Element Information, Facts, Properties, Trends, Uses, Comparison with other elements
Roentgenium is a chemical element with symbol Rg and atomic number 111. It is an extremely radioactive synthetic element (an element that can be created in a laboratory but is not found in nature); the most stable known isotope, roentgenium-282, has a half-life of 2.1 minutes. Roentgenium was first created in 1994 by the GSI Helmholtz Centre for Heavy Ion Research near Darmstadt, Germany.
It belongs to group 11 of the periodic table having trivial name coinage metals.
Read key information and facts about element Roentgenium
|Group in Periodic Table||11|
|Group Name||copper family|
|Period in Periodic Table||period 7|
|Block in Periodic Table||d -block|
|Electronic Configuration||[Rn] 5f14 6d10 7s1|
|Electronic Shell Structure (Electrons per shell)||2, 8, 18, 32, 32, 17, 2|
How to Locate Roentgenium on Periodic Table
Periodic table is arranged by atomic number, number of protons in the nucleus which is same as number of electrons. The atomic number increases from left to right. Periodic table starts at top left ( Atomic number 1) and ends at bottom right (atomic number 118). Therefore you can directly look for atomic number 111 to find Roentgenium on periodic table.
Another way to read periodic table and locate an element is by using group number (column) and period number (row). To locate Roentgenium on periodic table look for cross section of group 11 and period 7 in the modern periodic table.
The element Roentgenium was discovered by S. Hofmann et al.(GSI in Darmstadt) in year 1995 in Germany. Roentgenium was first isolated by in . Roentgenium derived its name from Wilhelm Conrad Röntgen, physicist.
Prepared by bombardment of bismuth with nickel.
Roentgenium Presence: Abundance in Nature and Around Us
The table below shows the abundance of Roentgenium in Universe, Sun, Meteorites, Earth's Crust, Oceans and Human Body.
|ppb by weight (1ppb =10^-7 %)||ppb by atoms (1ppb =10^-7 %)|
|Abundance in Universe||-||-|
|Abundance in Sun||-||-|
|Abundance in Meteorites||-||-|
|Abundance in Earth's Crust||-||-|
|Abundance in Oceans||-||-|
|Abundance in Humans||-||-|
Crystal Structure of Roentgenium
The solid state structure of Roentgenium is Body Centered Cubic.
The Crystal structure can be described in terms of its unit Cell. The unit Cells repeats itself in three dimensional space to form the structure.
Unit Cell Parameters
The unit cell is represented in terms of its lattice parameters, which are the lengths of the cell edges Lattice Constants (a, b and c)
and the angles between them Lattice Angles (alpha, beta and gamma).
The positions of the atoms inside the unit cell are described by the set of atomic positions ( xi, yi, zi) measured from a reference lattice point.
The symmetry properties of the crystal are described by the concept of space groups. All possible symmetric arrangements of particles in three-dimensional space are described by the 230 space groups (219 distinct types, or 230 if chiral copies are considered distinct.
|Space Group Name||-|
|Oxidation States||Space Group Number||-|
|Crystal Structure||Body Centered Cubic|
Roentgenium Atomic and Orbital Properties
Roentgenium atoms have 111 electrons and the electronic shell structure is [2, 8, 18, 32, 32, 17, 2] with Atomic Term Symbol (Quantum Numbers) 2S1/2.
|Number of Electrons (with no charge)||111|
|Number of Protons||111|
|Number of Neutrons||161|
|Shell structure (Electrons per energy level)||2, 8, 18, 32, 32, 17, 2|
|Electron Configuration||[Rn] 5f14 6d10 7s1|
|Valence Electrons||6d10 7s1|
|Main Oxidation States||-|
|Atomic Term Symbol (Quantum Numbers)||2S1/2|
Bohr Atomic Model of Roentgenium - Electrons per energy level
Ground State Electronic Configuration of Roentgenium - neutral Roentgenium atom
Abbreviated electronic configuration of Roentgenium
The ground state abbreviated electronic configuration of Neutral Roentgenium atom is [Rn] 5f14 6d10 7s1. The portion of Roentgenium configuration that is equivalent to the noble gas of the preceding period, is abbreviated as [Rn]. For atoms with many electrons, this notation can become lengthy and so an abbreviated notation is used. This is important as it is the Valence electrons 6d10 7s1, electrons in the outermost shell that determine the chemical properties of the element.
Unabbreviated electronic configuration of neutral Roentgenium
Complete ground state electronic configuration for the Roentgenium atom, Unabbreviated electronic configuration
1s2 2s2 2p6 3s2 3p6 3d10 4s2 4p6 4d10 5s2 5p6 4f14 5d10 6s2 6p6 5f14 6d10 7s1
Electrons are filled in atomic orbitals as per the order determined by the Aufbau principle, Pauli Exclusion Principle and Hund’s Rule.
Atomic Structure of Roentgenium
Roentgenium atomic radius is - , while it's covalent radius is - .
|Atomic Radius Calculated|
- (0 Å)
|Atomic Radius Empirical|
- (0 Å)
|Van der Waals Radius||-|
|Neutron Cross Section||-|
|Neutron Mass Absorption||-|
Atomic Spectrum of Roentgenium
Roentgenium Chemical Properties: Roentgenium Ionization Energies and electron affinity
The electron affinity of Roentgenium is - .
Ionization Energy of Roentgenium
Refer to table below for Ionization energies of Roentgenium
|Ionization energy number||Enthalpy - kJ/mol|
Roentgenium Physical Properties
Refer to below table for Roentgenium Physical Properties
Hardness of Roentgenium - Tests to Measure of Hardness of Element
Roentgenium Electrical Properties
Roentgenium is Conductor of electricity. Refer to table below for the Electrical properties ofRoentgenium
Roentgenium Heat and Conduction Properties
Roentgenium Magnetic Properties
|Mass Magnetic Susceptibility||-|
|Molar Magnetic Susceptibility||-|
|Volume Magnetic Susceptibility||-|
Optical Properties of Roentgenium
Acoustic Properties of Roentgenium
|Speed of Sound||-|
Roentgenium Thermal Properties - Enthalpies and thermodynamics
Refer to table below for Thermal properties of Roentgenium
|Melting Point||- (-273.15°C, -459.66999999999996 °F)|
|Boiling Point||- (-273.15°C, -459.66999999999996 °F)|
Enthalpies of Roentgenium
|Heat of Fusion||-|
|Heat of Vaporization||-|
|Heat of Combustion||-|
Roentgenium Isotopes - Nuclear Properties of Roentgenium
Roentgenium has 12 isotopes, with between 272 and 283 nucleons. Roentgenium has 0 stable naturally occuring isotopes.
Isotopes of Roentgenium - Naturally occurring stable Isotopes: -.
|Isotope||Z||N||Isotope Mass||% Abundance||T half||Decay Mode|