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Tb Terbium
Element Information, Facts, Properties, Trends, Uses, Comparison with other elements

65
Tb
Terbium
Element 65 of Periodic table is Terbium with atomic number 65, atomic weight 158.92534. Terbium, symbol Tb, has a Simple Hexagonal structure and Silver color. Terbium is a Lanthanide element. It is part of group null (). Know everything about Terbium Facts, Physical Properties, Chemical Properties, Electronic configuration, Atomic and Crystal Structure.
65 Tb - Terbium | SchoolMyKids

Terbium is a chemical element with symbol Tb and atomic number 65. It is a silvery-white rare earth metal that is malleable, ductile and soft enough to be cut with a knife. Terbium is never found in nature as a free element, but it is contained in many minerals, including cerite, gadolinite, monazite, xenotime and euxenite.

It belongs to group of the periodic table having trivial name .

Terbium Facts

Read key information and facts about element Terbium

NameTerbium
Atomic Number65
Atomic SymbolTb
Atomic Weight158.92534
PhaseSolid
ColorSilver
Appearancesilvery white
ClassificationLanthanide
Group in Periodic Table-
Group Name
Period in Periodic Tableperiod 6
Block in Periodic Tablef -block
Electronic Configuration[Xe] 4f9 6s2
Electronic Shell Structure (Electrons per shell)2, 8, 18, 27, 8, 2
Melting Point1629 K
Boiling Point3503 K
CAS NumberCAS7440-27-9
Neighborhood Elements
123456789101112131415161718
1
1
H
Hydrogen
1.008

Atomic #

Electronic Shell #

Symbol
Name
Atomic Weight
HGas
HgLiquid
CSolid
Metals
Metalloids
NonMetals
Alkali metals
Alkali earth metals
Lanthanoids
Transition metals
Post-transition metals
Other nonmetals
Halogens
Nobel gas
Actinoids
2
He
Helium
4.003
2
3
Li
Lithium
6.941
4
Be
Beryllium
9.012
5
B
Boron
10.811
6
C
Carbon
12.011
7
N
Nitrogen
14.007
8
O
Oxygen
15.999
9
F
Fluorine
18.998
10
Ne
Neon
20.180
3
11
Na
Sodium
22.990
12
Mg
Magnesium
24.305
13
Al
Aluminium
26.982
14
Si
Silicon
28.085
15
P
Phosphorus
30.974
16
S
Sulfur
32.065
17
Cl
Chlorine
35.453
18
Ar
Argon
39.948
4
19
K
Potassium
39.098
20
Ca
Calcium
40.078
21
Sc
Scandium
44.956
22
Ti
Titanium
47.867
23
V
Vanadium
50.941
24
Cr
Chromium
51.996
25
Mn
Manganese
54.938
26
Fe
Iron
55.845
27
Co
Cobalt
58.933
28
Ni
Nickel
58.693
29
Cu
Copper
63.546
30
Zn
Zinc
65.409
31
Ga
Gallium
69.723
32
Ge
Germanium
72.640
33
As
Arsenic
74.922
34
Se
Selenium
78.960
35
Br
Bromine
79.904
36
Kr
Krypton
83.798
5
37
Rb
Rubidium
85.468
38
Sr
Strontium
87.620
39
Y
Yttrium
88.906
40
Zr
Zirconium
91.224
41
Nb
Niobium
92.906
42
Mo
Molybdenum
95.940
43
Tc
Technetium
98
44
Ru
Ruthenium
101.070
45
Rh
Rhodium
102.906
46
Pd
Palladium
106.420
47
Ag
Silver
107.868
48
Cd
Cadmium
112.411
49
In
Indium
114.818
50
Sn
Tin
118.710
51
Sb
Antimony
121.760
52
Te
Tellurium
127.600
53
I
Iodine
126.904
54
Xe
Xenon
131.293
6
55
Cs
Cesium
132.905
56
Ba
Barium
137.327
57 - 71
La - Lu
Lanthanides
72
Hf
Hafnium
178.490
73
Ta
Tantalum
180.948
74
W
Tungsten
183.840
75
Re
Rhenium
186.207
76
Os
Osmium
190.230
77
Ir
Iridium
192.217
78
Pt
Platinum
195.078
79
Au
Gold
196.967
80
Hg
Mercury
200.590
81
Tl
Thallium
204.383
82
Pb
Lead
207.200
83
Bi
Bismuth
208.980
84
Po
Polonium
209
85
At
Astatine
210
86
Rn
Radon
222
7
87
Fr
Francium
223
88
Ra
Radium
226
89 - 103
Ac - Lr
Actinides
104
Rf
Rutherfordium
261
105
Db
Dubnium
262
106
Sg
Seaborgium
266
107
Bh
Bohrium
264
108
Hs
Hassium
277
109
Mt
Meitnerium
268
110
Ds
Darmstadtium
281
111
Rg
Roentgenium
272
112
Cn
Copernicium
285
113
Nh
Nihonium
284
114
Fl
Flerovium
289
115
Mc
Moscovium
288
116
Lv
Livermorium
292
117
Ts
Tennessine
294
118
Og
Oganesson
294
Lanthanides
57
La
Lanthanum
138.905
58
Ce
Cerium
140.116
59
Pr
Praseodymium
140.908
60
Nd
Neodymium
144.240
61
Pm
Promethium
145
62
Sm
Samarium
150.360
63
Eu
Europium
151.964
64
Gd
Gadolinium
157.250
65
Tb
Terbium
158.925
66
Dy
Dysprosium
162.500
67
Ho
Holmium
164.930
68
Er
Erbium
167.259
69
Tm
Thulium
168.934
70
Yb
Ytterbium
173.040
71
Lu
Lutetium
174.967
Actinides
89
Ac
Actinium
227
90
Th
Thorium
232.038
91
Pa
Protactinium
231.036
92
U
Uranium
238.029
93
Np
Neptunium
237
94
Pu
Plutonium
244
95
Am
Americium
243
96
Cm
Curium
247
97
Bk
Berkelium
247
98
Cf
Californium
251
99
Es
Einsteinium
252
100
Fm
Fermium
257
101
Md
Mendelevium
258
102
No
Nobelium
259
103
Lr
Lawrencium
262

