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Ag Silver
Element Information, Facts, Properties, Trends, Uses, Comparison with other elements

47
Ag
Silver
Element 47 of Periodic table is Silver with atomic number 47, atomic weight 107.8682. Silver, symbol Ag, has a Face Centered Cubic structure and Silver color. Silver is a Transition Metal element. It is part of group 11 (copper family). Know everything about Silver Facts, Physical Properties, Chemical Properties, Electronic configuration, Atomic and Crystal Structure.
47 Ag - Silver | SchoolMyKids

Silver is a chemical element with symbol Ag (Greek:άργυρος árguros, Latin:argentum, both from the Indo-European root *h₂erǵ- for 'grey' or 'shining') and atomic number 47. A soft, white, lustrous Transition Metal, it possesses the highest electrical conductivity, thermal conductivity and reflectivity of any metal. The metal occurs naturally in its pure, free form (native silver), as an alloy with gold and other metals, and in minerals such as argentite and chlorargyrite.

It belongs to group 11 of the periodic table having trivial name coinage metals.

Silver Facts

Read key information and facts about element Silver

NameSilver
Atomic Number47
Atomic SymbolAg
Atomic Weight107.8682
PhaseSolid
ColorSilver
Appearancelustrous white metal
ClassificationTransition Metal
Group in Periodic Table11
Group Namecopper family
Period in Periodic Tableperiod 5
Block in Periodic Tabled -block
Electronic Configuration[Kr] 4d10 5s1
Electronic Shell Structure (Electrons per shell)2, 8, 18, 18, 1
Melting Point1234.93 K
Boiling Point2435 K
CAS NumberCAS7440-22-4
123456789101112131415161718
1
1
H
Hydrogen
1.008

