Silicon is a chemical element with symbol Si and atomic number 14. It is a tetravalent Metalloid, more reactive than germanium, the Metalloid directly below it in the table. Controversy about silicon's character dates to its discovery.
It belongs to group 14 of the periodic table having trivial name tetrels, crystallogens.
Read key information and facts about element Silicon
|Appearance||crystalline, reflective with bluish-tinged faces|
|Group in Periodic Table||14|
|Group Name||carbon family|
|Period in Periodic Table||period 3|
|Block in Periodic Table||p -block|
|Electronic Configuration||[Ne] 3s2 3p2|
|Electronic Shell Structure (Electrons per shell)||2, 8, 4|
|Melting Point||1687 K|
|Boiling Point||3173 K|
How to Locate Silicon on Periodic Table
Periodic table is arranged by atomic number, number of protons in the nucleus which is same as number of electrons. The atomic number increases from left to right. Periodic table starts at top left ( Atomic number 1) and ends at bottom right (atomic number 118). Therefore you can directly look for atomic number 14 to find Silicon on periodic table.
Another way to read periodic table and locate an element is by using group number (column) and period number (row). To locate Silicon on periodic table look for cross section of group 14 and period 3 in the modern periodic table.
The element Silicon was discovered by J. Berzelius in year 1823 in Sweden. Silicon was first isolated by J. Berzelius in 1823. Silicon derived its name from the Latin silex, 'flint' (originally silicium).
Humphry Davy thought in 1800 that silica was a compound, not an element, and in 1808 suggested the present name. In 1811 Louis-Joseph Gay-Lussac and Louis-Jacques Thénard probably prepared impure silicon, but Berzelius is credited with the discovery for obtaining the pure element in 1823.
Silicon Presence: Abundance in Nature and Around Us
The table below shows the abundance of Silicon in Universe, Sun, Meteorites, Earth's Crust, Oceans and Human Body.
|ppb by weight (1ppb =10^-7 %)||ppb by atoms (1ppb =10^-7 %)|
|Abundance in Universe||700000||30000|
|Abundance in Sun||900000||40000|
|Abundance in Meteorites||140000000||100000000|
|Abundance in Earth's Crust||270000000||200000000|
|Abundance in Oceans||1000||220|
|Abundance in Humans||260000||58000|
Crystal Structure of Silicon
The solid state structure of Silicon is Tetrahedral Packing.
The Crystal structure can be described in terms of its unit Cell. The unit Cells repeats itself in three dimensional space to form the structure.
Unit Cell Parameters
The unit cell is represented in terms of its lattice parameters, which are the lengths of the cell edges Lattice Constants (a, b and c)
|543.09 pm||543.09 pm||543.09 pm|
and the angles between them Lattice Angles (alpha, beta and gamma).
The positions of the atoms inside the unit cell are described by the set of atomic positions ( xi, yi, zi) measured from a reference lattice point.
The symmetry properties of the crystal are described by the concept of space groups. All possible symmetric arrangements of particles in three-dimensional space are described by the 230 space groups (219 distinct types, or 230 if chiral copies are considered distinct.
|Space Group Name||Fd_ 3m|
|Space Group Number||227|
|Crystal Structure||Tetrahedral Packing|
|Number of atoms per unit cell|
The number of atoms per unit cell in a simple cubic, face-centered cubic and body-centred cubic are 1,4,2 respectively.
Silicon Atomic and Orbital Properties
Silicon atoms have 14 electrons and the electronic shell structure is [2, 8, 4] with Atomic Term Symbol (Quantum Numbers) 3P0.
|Number of Electrons (with no charge)||14|
|Number of Protons||14|
|Number of Neutrons||14|
|Shell structure (Electrons per energy level)||2, 8, 4|
|Electron Configuration||[Ne] 3s2 3p2|
|Valence Electrons||3s2 3p2|
|Main Oxidation States||-4, 4|
|Oxidation States||-4, -3, -2, -1, 0, 1, 2, 3, 4|
|Atomic Term Symbol (Quantum Numbers)||3P0|
Bohr Atomic Model of Silicon - Electrons per energy level
Ground State Electronic Configuration of Silicon - neutral Silicon atom
Abbreviated electronic configuration of Silicon
The ground state abbreviated electronic configuration of Neutral Silicon atom is [Ne] 3s2 3p2. The portion of Silicon configuration that is equivalent to the noble gas of the preceding period, is abbreviated as [Ne]. For atoms with many electrons, this notation can become lengthy and so an abbreviated notation is used. This is important as it is the Valence electrons 3s2 3p2, electrons in the outermost shell that determine the chemical properties of the element.
Unabbreviated electronic configuration of neutral Silicon
Complete ground state electronic configuration for the Silicon atom, Unabbreviated electronic configuration
1s2 2s2 2p6 3s2 3p2
Electrons are filled in atomic orbitals as per the order determined by the Aufbau principle, Pauli Exclusion Principle and Hund’s Rule.
