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Y Yttrium
Element Information, Facts, Properties, Trends, Uses, Comparison with other elements

39
Y
Yttrium
Element 39 of Periodic table is Yttrium with atomic number 39, atomic weight 88.90585. Yttrium, symbol Y, has a Simple Hexagonal structure and Silver color. Yttrium is a Transition Metal element. It is part of group 3 (scandium family). Know everything about Yttrium Facts, Physical Properties, Chemical Properties, Electronic configuration, Atomic and Crystal Structure.
39 Y - Yttrium | SchoolMyKids

Yttrium is a chemical element with symbol Y and atomic number 39. It is a silvery-metallic Transition Metal chemically similar to the lanthanides and it has often been classified as a 'rare earth element'. Yttrium is almost always found combined with the lanthanides in rare earth minerals and is never found in nature as a free element.

It belongs to group 3 of the periodic table having trivial name . Scandium family is a periodic table group consisting of rare earth elements plus actinides.

Yttrium Facts

Read key information and facts about element Yttrium

NameYttrium
Atomic Number39
Atomic SymbolY
Atomic Weight88.90585
PhaseSolid
ColorSilver
Appearancesilvery white
ClassificationTransition Metal
Group in Periodic Table3
Group Namescandium family
Period in Periodic Tableperiod 5
Block in Periodic Tabled -block
Electronic Configuration[Kr] 4d1 5s2
Electronic Shell Structure (Electrons per shell)2, 8, 18, 9, 2
Melting Point1799 K
Boiling Point3618 K
CAS NumberCAS7440-65-5
Neighborhood Elements
123456789101112131415161718
1
1
H
Hydrogen
1.008

