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Ta Tantalum
Element Information, Facts, Properties, Trends, Uses, Comparison with other elements

73
Ta
Tantalum
Element 73 of Periodic table is Tantalum with atomic number 73, atomic weight 180.9479. Tantalum, symbol Ta, has a Body Centered Cubic structure and Gray color. Tantalum is a Transition Metal element. It is part of group 5 (vanadium family). Know everything about Tantalum Facts, Physical Properties, Chemical Properties, Electronic configuration, Atomic and Crystal Structure.
73 Ta - Tantalum | SchoolMyKids

Tantalum is a chemical element with symbol Ta and atomic number 73. Previously known as tantalium, its name comes from Tantalus, an antihero from Greek mythology. Tantalum is a rare, hard, blue-gray, lustrous Transition Metal that is highly corrosion-resistant.

It belongs to group 5 of the periodic table having trivial name .

Tantalum Facts

Read key information and facts about element Tantalum

NameTantalum
Atomic Number73
Atomic SymbolTa
Atomic Weight180.9479
PhaseSolid
ColorGray
Appearancegray blue
ClassificationTransition Metal
Group in Periodic Table5
Group Namevanadium family
Period in Periodic Tableperiod 6
Block in Periodic Tabled -block
Electronic Configuration[Xe] 4f14 5d3 6s2
Electronic Shell Structure (Electrons per shell)2, 8, 18, 32, 11, 2
Melting Point3290 K
Boiling Point5731 K
CAS NumberCAS7440-25-7
123456789101112131415161718
1
1
H
Hydrogen
1.008

Atomic #

Electronic Shell #

Symbol
Name
Atomic Weight
HGas
HgLiquid
CSolid
Metals
Metalloids
NonMetals
Alkali metals
Alkali earth metals
Lanthanoids
Transition metals
Post-transition metals
Other nonmetals
Halogens
Nobel gas
Actinoids
2
He
Helium
4.003
2
3
Li
Lithium
6.941
4
Be
Beryllium
9.012
5
B
Boron
10.811
6
C
Carbon
12.011
7
N
Nitrogen
14.007
8
O
Oxygen
15.999
9
F
Fluorine
18.998
10
Ne
Neon
20.180
3
11
Na
Sodium
22.990
12
Mg
Magnesium
24.305
13
Al
Aluminium
26.982
14
Si
Silicon
28.085
15
P
Phosphorus
30.974
16
S
Sulfur
32.065
17
Cl
Chlorine
35.453
18
Ar
Argon
39.948
4
19
K
Potassium
39.098
20
Ca
Calcium
40.078
21
Sc
Scandium
44.956
22
Ti
Titanium
47.867
23
V
Vanadium
50.941
24
Cr
Chromium
51.996
25
Mn
Manganese
54.938
26
Fe
Iron
55.845
27
Co
Cobalt
58.933
28
Ni
Nickel
58.693
29
Cu
Copper
63.546
30
Zn
Zinc
65.409
31
Ga
Gallium
69.723
32
Ge
Germanium
72.640
33
As
Arsenic
74.922
34
Se
Selenium
78.960
35
Br
Bromine
79.904
36
Kr
Krypton
83.798
5
37
Rb
Rubidium
85.468
38
Sr
Strontium
87.620
39
Y
Yttrium
88.906
40
Zr
Zirconium
91.224
41
Nb
Niobium
92.906
42
Mo
Molybdenum
95.940
43
Tc
Technetium
98
44
Ru
Ruthenium
101.070
45
Rh
Rhodium
102.906
46
Pd
Palladium
106.420
47
Ag
Silver
107.868
48
Cd
Cadmium
112.411
49
In
Indium
114.818
50
Sn
Tin
118.710
51
Sb
Antimony
121.760
52
Te
Tellurium
127.600
53
I
Iodine
126.904
54
Xe
Xenon
131.293
6
55
Cs
Cesium
132.905
56
Ba
Barium
137.327
57 - 71
La - Lu
Lanthanides
72
Hf
Hafnium
178.490
73
Ta
Tantalum
180.948
74
W
Tungsten
183.840
75
Re
Rhenium
186.207
76
Os
Osmium
190.230
77
Ir
Iridium
192.217
78
Pt
Platinum
195.078
79
Au
Gold
196.967
80
Hg
Mercury
200.590
81
Tl
Thallium
204.383
82
Pb
Lead
207.200
83
Bi
Bismuth
208.980
84
Po
Polonium
209
85
At
Astatine
210
86
Rn
Radon
222
7
87
Fr
Francium
223
88
Ra
Radium
226
89 - 103
Ac - Lr
Actinides
104
Rf
Rutherfordium
261
105
Db
Dubnium
262
106
Sg
Seaborgium
266
107
Bh
Bohrium
264
108
Hs
Hassium
277
109
Mt
Meitnerium
268
110
Ds
Darmstadtium
281
111
Rg
Roentgenium
272
112
Cn
Copernicium
285
113
Nh
Nihonium
284
114
Fl
Flerovium
289
115
Mc
Moscovium
288
116
Lv
Livermorium
292
117
Ts
Tennessine
294
118
Og
Oganesson
294
Lanthanides
57
La
Lanthanum
138.905
58
Ce
Cerium
140.116
59
Pr
Praseodymium
140.908
60
Nd
Neodymium
144.240
61
Pm
Promethium
145
62
Sm
Samarium
150.360
63
Eu
Europium
151.964
64
Gd
Gadolinium
157.250
65
Tb
Terbium
158.925
66
Dy
Dysprosium
162.500
67
Ho
Holmium
164.930
68
Er
Erbium
167.259
69
Tm
Thulium
168.934
70
Yb
Ytterbium
173.040
71
Lu
Lutetium
174.967
Actinides
89
Ac
Actinium
227
90
Th
Thorium
232.038
91
Pa
Protactinium
231.036
92
U
Uranium
238.029
93
Np
Neptunium
237
94
Pu
Plutonium
244
95
Am
Americium
243
96
Cm
Curium
247
97
Bk
Berkelium
247
98
Cf
Californium
251
99
Es
Einsteinium
252
100
Fm
Fermium
257
101
Md
Mendelevium
258
102
No
Nobelium
259
103
Lr
Lawrencium
262

