radius is 48 pm, while it's covalent radius is 73 pm.
|Atomic Radius Calculated|
48 pm (0.48 Å)
|Atomic Radius Empirical|
60 pm (0.6 Å)
|Atomic Volume||22.4134 cm3/mol|
|Covalent Radius||73 pm (0.73 Å)|
|Van der Waals Radius||152 pm|
|Neutron Cross Section||0.00028|
|Neutron Mass Absorption||0.000001|
Atomic Spectrum of Oxygen
Oxygen Chemical Properties: Oxygen Ionization Energies and electron affinity
The electron affinity of Oxygen is 141 kJ/mol.
Ionization Energy of Oxygen
Refer to table below for Ionization energies of Oxygen
|Ionization energy number||Enthalpy - kJ/mol|
Oxygen Physical Properties
Refer to below table for Oxygen Physical Properties
|Molar Volume||22.4134 cm3/mol|
Hardness of Oxygen - Tests to Measure of Hardness of Element
Oxygen Electrical Properties
Oxygen is Conductor of electricity. Refer to table below for the Electrical properties ofOxygen
Oxygen Heat and Conduction Properties
|Thermal Conductivity||0.02658 W/(m K)|
Oxygen Magnetic Properties
|Mass Magnetic Susceptibility||0.000001335 m3/kg|
|Molar Magnetic Susceptibility||4.27184e-8 m3/mol|
|Volume Magnetic Susceptibility||0.00000190772|
Optical Properties of Oxygen
Acoustic Properties of Oxygen
|Speed of Sound||317.5 m/s|
Oxygen Thermal Properties - Enthalpies and thermodynamics
Refer to table below for Thermal properties of Oxygen
|Melting Point||54.8 K (-218.35°C, -361.0299999999999 °F)|
|Boiling Point||90.2 K (-182.95°C, -297.31 °F)|
|Critical Temperature||154.59 K|
Enthalpies of Oxygen
|Heat of Fusion||0.222 kJ/mol|
|Heat of Vaporization||3.41 kJ/mol|
|Heat of Combustion||-|
Oxygen Isotopes - Nuclear Properties of Oxygen
Oxygen has 17 isotopes, with between 12 and 28 nucleons. Oxygen has 3 stable naturally occuring isotopes.
Isotopes of Oxygen - Naturally occurring stable Isotopes: 16O, 17O, 18O.
|Isotope||Z||N||Isotope Mass||% Abundance||T half||Decay Mode|