Atomic #

Electronic Shell #

Symbol
Name
Atomic Weight
HGas
HgLiquid
CSolid
Metals
Metalloids
NonMetals
Alkali metals
Alkali earth metals
Lanthanoids
Transition metals
Post-transition metals
Other nonmetals
Halogens
Nobel gas
Actinoids
2
He
Helium
4.003
2
3
Li
Lithium
6.941
4
Be
Beryllium
9.012
5
B
Boron
10.811
6
C
Carbon
12.011
7
N
Nitrogen
14.007
8
O
Oxygen
15.999
9
F
Fluorine
18.998
10
Ne
Neon
20.180
3
11
Na
Sodium
22.990
12
Mg
Magnesium
24.305
13
Al
Aluminium
26.982
14
Si
Silicon
28.085
15
P
Phosphorus
30.974
16
S
Sulfur
32.065
17
Cl
Chlorine
35.453
18
Ar
Argon
39.948
4
19
K
Potassium
39.098
20
Ca
Calcium
40.078
21
Sc
Scandium
44.956
22
Ti
Titanium
47.867
23
V
Vanadium
50.941
24
Cr
Chromium
51.996
25
Mn
Manganese
54.938
26
Fe
Iron
55.845
27
Co
Cobalt
58.933
28
Ni
Nickel
58.693
29
Cu
Copper
63.546
30
Zn
Zinc
65.409
31
Ga
Gallium
69.723
32
Ge
Germanium
72.640
33
As
Arsenic
74.922
34
Se
Selenium
78.960
35
Br
Bromine
79.904
36
Kr
Krypton
83.798
5
37
Rb
Rubidium
85.468
38
Sr
Strontium
87.620
39
Y
Yttrium
88.906
40
Zr
Zirconium
91.224
41
Nb
Niobium
92.906
42
Mo
Molybdenum
95.940
43
Tc
Technetium
98
44
Ru
Ruthenium
101.070
45
Rh
Rhodium
102.906
46
Pd
Palladium
106.420
47
Ag
Silver
107.868
48
Cd
Cadmium
112.411
49
In
Indium
114.818
50
Sn
Tin
118.710
51
Sb
Antimony
121.760
52
Te
Tellurium
127.600
53
I
Iodine
126.904
54
Xe
Xenon
131.293
6
55
Cs
Cesium
132.905
56
Ba
Barium
137.327
57 - 71
La - Lu
Lanthanides
72
Hf
Hafnium
178.490
73
Ta
Tantalum
180.948
74
W
Tungsten
183.840
75
Re
Rhenium
186.207
76
Os
Osmium
190.230
77
Ir
Iridium
192.217
78
Pt
Platinum
195.078
79
Au
Gold
196.967
80
Hg
Mercury
200.590
81
Tl
Thallium
204.383
82
Pb
Lead
207.200
83
Bi
Bismuth
208.980
84
Po
Polonium
209
85
At
Astatine
210
86
Rn
Radon
222
7
87
Fr
Francium
223
88
Ra
Radium
226
89 - 103
Ac - Lr
Actinides
104
Rf
Rutherfordium
261
105
Db
Dubnium
262
106
Sg
Seaborgium
266
107
Bh
Bohrium
264
108
Hs
Hassium
277
109
Mt
Meitnerium
268
110
Ds
Darmstadtium
281
111
Rg
Roentgenium
272
112
Cn
Copernicium
285
113
Nh
Nihonium
284
114
Fl
Flerovium
289
115
Mc
Moscovium
288
116
Lv
Livermorium
292
117
Ts
Tennessine
294
118
Og
Oganesson
294
Lanthanides
57
La
Lanthanum
138.905
58
Ce
Cerium
140.116
59
Pr
Praseodymium
140.908
60
Nd
Neodymium
144.240
61
Pm
Promethium
145
62
Sm
Samarium
150.360
63
Eu
Europium
151.964
64
Gd
Gadolinium
157.250
65
Tb
Terbium
158.925
66
Dy
Dysprosium
162.500
67
Ho
Holmium
164.930
68
Er
Erbium
167.259
69
Tm
Thulium
168.934
70
Yb
Ytterbium
173.040
71
Lu
Lutetium
174.967
Actinides
89
Ac
Actinium
227
90
Th
Thorium
232.038
91
Pa
Protactinium
231.036
92
U
Uranium
238.029
93
Np
Neptunium
237
94
Pu
Plutonium
244
95
Am
Americium
243
96
Cm
Curium
247
97
Bk
Berkelium
247
98
Cf
Californium
251
99
Es
Einsteinium
252
100
Fm
Fermium
257
101
Md
Mendelevium
258
102
No
Nobelium
259
103
Lr
Lawrencium
262

How to Locate Yttrium on Periodic Table

Periodic table is arranged by atomic number, number of protons in the nucleus which is same as number of electrons. The atomic number increases from left to right. Periodic table starts at top left ( Atomic number 1) and ends at bottom right (atomic number 118). Therefore you can directly look for atomic number 39 to find Yttrium on periodic table.

Another way to read periodic table and locate an element is by using group number (column) and period number (row). To locate Yttrium on periodic table look for cross section of group 3 and period 5 in the modern periodic table.

Yttrium History

The element Yttrium was discovered by J. Gadolin in year 1794 in Finland. Yttrium was first isolated by G. Mosander in 1842. Yttrium derived its name from Ytterby, Sweden.

Discovered in gadolinite, but Mosander showed later that its ore,yttria, contained more elements.

Yttrium Presence: Abundance in Nature and Around Us

The table below shows the abundance of Yttrium in Universe, Sun, Meteorites, Earth's Crust, Oceans and Human Body.

 ppb by weight (1ppb =10^-7 %)ppb by atoms (1ppb =10^-7 %)
Abundance in Universe70.1
Abundance in Sun100.1
Abundance in Meteorites1900430
Abundance in Earth's Crust290006700
Abundance in Oceans0.0130.0009
Abundance in Humans--

Crystal Structure of Yttrium

The solid state structure of Yttrium is Simple Hexagonal.

The Crystal structure can be described in terms of its unit Cell. The unit Cells repeats itself in three dimensional space to form the structure.