How to Locate Terbium on Periodic Table

Periodic table is arranged by atomic number, number of protons in the nucleus which is same as number of electrons. The atomic number increases from left to right. Periodic table starts at top left ( Atomic number 1) and ends at bottom right (atomic number 118). Therefore you can directly look for atomic number 65 to find Terbium on periodic table.

Another way to read periodic table and locate an element is by using group number (column) and period number (row). To locate Terbium on periodic table look for cross section of group - and period 6 in the modern periodic table.

Terbium History

The element Terbium was discovered by G. Mosander in year 1842 in Sweden. Terbium was first isolated by J.C.G. de Marignac in 1886. Terbium derived its name from Ytterby, Sweden.

In 1842 Mosander split yttria into two more earths, erbia and terbia.

Terbium Presence: Abundance in Nature and Around Us

The table below shows the abundance of Terbium in Universe, Sun, Meteorites, Earth's Crust, Oceans and Human Body.

 ppb by weight (1ppb =10^-7 %)ppb by atoms (1ppb =10^-7 %)
Abundance in Universe0.50.004
Abundance in Sun0.10.001
Abundance in Meteorites405
Abundance in Earth's Crust940120
Abundance in Oceans0.000140.000005
Abundance in Humans--

Crystal Structure of Terbium

The solid state structure of Terbium is Simple Hexagonal.

The Crystal structure can be described in terms of its unit Cell. The unit Cells repeats itself in three dimensional space to form the structure.