How to Locate Tantalum on Periodic Table

Periodic table is arranged by atomic number, number of protons in the nucleus which is same as number of electrons. The atomic number increases from left to right. Periodic table starts at top left ( Atomic number 1) and ends at bottom right (atomic number 118). Therefore you can directly look for atomic number 73 to find Tantalum on periodic table.

Another way to read periodic table and locate an element is by using group number (column) and period number (row). To locate Tantalum on periodic table look for cross section of group 5 and period 6 in the modern periodic table.

Tantalum History

The element Tantalum was discovered by G. Ekeberg in year 1802 in Sweden. Tantalum was first isolated by in . Tantalum derived its name from King Tantalus, father of Niobe from Greek mythology.

Ekeberg found another element in minerals similar to columbite and in 1844, Heinrich Rose proved that it was distinct from niobium.

Tantalum Presence: Abundance in Nature and Around Us

The table below shows the abundance of Tantalum in Universe, Sun, Meteorites, Earth's Crust, Oceans and Human Body.

 ppb by weight (1ppb =10^-7 %)ppb by atoms (1ppb =10^-7 %)
Abundance in Universe0.080.0006
Abundance in Sun--
Abundance in Meteorites202
Abundance in Earth's Crust1700190
Abundance in Oceans0.0020.000068
Abundance in Humans--

Crystal Structure of Tantalum

The solid state structure of Tantalum is Body Centered Cubic.

The Crystal structure can be described in terms of its unit Cell. The unit Cells repeats itself in three dimensional space to form the structure.

Unit Cell Parameters

The unit cell is represented in terms of its lattice parameters, which are the lengths of the cell edges Lattice Constants (a, b and c)

abc
330.13 pm330.13 pm330.13 pm

and the angles between them Lattice Angles (alpha, beta and gamma).

alphabetagamma
π/2 π/2 π/2

The positions of the atoms inside the unit cell are described by the set of atomic positions ( xi, yi, zi) measured from a reference lattice point.