Unit Cell Parameters

The unit cell is represented in terms of its lattice parameters, which are the lengths of the cell edges Lattice Constants (a, b and c)

abc
364.74 pm364.74 pm573.06 pm

and the angles between them Lattice Angles (alpha, beta and gamma).

alphabetagamma
π/2 π/2 2 π/3

The positions of the atoms inside the unit cell are described by the set of atomic positions ( xi, yi, zi) measured from a reference lattice point.

The symmetry properties of the crystal are described by the concept of space groups. All possible symmetric arrangements of particles in three-dimensional space are described by the 230 space groups (219 distinct types, or 230 if chiral copies are considered distinct.

Space Group NameP63/mmc 39 Y Yttrium - Crystal Structure | SchoolMyKids
Oxidation StatesSpace Group Number194
Crystal StructureSimple Hexagonal

Yttrium Atomic and Orbital Properties

Yttrium atoms have 39 electrons and the electronic shell structure is [2, 8, 18, 9, 2] with Atomic Term Symbol (Quantum Numbers) 2D3/2.

Atomic Number39
Number of Electrons (with no charge)39
Number of Protons39
Mass Number89
Number of Neutrons50
Shell structure (Electrons per energy level)2, 8, 18, 9, 2
Electron Configuration[Kr] 4d1 5s2
Valence Electrons4d1 5s2
Valence (Valency)3
Main Oxidation States3
Oxidation States0, 1, 2, 3
Atomic Term Symbol (Quantum Numbers)2D3/2

Bohr Atomic Model of Yttrium - Electrons per energy level

39 Y Yttrium - Electron Shell Structure | SchoolMyKids
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Ground State Electronic Configuration of Yttrium - neutral Yttrium atom

Abbreviated electronic configuration of Yttrium

The ground state abbreviated electronic configuration of Neutral Yttrium atom is [Kr] 4d1 5s2. The portion of Yttrium configuration that is equivalent to the noble gas of the preceding period, is abbreviated as [Kr]. For atoms with many electrons, this notation can become lengthy and so an abbreviated notation is used. This is important as it is the Valence electrons 4d1 5s2, electrons in the outermost shell that determine the chemical properties of the element.

Unabbreviated electronic configuration of neutral Yttrium

Complete ground state electronic configuration for the Yttrium atom, Unabbreviated electronic configuration

1s2 2s2 2p6 3s2 3p6 3d10 4s2 4p6 4d1 5s2

Electrons are filled in atomic orbitals as per the order determined by the Aufbau principle, Pauli Exclusion Principle and Hund’s Rule.

  • As per the Aufbau principle the electrons will occupy the orbitals having lower energies before occupying higher energy orbitals. According to this principle, electrons are filled in the following order: 1s, 2s, 2p, 3s, 3p, 4s, 3d, 4p, 5s, 4d, 5p, 6s, 4f, 5d, 6p, 7s, 5f, 6d, 7p…
  • The Pauli exclusion principle states that a maximum of two electrons, each having opposite spins, can fit in an orbital.
  • Hund's rule states that every orbital in a given subshell is singly occupied by electrons before a second electron is filled in an orbital.
  • Electron configuration of Yttrium
    Atomic Structure of Yttrium

    Yttrium atomic radius is 212 pm, while it's covalent radius is 162 pm.

    Atomic Radius Calculated

    212 pm (2.12 Å)

    Atomic Radius Empirical

    180 pm (1.8 Å)

    Atomic Volume19.881 cm3/mol
    Covalent Radius162 pm (1.62 Å)
    Van der Waals Radius-
    Neutron Cross Section1.28
    Neutron Mass Absorption 0.0006

    Atomic Spectrum of Yttrium

    Atomic Spectrum of Yttrium | SchoolMyKids

    Yttrium Chemical Properties: Yttrium Ionization Energies and electron affinity

    The electron affinity of Yttrium is 29.6 kJ/mol.

