Element Information, Facts, Properties, Trends, Uses, Comparison with other elements
Yttrium is a chemical element with symbol Y and atomic number 39. It is a silvery-metallic Transition Metal chemically similar to the lanthanides and it has often been classified as a 'rare earth element'. Yttrium is almost always found combined with the lanthanides in rare earth minerals and is never found in nature as a free element.
It belongs to group 3 of the periodic table having trivial name . Scandium family is a periodic table group consisting of rare earth elements plus actinides.
Read key information and facts about element Yttrium
|Group in Periodic Table||3|
|Group Name||scandium family|
|Period in Periodic Table||period 5|
|Block in Periodic Table||d -block|
|Electronic Configuration||[Kr] 4d1 5s2|
|Electronic Shell Structure (Electrons per shell)||2, 8, 18, 9, 2|
|Melting Point||1799 K|
|Boiling Point||3618 K|
How to Locate Yttrium on Periodic Table
Periodic table is arranged by atomic number, number of protons in the nucleus which is same as number of electrons. The atomic number increases from left to right. Periodic table starts at top left ( Atomic number 1) and ends at bottom right (atomic number 118). Therefore you can directly look for atomic number 39 to find Yttrium on periodic table.
Another way to read periodic table and locate an element is by using group number (column) and period number (row). To locate Yttrium on periodic table look for cross section of group 3 and period 5 in the modern periodic table.
The element Yttrium was discovered by J. Gadolin in year 1794 in Finland. Yttrium was first isolated by G. Mosander in 1842. Yttrium derived its name from Ytterby, Sweden.
Discovered in gadolinite, but Mosander showed later that its ore,yttria, contained more elements.
Yttrium Presence: Abundance in Nature and Around Us
The table below shows the abundance of Yttrium in Universe, Sun, Meteorites, Earth's Crust, Oceans and Human Body.
|ppb by weight (1ppb =10^-7 %)||ppb by atoms (1ppb =10^-7 %)|
|Abundance in Universe||7||0.1|
|Abundance in Sun||10||0.1|
|Abundance in Meteorites||1900||430|
|Abundance in Earth's Crust||29000||6700|
|Abundance in Oceans||0.013||0.0009|
|Abundance in Humans||-||-|
Crystal Structure of Yttrium
The solid state structure of Yttrium is Simple Hexagonal.
The Crystal structure can be described in terms of its unit Cell. The unit Cells repeats itself in three dimensional space to form the structure.
Unit Cell Parameters
The unit cell is represented in terms of its lattice parameters, which are the lengths of the cell edges Lattice Constants (a, b and c)
|364.74 pm||364.74 pm||573.06 pm|
and the angles between them Lattice Angles (alpha, beta and gamma).
The positions of the atoms inside the unit cell are described by the set of atomic positions ( xi, yi, zi) measured from a reference lattice point.
The symmetry properties of the crystal are described by the concept of space groups. All possible symmetric arrangements of particles in three-dimensional space are described by the 230 space groups (219 distinct types, or 230 if chiral copies are considered distinct.
|Space Group Name||P63/mmc|
|Oxidation States||Space Group Number||194|
|Crystal Structure||Simple Hexagonal|
Yttrium Atomic and Orbital Properties
Yttrium atoms have 39 electrons and the electronic shell structure is [2, 8, 18, 9, 2] with Atomic Term Symbol (Quantum Numbers) 2D3/2.
|Number of Electrons (with no charge)||39|
|Number of Protons||39|
|Number of Neutrons||50|
|Shell structure (Electrons per energy level)||2, 8, 18, 9, 2|
|Electron Configuration||[Kr] 4d1 5s2|
|Valence Electrons||4d1 5s2|
|Main Oxidation States||3|
|Oxidation States||0, 1, 2, 3|
|Atomic Term Symbol (Quantum Numbers)||2D3/2|
Bohr Atomic Model of Yttrium - Electrons per energy level
Ground State Electronic Configuration of Yttrium - neutral Yttrium atom
Abbreviated electronic configuration of Yttrium
The ground state abbreviated electronic configuration of Neutral Yttrium atom is [Kr] 4d1 5s2. The portion of Yttrium configuration that is equivalent to the noble gas of the preceding period, is abbreviated as [Kr]. For atoms with many electrons, this notation can become lengthy and so an abbreviated notation is used. This is important as it is the Valence electrons 4d1 5s2, electrons in the outermost shell that determine the chemical properties of the element.
Unabbreviated electronic configuration of neutral Yttrium
Complete ground state electronic configuration for the Yttrium atom, Unabbreviated electronic configuration
1s2 2s2 2p6 3s2 3p6 3d10 4s2 4p6 4d1 5s2
Electrons are filled in atomic orbitals as per the order determined by the Aufbau principle, Pauli Exclusion Principle and Hund’s Rule.
Atomic Structure of Yttrium
Yttrium atomic radius is 212 pm, while it's covalent radius is 162 pm.
|Atomic Radius Calculated|
212 pm (2.12 Å)
|Atomic Radius Empirical|
180 pm (1.8 Å)
|Atomic Volume||19.881 cm3/mol|
|Covalent Radius||162 pm (1.62 Å)|
|Van der Waals Radius||-|
|Neutron Cross Section||1.28|
|Neutron Mass Absorption||0.0006|
Atomic Spectrum of Yttrium
Yttrium Chemical Properties: Yttrium Ionization Energies and electron affinity
The electron affinity of Yttrium is 29.6 kJ/mol.
Ionization Energy of Yttrium
Refer to table below for Ionization energies of Yttrium
|Ionization energy number||Enthalpy - kJ/mol|
Yttrium Physical Properties
Refer to below table for Yttrium Physical Properties
|Density||4.472 g/cm3(when liquid at m.p density is $4.24 g/cm3)|
|Molar Volume||19.881 cm3/mol|
|Shear Modulus||26 GPa|
|Bulk Modulus||41 GPa|
Hardness of Yttrium - Tests to Measure of Hardness of Element
|Brinell Hardness||589 MPa|
Yttrium Electrical Properties
Yttrium is Conductor of electricity. Refer to table below for the Electrical properties ofYttrium
|Electrical Conductivity||1800000 S/m|
|Resistivity||5.59e-7 m Ω|
Yttrium Heat and Conduction Properties
|Thermal Conductivity||17 W/(m K)|
|Thermal Expansion||0.0000106 /K|
Yttrium Magnetic Properties
|Mass Magnetic Susceptibility||6.66e-8 m3/kg|
|Molar Magnetic Susceptibility||5.921e-9 m3/mol|
|Volume Magnetic Susceptibility||0.0002978|
Optical Properties of Yttrium
Acoustic Properties of Yttrium
|Speed of Sound||3300 m/s|
Yttrium Thermal Properties - Enthalpies and thermodynamics
Refer to table below for Thermal properties of Yttrium
|Melting Point||1799 K (1525.85°C, 2778.5299999999997 °F)|
|Boiling Point||3618 K (3344.85°C, 6052.73 °F)|
Enthalpies of Yttrium
|Heat of Fusion||11.4 kJ/mol|
|Heat of Vaporization||380 kJ/mol|
|Heat of Combustion||-|
Yttrium Isotopes - Nuclear Properties of Yttrium
Yttrium has 33 isotopes, with between 76 and 108 nucleons. Yttrium has 1 stable naturally occuring isotopes.
Isotopes of Yttrium - Naturally occurring stable Isotopes: 89Y.
|Isotope||Z||N||Isotope Mass||% Abundance||T half||Decay Mode|