Element Information, Facts, Properties, Trends, Uses, Comparison with other elements
Silver is a chemical element with symbol Ag (Greek:άργυρος árguros, Latin:argentum, both from the Indo-European root *h₂erǵ- for 'grey' or 'shining') and atomic number 47. A soft, white, lustrous Transition Metal, it possesses the highest electrical conductivity, thermal conductivity and reflectivity of any metal. The metal occurs naturally in its pure, free form (native silver), as an alloy with gold and other metals, and in minerals such as argentite and chlorargyrite.
It belongs to group 11 of the periodic table having trivial name coinage metals.
Read key information and facts about element Silver
|Appearance||lustrous white metal|
|Group in Periodic Table||11|
|Group Name||copper family|
|Period in Periodic Table||period 5|
|Block in Periodic Table||d -block|
|Electronic Configuration||[Kr] 4d10 5s1|
|Electronic Shell Structure (Electrons per shell)||2, 8, 18, 18, 1|
|Melting Point||1234.93 K|
|Boiling Point||2435 K|
How to Locate Silver on Periodic Table
Periodic table is arranged by atomic number, number of protons in the nucleus which is same as number of electrons. The atomic number increases from left to right. Periodic table starts at top left ( Atomic number 1) and ends at bottom right (atomic number 118). Therefore you can directly look for atomic number 47 to find Silver on periodic table.
Another way to read periodic table and locate an element is by using group number (column) and period number (row). To locate Silver on periodic table look for cross section of group 11 and period 5 in the modern periodic table.
The element Silver was discovered by in year Before 5000 BCE . Silver was first isolated by Asia Minor in ca. 4000 BCE. Silver derived its name from English word (argentum in Latin).
Estimated to have been discovered shortly after copper and gold.
Silver Presence: Abundance in Nature and Around Us
The table below shows the abundance of Silver in Universe, Sun, Meteorites, Earth's Crust, Oceans and Human Body.
|ppb by weight (1ppb =10^-7 %)||ppb by atoms (1ppb =10^-7 %)|
|Abundance in Universe||0.6||0.007|
|Abundance in Sun||1||0.01|
|Abundance in Meteorites||140||20|
|Abundance in Earth's Crust||80||20|
|Abundance in Oceans||0.1||0.0057|
|Abundance in Humans||-||-|
Crystal Structure of Silver
The solid state structure of Silver is Face Centered Cubic.
The Crystal structure can be described in terms of its unit Cell. The unit Cells repeats itself in three dimensional space to form the structure.
Unit Cell Parameters
The unit cell is represented in terms of its lattice parameters, which are the lengths of the cell edges Lattice Constants (a, b and c)
|408.53 pm||408.53 pm||408.53 pm|
and the angles between them Lattice Angles (alpha, beta and gamma).
The positions of the atoms inside the unit cell are described by the set of atomic positions ( xi, yi, zi) measured from a reference lattice point.
The symmetry properties of the crystal are described by the concept of space groups. All possible symmetric arrangements of particles in three-dimensional space are described by the 230 space groups (219 distinct types, or 230 if chiral copies are considered distinct.
|Space Group Name||Fm_ 3m|
|Oxidation States||Space Group Number||225|
|Crystal Structure||Face Centered Cubic|
Silver Atomic and Orbital Properties
Silver atoms have 47 electrons and the electronic shell structure is [2, 8, 18, 18, 1] with Atomic Term Symbol (Quantum Numbers) 2S1/2.
|Number of Electrons (with no charge)||47|
|Number of Protons||47|
|Number of Neutrons||61|
|Shell structure (Electrons per energy level)||2, 8, 18, 18, 1|
|Electron Configuration||[Kr] 4d10 5s1|
|Valence Electrons||4d10 5s1|
|Main Oxidation States||1|
|Oxidation States||-2, -1, 0, 1, 2, 3|
|Atomic Term Symbol (Quantum Numbers)||2S1/2|
Bohr Atomic Model of Silver - Electrons per energy level
Ground State Electronic Configuration of Silver - neutral Silver atom
Abbreviated electronic configuration of Silver
The ground state abbreviated electronic configuration of Neutral Silver atom is [Kr] 4d10 5s1. The portion of Silver configuration that is equivalent to the noble gas of the preceding period, is abbreviated as [Kr]. For atoms with many electrons, this notation can become lengthy and so an abbreviated notation is used. This is important as it is the Valence electrons 4d10 5s1, electrons in the outermost shell that determine the chemical properties of the element.
Unabbreviated electronic configuration of neutral Silver
Complete ground state electronic configuration for the Silver atom, Unabbreviated electronic configuration
1s2 2s2 2p6 3s2 3p6 3d10 4s2 4p6 4d10 5s1
Electrons are filled in atomic orbitals as per the order determined by the Aufbau principle, Pauli Exclusion Principle and Hund’s Rule.
Atomic Structure of Silver
Silver atomic radius is 165 pm, while it's covalent radius is 153 pm.
|Atomic Radius Calculated|
165 pm (1.65 Å)
|Atomic Radius Empirical|
160 pm (1.6 Å)
|Atomic Volume||10.283 cm3/mol|
|Covalent Radius||153 pm (1.53 Å)|
|Van der Waals Radius||172 pm|
|Neutron Cross Section||63.6|
|Neutron Mass Absorption||0.02|
Atomic Spectrum of Silver
Silver Chemical Properties: Silver Ionization Energies and electron affinity
The electron affinity of Silver is 125.6 kJ/mol.
Ionization Energy of Silver
Refer to table below for Ionization energies of Silver
|Ionization energy number||Enthalpy - kJ/mol|
Silver Physical Properties
Refer to below table for Silver Physical Properties
|Density||10.49 g/cm3(when liquid at m.p density is $9.32 g/cm3)|
|Molar Volume||10.283 cm3/mol|
|Shear Modulus||30 GPa|
|Bulk Modulus||100 GPa|
Hardness of Silver - Tests to Measure of Hardness of Element
|Mohs Hardness||2.5 MPa|
|Vickers Hardness||251 MPa|
|Brinell Hardness||24.5 MPa|
Silver Electrical Properties
Silver is Conductor of electricity. Refer to table below for the Electrical properties ofSilver
|Electrical Conductivity||62000000 S/m|
|Resistivity||1.6e-8 m Ω|
Silver Heat and Conduction Properties
|Thermal Conductivity||430 W/(m K)|
|Thermal Expansion||0.0000189 /K|
Silver Magnetic Properties
|Mass Magnetic Susceptibility||-2.27e-9 m3/kg|
|Molar Magnetic Susceptibility||-2.45e-10 m3/mol|
|Volume Magnetic Susceptibility||-0.0000238|
Optical Properties of Silver
Acoustic Properties of Silver
|Speed of Sound||2600 m/s|
Silver Thermal Properties - Enthalpies and thermodynamics
Refer to table below for Thermal properties of Silver
|Melting Point||1234.93 K (961.78°C, 1763.2040000000002 °F)|
|Boiling Point||2435 K (2161.85°C, 3923.3299999999995 °F)|
Enthalpies of Silver
|Heat of Fusion||11.3 kJ/mol|
|Heat of Vaporization||255 kJ/mol|
|Heat of Combustion||-|
Silver Isotopes - Nuclear Properties of Silver
Silver has 38 isotopes, with between 93 and 130 nucleons. Silver has 2 stable naturally occuring isotopes.
Isotopes of Silver - Naturally occurring stable Isotopes: 107Ag, 109Ag.
|Isotope||Z||N||Isotope Mass||% Abundance||T half||Decay Mode|