    Valence3
    Electronegativity1.22
    ElectronAffinity29.6 kJ/mol

    Ionization Energy of Yttrium

    Refer to table below for Ionization energies of Yttrium

    Ionization energy numberEnthalpy - kJ/mol
    1st600
    2nd1180
    3rd1980
    4th5847
    5th7430
    6th8970
    7th11190
    8th12450
    9th14110
    10th18400
    11th19900
    12th36090

    Yttrium Physical Properties

    Refer to below table for Yttrium Physical Properties

    Density4.472 g/cm3(when liquid at m.p density is $4.24 g/cm3)
    Molar Volume19.881 cm3/mol

    Elastic Properties

    Young Modulus64
    Shear Modulus26 GPa
    Bulk Modulus 41 GPa
    Poisson Ratio0.24

    Hardness of Yttrium - Tests to Measure of Hardness of Element

    Mohs Hardness-
    Vickers Hardness-
    Brinell Hardness589 MPa

    Yttrium Electrical Properties

    Yttrium is Conductor of electricity. Refer to table below for the Electrical properties ofYttrium

    Electrical Conductivity1800000 S/m
    Resistivity5.59e-7 m Ω
    Superconducting Point1.3

    Yttrium Heat and Conduction Properties

    Thermal Conductivity17 W/(m K)
    Thermal Expansion0.0000106 /K

    Yttrium Magnetic Properties

    Magnetic TypeParamagnetic
    Curie Point-
    Mass Magnetic Susceptibility6.66e-8 m3/kg
    Molar Magnetic Susceptibility5.921e-9 m3/mol
    Volume Magnetic Susceptibility0.0002978

    Optical Properties of Yttrium

    Refractive Index-

    Acoustic Properties of Yttrium

    Speed of Sound3300 m/s

    Yttrium Thermal Properties - Enthalpies and thermodynamics

    Refer to table below for Thermal properties of Yttrium

    Melting Point1799 K (1525.85°C, 2778.5299999999997 °F)
    Boiling Point3618 K (3344.85°C, 6052.73 °F)
    Critical Temperature-
    Superconducting Point1.3

    Enthalpies of Yttrium

    Heat of Fusion11.4 kJ/mol
    Heat of Vaporization380 kJ/mol
    Heat of Combustion-

    Yttrium Isotopes - Nuclear Properties of Yttrium

    Yttrium has 33 isotopes, with between 76 and 108 nucleons. Yttrium has 1 stable naturally occuring isotopes.

    Isotopes of Yttrium - Naturally occurring stable Isotopes: 89Y.

    IsotopeZNIsotope Mass% AbundanceT halfDecay Mode
    76Y393776Synthetic
    77Y393877Synthetic
    78Y393978Synthetic
    79Y394079Synthetic
    80Y394180Synthetic
    81Y394281Synthetic
    82Y394382Synthetic
    83Y394483Synthetic
    84Y394584Synthetic
    85Y394685Synthetic
    86Y394786Synthetic
    87Y394887Synthetic
    88Y394988Synthetic
    89Y395089100%Stable
    90Y395190Synthetic
    91Y395291Synthetic
    92Y395392Synthetic
    93Y395493Synthetic
    94Y395594Synthetic
    95Y395695Synthetic
    96Y395796Synthetic
    97Y395897Synthetic
    98Y395998Synthetic
    99Y396099Synthetic
    100Y3961100Synthetic
    101Y3962101Synthetic
    102Y3963102Synthetic
    103Y3964103Synthetic
    104Y3965104Synthetic
    105Y3966105Synthetic
    106Y3967106Synthetic
    107Y3968107Synthetic
    108Y3969108Synthetic

    Regulatory and Health - Health and Safety Parameters and Guidelines

    Database Search

    List of unique identifiers to search the element in various chemical registry databases

    DatabaseIdentifier number
    CAS Number - Chemical Abstracts Service (CAS)CAS7440-65-5
    RTECS NumberRTECSZG2980000
    CID Number CID23993
    Gmelin Number-
    NSC Number-