Atomic #

Electronic Shell #

Symbol
Name
Atomic Weight
HGas
HgLiquid
CSolid
Metals
Metalloids
NonMetals
Alkali metals
Alkali earth metals
Lanthanoids
Transition metals
Post-transition metals
Other nonmetals
Halogens
Nobel gas
Actinoids
2
He
Helium
4.003
2
3
Li
Lithium
6.941
4
Be
Beryllium
9.012
5
B
Boron
10.811
6
C
Carbon
12.011
7
N
Nitrogen
14.007
8
O
Oxygen
15.999
9
F
Fluorine
18.998
10
Ne
Neon
20.180
3
11
Na
Sodium
22.990
12
Mg
Magnesium
24.305
13
Al
Aluminium
26.982
14
Si
Silicon
28.085
15
P
Phosphorus
30.974
16
S
Sulfur
32.065
17
Cl
Chlorine
35.453
18
Ar
Argon
39.948
4
19
K
Potassium
39.098
20
Ca
Calcium
40.078
21
Sc
Scandium
44.956
22
Ti
Titanium
47.867
23
V
Vanadium
50.941
24
Cr
Chromium
51.996
25
Mn
Manganese
54.938
26
Fe
Iron
55.845
27
Co
Cobalt
58.933
28
Ni
Nickel
58.693
29
Cu
Copper
63.546
30
Zn
Zinc
65.409
31
Ga
Gallium
69.723
32
Ge
Germanium
72.640
33
As
Arsenic
74.922
34
Se
Selenium
78.960
35
Br
Bromine
79.904
36
Kr
Krypton
83.798
5
37
Rb
Rubidium
85.468
38
Sr
Strontium
87.620
39
Y
Yttrium
88.906
40
Zr
Zirconium
91.224
41
Nb
Niobium
92.906
42
Mo
Molybdenum
95.940
43
Tc
Technetium
98
44
Ru
Ruthenium
101.070
45
Rh
Rhodium
102.906
46
Pd
Palladium
106.420
47
Ag
Silver
107.868
48
Cd
Cadmium
112.411
49
In
Indium
114.818
50
Sn
Tin
118.710
51
Sb
Antimony
121.760
52
Te
Tellurium
127.600
53
I
Iodine
126.904
54
Xe
Xenon
131.293
6
55
Cs
Cesium
132.905
56
Ba
Barium
137.327
57 - 71
La - Lu
Lanthanides
72
Hf
Hafnium
178.490
73
Ta
Tantalum
180.948
74
W
Tungsten
183.840
75
Re
Rhenium
186.207
76
Os
Osmium
190.230
77
Ir
Iridium
192.217
78
Pt
Platinum
195.078
79
Au
Gold
196.967
80
Hg
Mercury
200.590
81
Tl
Thallium
204.383
82
Pb
Lead
207.200
83
Bi
Bismuth
208.980
84
Po
Polonium
209
85
At
Astatine
210
86
Rn
Radon
222
7
87
Fr
Francium
223
88
Ra
Radium
226
89 - 103
Ac - Lr
Actinides
104
Rf
Rutherfordium
261
105
Db
Dubnium
262
106
Sg
Seaborgium
266
107
Bh
Bohrium
264
108
Hs
Hassium
277
109
Mt
Meitnerium
268
110
Ds
Darmstadtium
281
111
Rg
Roentgenium
272
112
Cn
Copernicium
285
113
Nh
Nihonium
284
114
Fl
Flerovium
289
115
Mc
Moscovium
288
116
Lv
Livermorium
292
117
Ts
Tennessine
294
118
Og
Oganesson
294
Lanthanides
57
La
Lanthanum
138.905
58
Ce
Cerium
140.116
59
Pr
Praseodymium
140.908
60
Nd
Neodymium
144.240
61
Pm
Promethium
145
62
Sm
Samarium
150.360
63
Eu
Europium
151.964
64
Gd
Gadolinium
157.250
65
Tb
Terbium
158.925
66
Dy
Dysprosium
162.500
67
Ho
Holmium
164.930
68
Er
Erbium
167.259
69
Tm
Thulium
168.934
70
Yb
Ytterbium
173.040
71
Lu
Lutetium
174.967
Actinides
89
Ac
Actinium
227
90
Th
Thorium
232.038
91
Pa
Protactinium
231.036
92
U
Uranium
238.029
93
Np
Neptunium
237
94
Pu
Plutonium
244
95
Am
Americium
243
96
Cm
Curium
247
97
Bk
Berkelium
247
98
Cf
Californium
251
99
Es
Einsteinium
252
100
Fm
Fermium
257
101
Md
Mendelevium
258
102
No
Nobelium
259
103
Lr
Lawrencium
262

How to Locate Silver on Periodic Table

Periodic table is arranged by atomic number, number of protons in the nucleus which is same as number of electrons. The atomic number increases from left to right. Periodic table starts at top left ( Atomic number 1) and ends at bottom right (atomic number 118). Therefore you can directly look for atomic number 47 to find Silver on periodic table.

Another way to read periodic table and locate an element is by using group number (column) and period number (row). To locate Silver on periodic table look for cross section of group 11 and period 5 in the modern periodic table.

Silver History

The element Silver was discovered by in year Before 5000 BCE . Silver was first isolated by Asia Minor in ca. 4000 BCE. Silver derived its name from English word (argentum in Latin).

Estimated to have been discovered shortly after copper and gold.

Silver Presence: Abundance in Nature and Around Us

The table below shows the abundance of Silver in Universe, Sun, Meteorites, Earth's Crust, Oceans and Human Body.

 ppb by weight (1ppb =10^-7 %)ppb by atoms (1ppb =10^-7 %)
Abundance in Universe0.60.007
Abundance in Sun10.01
Abundance in Meteorites14020
Abundance in Earth's Crust8020
Abundance in Oceans0.10.0057
Abundance in Humans--

Crystal Structure of Silver

The solid state structure of Silver is Face Centered Cubic.

The Crystal structure can be described in terms of its unit Cell. The unit Cells repeats itself in three dimensional space to form the structure.