Unit Cell Parameters

The unit cell is represented in terms of its lattice parameters, which are the lengths of the cell edges Lattice Constants (a, b and c)

abc
360.1 pm360.1 pm569.36 pm

and the angles between them Lattice Angles (alpha, beta and gamma).

alphabetagamma
π/2 π/2 2 π/3

The positions of the atoms inside the unit cell are described by the set of atomic positions ( xi, yi, zi) measured from a reference lattice point.

The symmetry properties of the crystal are described by the concept of space groups. All possible symmetric arrangements of particles in three-dimensional space are described by the 230 space groups (219 distinct types, or 230 if chiral copies are considered distinct.

Space Group NameP63/mmc 65 Tb Terbium - Crystal Structure | SchoolMyKids
Oxidation StatesSpace Group Number194
Crystal StructureSimple Hexagonal

Terbium Atomic and Orbital Properties

Terbium atoms have 65 electrons and the electronic shell structure is [2, 8, 18, 27, 8, 2] with Atomic Term Symbol (Quantum Numbers) 6H15/2.

Atomic Number65
Number of Electrons (with no charge)65
Number of Protons65
Mass Number159
Number of Neutrons94
Shell structure (Electrons per energy level)2, 8, 18, 27, 8, 2
Electron Configuration[Xe] 4f9 6s2
Valence Electrons4f9 6s2
Valence (Valency)3
Main Oxidation States3
Oxidation States0, 1, 2, 3, 4
Atomic Term Symbol (Quantum Numbers)6H15/2

Bohr Atomic Model of Terbium - Electrons per energy level

65 Tb Terbium - Electron Shell Structure | SchoolMyKids
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Ground State Electronic Configuration of Terbium - neutral Terbium atom

Abbreviated electronic configuration of Terbium

The ground state abbreviated electronic configuration of Neutral Terbium atom is [Xe] 4f9 6s2. The portion of Terbium configuration that is equivalent to the noble gas of the preceding period, is abbreviated as [Xe]. For atoms with many electrons, this notation can become lengthy and so an abbreviated notation is used. This is important as it is the Valence electrons 4f9 6s2, electrons in the outermost shell that determine the chemical properties of the element.

Unabbreviated electronic configuration of neutral Terbium

Complete ground state electronic configuration for the Terbium atom, Unabbreviated electronic configuration

1s2 2s2 2p6 3s2 3p6 3d10 4s2 4p6 4d10 5s2 5p6 4f9 6s2

Electrons are filled in atomic orbitals as per the order determined by the Aufbau principle, Pauli Exclusion Principle and Hund’s Rule.

  • As per the Aufbau principle the electrons will occupy the orbitals having lower energies before occupying higher energy orbitals. According to this principle, electrons are filled in the following order: 1s, 2s, 2p, 3s, 3p, 4s, 3d, 4p, 5s, 4d, 5p, 6s, 4f, 5d, 6p, 7s, 5f, 6d, 7p…
  • The Pauli exclusion principle states that a maximum of two electrons, each having opposite spins, can fit in an orbital.
  • Hund's rule states that every orbital in a given subshell is singly occupied by electrons before a second electron is filled in an orbital.
  • Electron configuration of Terbium
    Atomic Structure of Terbium

    Terbium atomic radius is 225 pm, while it's covalent radius is - .

    Atomic Radius Calculated

    225 pm (2.25 Å)

    Atomic Radius Empirical

    175 pm (1.75 Å)

    Atomic Volume19.336 cm3/mol
    Covalent Radius-
    Van der Waals Radius-
    Neutron Cross Section23
    Neutron Mass Absorption 0.009

    Atomic Spectrum of Terbium

    Atomic Spectrum of Terbium | SchoolMyKids

    Terbium Chemical Properties: Terbium Ionization Energies and electron affinity

    The electron affinity of Terbium is 50 kJ/mol.