Atomic Structure of Silicon
Silicon atomic radius is 111 pm, while it's covalent radius is 111 pm.
|Atomic Radius Calculated|
111 pm (1.11 Å)
|Atomic Radius Empirical|
110 pm (1.1 Å)
|Atomic Volume||12.054 cm3/mol|
|Covalent Radius||111 pm (1.11 Å)|
|Van der Waals Radius||210 pm|
|Neutron Cross Section||171|
|Neutron Mass Absorption||0.0002|
Atomic Spectrum of Silicon
Silicon Chemical Properties: Silicon Ionization Energies and electron affinity
The electron affinity of Silicon is 133.6 kJ/mol.
Ionization Energy of Silicon
Refer to table below for Ionization energies of Silicon
|Ionization energy number||Enthalpy - kJ/mol|
Silicon Physical Properties
Refer to below table for Silicon Physical Properties
|Density||2.33 g/cm3(when liquid at m.p density is $2.57 g/cm3)|
|Molar Volume||12.054 cm3/mol|
|Bulk Modulus||100 GPa|
Hardness of Silicon - Tests to Measure of Hardness of Element
|Mohs Hardness||6.5 MPa|
Silicon Electrical Properties
Silicon is Conductor of electricity. Refer to table below for the Electrical properties ofSilicon
|Electrical Conductivity||1000 S/m|
|Resistivity||0.001 m Ω|
Silicon Heat and Conduction Properties
|Thermal Conductivity||150 W/(m K)|
|Thermal Expansion||0.0000026 /K|
Silicon Magnetic Properties
|Mass Magnetic Susceptibility||-1.6e-9 m3/kg|
|Molar Magnetic Susceptibility||-4.49e-11 m3/mol|
|Volume Magnetic Susceptibility||-0.00000373|
Optical Properties of Silicon
Acoustic Properties of Silicon
|Speed of Sound||2200 m/s|
Silicon Thermal Properties - Enthalpies and thermodynamics
Refer to table below for Thermal properties of Silicon
|Melting Point||1687 K (1413.85°C, 2576.93 °F)|
|Boiling Point||3173 K (2899.85°C, 5251.73 °F)|
Enthalpies of Silicon
|Heat of Fusion||50.2 kJ/mol|
|Heat of Vaporization||359 kJ/mol|
|Heat of Combustion||-9055 J/(kg K)|
Silicon Isotopes - Nuclear Properties of Silicon
Silicon has 23 isotopes, with between 22 and 44 nucleons. Silicon has 3 stable naturally occuring isotopes.
Isotopes of Silicon - Naturally occurring stable Isotopes: 28Si, 29Si, 30Si.
|Isotope||Z||N||Isotope Mass||% Abundance||T half||Decay Mode|
Compare Silicon with other elements
Compare Silicon with all Group 14 elements
Compare Silicon with all Period 3 elements
Compare Silicon with all Metalloid elements
What is the electronic configuration of Silicon?
The electronic configuration of Silicon is 1s2 2s2 2p6 3s2 3p2.
What is the abbreviated electronic configuration of Silicon?
The abbreviated electronic configuration of Silicon is [Ne] 3s2 3p2. To form abbreviated notation of electronic configuration, the completely filled subshells are replaced by the noble gas of the preceding period in square brackets.
What is the symbol of Silicon?
Symbol of Silicon is Si. Silicon is a chemical element with symbol Si and atomic number 14.
What is the position of Silicon in the Periodic Table?
Silicon is a chemical element with the symbol Si and atomic number 14. Silicon is the 14 element on the periodic table. It is located in group 14 and period 3 in the modern periodic table.
What is the atomic number of Silicon?
The atomic number of Silicon is 14.
What is the color of Silicon?
Silicon is of Gray color.
Who discovered Silicon?
The element Silicon was discovered by J. Berzelius in year 1823 in Sweden. Silicon was first isolated by J. Berzelius in 1823.
How many valence electrons does a Silicon atom have?
Silicon has 4 valence electrons. Silicon has 14 electrons out of which 4 valence electrons are present in the 3s2 3p2 outer orbitals of atom.
What is the melting Point of Silicon?
Melting Point of Silicon is 1687 K.
What is the boiling Point of Silicon?
Boiling Point of Silicon is 3173 K.
What is the melting Point of Silicon in Kelvin?
Melting Point of Silicon in Kelvin is 1687 K.
What is the boiling Point of Silicon in Kelvin?
Boiling Point of Silicon in Kelvin is 3173 K.
What is the electronic configuration of Silicon 14?
The electronic configuration of Silicon will be 1s2 2s2 2p6 3s2 3p2.
How do you write the electron configuration for Silicon?
The electronic configuration of Silicon will be 1s2 2s2 2p6 3s2 3p2.