Unit Cell Parameters

The unit cell is represented in terms of its lattice parameters, which are the lengths of the cell edges Lattice Constants (a, b and c)

abc
408.53 pm408.53 pm408.53 pm

and the angles between them Lattice Angles (alpha, beta and gamma).

alphabetagamma
π/2 π/2 π/2

The positions of the atoms inside the unit cell are described by the set of atomic positions ( xi, yi, zi) measured from a reference lattice point.

The symmetry properties of the crystal are described by the concept of space groups. All possible symmetric arrangements of particles in three-dimensional space are described by the 230 space groups (219 distinct types, or 230 if chiral copies are considered distinct.

Space Group NameFm_ 3m 47 Ag Silver - Crystal Structure | SchoolMyKids
Oxidation StatesSpace Group Number225
Crystal StructureFace Centered Cubic

Silver Atomic and Orbital Properties

Silver atoms have 47 electrons and the electronic shell structure is [2, 8, 18, 18, 1] with Atomic Term Symbol (Quantum Numbers) 2S1/2.

Atomic Number47
Number of Electrons (with no charge)47
Number of Protons47
Mass Number108
Number of Neutrons61
Shell structure (Electrons per energy level)2, 8, 18, 18, 1
Electron Configuration[Kr] 4d10 5s1
Valence Electrons4d10 5s1
Valence (Valency)1
Main Oxidation States1
Oxidation States-2, -1, 0, 1, 2, 3
Atomic Term Symbol (Quantum Numbers)2S1/2

Bohr Atomic Model of Silver - Electrons per energy level

47 Ag Silver - Electron Shell Structure | SchoolMyKids
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Ground State Electronic Configuration of Silver - neutral Silver atom

Abbreviated electronic configuration of Silver

The ground state abbreviated electronic configuration of Neutral Silver atom is [Kr] 4d10 5s1. The portion of Silver configuration that is equivalent to the noble gas of the preceding period, is abbreviated as [Kr]. For atoms with many electrons, this notation can become lengthy and so an abbreviated notation is used. This is important as it is the Valence electrons 4d10 5s1, electrons in the outermost shell that determine the chemical properties of the element.

Unabbreviated electronic configuration of neutral Silver

Complete ground state electronic configuration for the Silver atom, Unabbreviated electronic configuration

1s2 2s2 2p6 3s2 3p6 3d10 4s2 4p6 4d10 5s1

Electrons are filled in atomic orbitals as per the order determined by the Aufbau principle, Pauli Exclusion Principle and Hund’s Rule.

  • As per the Aufbau principle the electrons will occupy the orbitals having lower energies before occupying higher energy orbitals. According to this principle, electrons are filled in the following order: 1s, 2s, 2p, 3s, 3p, 4s, 3d, 4p, 5s, 4d, 5p, 6s, 4f, 5d, 6p, 7s, 5f, 6d, 7p…
  • The Pauli exclusion principle states that a maximum of two electrons, each having opposite spins, can fit in an orbital.
  • Hund's rule states that every orbital in a given subshell is singly occupied by electrons before a second electron is filled in an orbital.
  • Electron configuration of Silver
    Atomic Structure of Silver

    Silver atomic radius is 165 pm, while it's covalent radius is 153 pm.

    Atomic Radius Calculated

    165 pm (1.65 Å)

    Atomic Radius Empirical

    160 pm (1.6 Å)

    Atomic Volume10.283 cm3/mol
    Covalent Radius153 pm (1.53 Å)
    Van der Waals Radius172 pm
    Neutron Cross Section63.6
    Neutron Mass Absorption 0.02

    Atomic Spectrum of Silver

    Atomic Spectrum of Silver | SchoolMyKids

    Silver Chemical Properties: Silver Ionization Energies and electron affinity

    The electron affinity of Silver is 125.6 kJ/mol.