The symmetry properties of the crystal are described by the concept of space groups. All possible symmetric arrangements of particles in three-dimensional space are described by the 230 space groups (219 distinct types, or 230 if chiral copies are considered distinct.

Space Group NameIm_ 3m 73 Ta Tantalum - Crystal Structure | SchoolMyKids
Oxidation StatesSpace Group Number229
Crystal StructureBody Centered Cubic

Tantalum Atomic and Orbital Properties

Tantalum atoms have 73 electrons and the electronic shell structure is [2, 8, 18, 32, 11, 2] with Atomic Term Symbol (Quantum Numbers) 4F3/2.

Atomic Number73
Number of Electrons (with no charge)73
Number of Protons73
Mass Number181
Number of Neutrons108
Shell structure (Electrons per energy level)2, 8, 18, 32, 11, 2
Electron Configuration[Xe] 4f14 5d3 6s2
Valence Electrons5d3 6s2
Valence (Valency)5
Main Oxidation States5
Oxidation States-3, -1, 0, 1, 2, 3, 4, 5
Atomic Term Symbol (Quantum Numbers)4F3/2

Bohr Atomic Model of Tantalum - Electrons per energy level

73 Ta Tantalum - Electron Shell Structure | SchoolMyKids
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Ground State Electronic Configuration of Tantalum - neutral Tantalum atom

Abbreviated electronic configuration of Tantalum

The ground state abbreviated electronic configuration of Neutral Tantalum atom is [Xe] 4f14 5d3 6s2. The portion of Tantalum configuration that is equivalent to the noble gas of the preceding period, is abbreviated as [Xe]. For atoms with many electrons, this notation can become lengthy and so an abbreviated notation is used. This is important as it is the Valence electrons 5d3 6s2, electrons in the outermost shell that determine the chemical properties of the element.

Unabbreviated electronic configuration of neutral Tantalum

Complete ground state electronic configuration for the Tantalum atom, Unabbreviated electronic configuration

1s2 2s2 2p6 3s2 3p6 3d10 4s2 4p6 4d10 5s2 5p6 4f14 5d3 6s2

Electrons are filled in atomic orbitals as per the order determined by the Aufbau principle, Pauli Exclusion Principle and Hund’s Rule.

  • As per the Aufbau principle the electrons will occupy the orbitals having lower energies before occupying higher energy orbitals. According to this principle, electrons are filled in the following order: 1s, 2s, 2p, 3s, 3p, 4s, 3d, 4p, 5s, 4d, 5p, 6s, 4f, 5d, 6p, 7s, 5f, 6d, 7p…
  • The Pauli exclusion principle states that a maximum of two electrons, each having opposite spins, can fit in an orbital.
  • Hund's rule states that every orbital in a given subshell is singly occupied by electrons before a second electron is filled in an orbital.
  • Electron configuration of Tantalum
    Atomic Structure of Tantalum

    Tantalum atomic radius is 200 pm, while it's covalent radius is 138 pm.

    Atomic Radius Calculated

    200 pm (2 Å)

    Atomic Radius Empirical

    145 pm (1.45 Å)

    Atomic Volume10.85 cm3/mol
    Covalent Radius138 pm (1.38 Å)
    Van der Waals Radius-
    Neutron Cross Section20.5
    Neutron Mass Absorption 0.0041

    Atomic Spectrum of Tantalum

    Atomic Spectrum of Tantalum | SchoolMyKids

    Tantalum Chemical Properties: Tantalum Ionization Energies and electron affinity

    The electron affinity of Tantalum is 31 kJ/mol.