    Valence3
    Electronegativity1.1
    ElectronAffinity50 kJ/mol

    Ionization Energy of Terbium

    Refer to table below for Ionization energies of Terbium

    Ionization energy numberEnthalpy - kJ/mol
    1st565.8
    2nd1110
    3rd2114
    4th3839

    Terbium Physical Properties

    Refer to below table for Terbium Physical Properties

    Density8.219 g/cm3(when liquid at m.p density is $7.65 g/cm3)
    Molar Volume19.336 cm3/mol

    Elastic Properties

    Young Modulus56
    Shear Modulus22 GPa
    Bulk Modulus 38.7 GPa
    Poisson Ratio0.26

    Hardness of Terbium - Tests to Measure of Hardness of Element

    Mohs Hardness-
    Vickers Hardness863 MPa
    Brinell Hardness677 MPa

    Terbium Electrical Properties

    Terbium is Conductor of electricity. Refer to table below for the Electrical properties ofTerbium

    Electrical Conductivity830000 S/m
    Resistivity0.0000012 m Ω
    Superconducting Point-

    Terbium Heat and Conduction Properties

    Thermal Conductivity11 W/(m K)
    Thermal Expansion0.0000103 /K

    Terbium Magnetic Properties

    Magnetic TypeParamagnetic
    Curie Point222 K
    Mass Magnetic Susceptibility0.0000136 m3/kg
    Molar Magnetic Susceptibility0.000002161385 m3/mol
    Volume Magnetic Susceptibility0.1117784

    Optical Properties of Terbium

    Refractive Index-

    Acoustic Properties of Terbium

    Speed of Sound2620 m/s

    Terbium Thermal Properties - Enthalpies and thermodynamics

    Refer to table below for Thermal properties of Terbium

    Melting Point1629 K (1355.85°C, 2472.5299999999997 °F)
    Boiling Point3503 K (3229.85°C, 5845.73 °F)
    Critical Temperature-
    Superconducting Point-

    Enthalpies of Terbium

    Heat of Fusion10.8 kJ/mol
    Heat of Vaporization295 kJ/mol
    Heat of Combustion-

    Terbium Isotopes - Nuclear Properties of Terbium

    Terbium has 36 isotopes, with between 136 and 171 nucleons. Terbium has 1 stable naturally occuring isotopes.

    Isotopes of Terbium - Naturally occurring stable Isotopes: 159Tb.

    IsotopeZNIsotope Mass% AbundanceT halfDecay Mode
    136Tb6571136Synthetic
    137Tb6572137Synthetic
    138Tb6573138Synthetic
    139Tb6574139Synthetic
    140Tb6575140Synthetic
    141Tb6576141Synthetic
    142Tb6577142Synthetic
    143Tb6578143Synthetic
    144Tb6579144Synthetic
    145Tb6580145Synthetic
    146Tb6581146Synthetic
    147Tb6582147Synthetic
    148Tb6583148Synthetic
    149Tb6584149Synthetic
    150Tb6585150Synthetic
    151Tb6586151Synthetic
    152Tb6587152Synthetic
    153Tb6588153Synthetic
    154Tb6589154Synthetic
    155Tb6590155Synthetic
    156Tb6591156Synthetic
    157Tb6592157Synthetic
    158Tb6593158Synthetic
    159Tb6594159100%Stable
    160Tb6595160Synthetic
    161Tb6596161Synthetic
    162Tb6597162Synthetic
    163Tb6598163Synthetic
    164Tb6599164Synthetic
    165Tb65100165Synthetic
    166Tb65101166Synthetic
    167Tb65102167Synthetic
    168Tb65103168Synthetic
    169Tb65104169Synthetic
    170Tb65105170Synthetic
    171Tb65106171Synthetic

    Database Search

    List of unique identifiers to search the element in various chemical registry databases

    DatabaseIdentifier number
    CAS Number - Chemical Abstracts Service (CAS)CAS7440-27-9
    RTECS Number-
    CID Number CID23958
    Gmelin Number-
    NSC Number-

    Compare Terbium with other elements

    Compare Terbium with all Group elements

    Compare Terbium with all Period 6 elements

    Compare Terbium with all Lanthanide elements