    Valence1
    Electronegativity1.93
    ElectronAffinity125.6 kJ/mol

    Ionization Energy of Silver

    Refer to table below for Ionization energies of Silver

    Ionization energy numberEnthalpy - kJ/mol
    1st731
    2nd2070
    3rd3361

    Silver Physical Properties

    Refer to below table for Silver Physical Properties

    Density10.49 g/cm3(when liquid at m.p density is $9.32 g/cm3)
    Molar Volume10.283 cm3/mol

    Elastic Properties

    Young Modulus83
    Shear Modulus30 GPa
    Bulk Modulus 100 GPa
    Poisson Ratio0.37

    Hardness of Silver - Tests to Measure of Hardness of Element

    Mohs Hardness2.5 MPa
    Vickers Hardness251 MPa
    Brinell Hardness24.5 MPa

    Silver Electrical Properties

    Silver is Conductor of electricity. Refer to table below for the Electrical properties ofSilver

    Electrical Conductivity62000000 S/m
    Resistivity1.6e-8 m Ω
    Superconducting Point-

    Silver Heat and Conduction Properties

    Thermal Conductivity430 W/(m K)
    Thermal Expansion0.0000189 /K

    Silver Magnetic Properties

    Magnetic TypeDiamagnetic
    Curie Point-
    Mass Magnetic Susceptibility-2.27e-9 m3/kg
    Molar Magnetic Susceptibility-2.45e-10 m3/mol
    Volume Magnetic Susceptibility-0.0000238

    Optical Properties of Silver

    Refractive Index-

    Acoustic Properties of Silver

    Speed of Sound2600 m/s

    Silver Thermal Properties - Enthalpies and thermodynamics

    Refer to table below for Thermal properties of Silver

    Melting Point1234.93 K (961.78°C, 1763.2040000000002 °F)
    Boiling Point2435 K (2161.85°C, 3923.3299999999995 °F)
    Critical Temperature-
    Superconducting Point-

    Enthalpies of Silver

    Heat of Fusion11.3 kJ/mol
    Heat of Vaporization255 kJ/mol
    Heat of Combustion-

    Silver Isotopes - Nuclear Properties of Silver

    Silver has 38 isotopes, with between 93 and 130 nucleons. Silver has 2 stable naturally occuring isotopes.

    Isotopes of Silver - Naturally occurring stable Isotopes: 107Ag, 109Ag.

    IsotopeZNIsotope Mass% AbundanceT halfDecay Mode
    93Ag474693Synthetic
    94Ag474794Synthetic
    95Ag474895Synthetic
    96Ag474996Synthetic
    97Ag475097Synthetic
    98Ag475198Synthetic
    99Ag475299Synthetic
    100Ag4753100Synthetic
    101Ag4754101Synthetic
    102Ag4755102Synthetic
    103Ag4756103Synthetic
    104Ag4757104Synthetic
    105Ag4758105Synthetic
    106Ag4759106Synthetic
    107Ag476010751.839%StableN/A
    108Ag4761108SyntheticStable
    109Ag476210948.161%StableN/A
    110Ag4763110Synthetic
    111Ag4764111Synthetic
    112Ag4765112Synthetic
    113Ag4766113Synthetic
    114Ag4767114Synthetic
    115Ag4768115Synthetic
    116Ag4769116Synthetic
    117Ag4770117Synthetic
    118Ag4771118Synthetic
    119Ag4772119Synthetic
    120Ag4773120Synthetic
    121Ag4774121Synthetic
    122Ag4775122Synthetic
    123Ag4776123Synthetic
    124Ag4777124Synthetic
    125Ag4778125Synthetic
    126Ag4779126Synthetic
    127Ag4780127Synthetic
    128Ag4781128Synthetic
    129Ag4782129Synthetic
    130Ag4783130Synthetic

    Database Search

    List of unique identifiers to search the element in various chemical registry databases

    DatabaseIdentifier number
    CAS Number - Chemical Abstracts Service (CAS)CAS7440-22-4
    RTECS NumberRTECSVW3500000
    CID Number CID23954
    Gmelin Number-
    NSC Number-