    Valence5
    Electronegativity1.5
    ElectronAffinity31 kJ/mol

    Ionization Energy of Tantalum

    Refer to table below for Ionization energies of Tantalum

    Ionization energy numberEnthalpy - kJ/mol
    1st761
    2nd1500

    Tantalum Physical Properties

    Refer to below table for Tantalum Physical Properties

    Density16.65 g/cm3(when liquid at m.p density is $15 g/cm3)
    Molar Volume10.85 cm3/mol

    Elastic Properties

    Young Modulus186
    Shear Modulus69 GPa
    Bulk Modulus 200 GPa
    Poisson Ratio0.34

    Hardness of Tantalum - Tests to Measure of Hardness of Element

    Mohs Hardness6.5 MPa
    Vickers Hardness873 MPa
    Brinell Hardness800 MPa

    Tantalum Electrical Properties

    Tantalum is Conductor of electricity. Refer to table below for the Electrical properties ofTantalum

    Electrical Conductivity7700000 S/m
    Resistivity1.3e-7 m Ω
    Superconducting Point4.47

    Tantalum Heat and Conduction Properties

    Thermal Conductivity57 W/(m K)
    Thermal Expansion0.0000063 /K

    Tantalum Magnetic Properties

    Magnetic TypeParamagnetic
    Curie Point-
    Mass Magnetic Susceptibility1.07e-8 m3/kg
    Molar Magnetic Susceptibility1.936e-9 m3/mol
    Volume Magnetic Susceptibility0.0001782

    Optical Properties of Tantalum

    Refractive Index-

    Acoustic Properties of Tantalum

    Speed of Sound3614.2 m/s

    Tantalum Thermal Properties - Enthalpies and thermodynamics

    Refer to table below for Thermal properties of Tantalum

    Melting Point3290 K (3016.85°C, 5462.33 °F)
    Boiling Point5731 K (5457.85°C, 9856.130000000001 °F)
    Critical Temperature-
    Superconducting Point4.47

    Enthalpies of Tantalum

    Heat of Fusion36 kJ/mol
    Heat of Vaporization735 kJ/mol
    Heat of Combustion-

    Tantalum Isotopes - Nuclear Properties of Tantalum

    Tantalum has 36 isotopes, with between 155 and 190 nucleons. Tantalum has 1 stable naturally occuring isotopes.

    Isotopes of Tantalum - Naturally occurring stable Isotopes: 181Ta.

    IsotopeZNIsotope Mass% AbundanceT halfDecay Mode
    155Ta7382155Synthetic
    156Ta7383156Synthetic
    157Ta7384157Synthetic
    158Ta7385158Synthetic
    159Ta7386159Synthetic
    160Ta7387160Synthetic
    161Ta7388161Synthetic
    162Ta7389162Synthetic
    163Ta7390163Synthetic
    164Ta7391164Synthetic
    165Ta7392165Synthetic
    166Ta7393166Synthetic
    167Ta7394167Synthetic
    168Ta7395168Synthetic
    169Ta7396169Synthetic
    170Ta7397170Synthetic
    171Ta7398171Synthetic
    172Ta7399172Synthetic
    173Ta73100173Synthetic
    174Ta73101174Synthetic
    175Ta73102175Synthetic
    176Ta73103176Synthetic
    177Ta73104177Synthetic
    178Ta73105178Synthetic
    179Ta73106179Synthetic
    180Ta73107180Synthetic
    181Ta7310818199.988%Stable
    182Ta73109182Synthetic
    183Ta73110183Synthetic
    184Ta73111184Synthetic
    185Ta73112185Synthetic
    186Ta73113186Synthetic
    187Ta73114187Synthetic
    188Ta73115188Synthetic
    189Ta73116189Synthetic
    190Ta73117190Synthetic

    Regulatory and Health - Health and Safety Parameters and Guidelines

    Database Search

    List of unique identifiers to search the element in various chemical registry databases

    DatabaseIdentifier number
    CAS Number - Chemical Abstracts Service (CAS)CAS7440-25-7
    RTECS NumberRTECSWW5505000
    CID Number CID23956
    Gmelin Number-
    NSC Number-

    Compare Tantalum with other elements

    Compare Tantalum with all Group 5 elements

    Compare Tantalum with all Period 6 elements

    Compare Tantalum with all Transition Metal elements