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Lu Lutetium
Element Information, Facts, Properties, Trends, Uses, Comparison with other elements

71
Lu
Lutetium
Element 71 of Periodic table is Lutetium with atomic number 71, atomic weight 174.967. Lutetium, symbol Lu, has a Simple Hexagonal structure and Silver color. Lutetium is a Lanthanide element. It is part of group 3 (scandium family). Know everything about Lutetium Facts, Physical Properties, Chemical Properties, Electronic configuration, Atomic and Crystal Structure.
71 Lu - Lutetium | SchoolMyKids

Lutetium is a chemical element with symbol Lu and atomic number 71. It is a silvery white metal, which resists corrosion in dry, but not in moist air. It is considered the first element of the 6th-period transition metals and the last element in the Lanthanide series, and is traditionally counted among the rare earths.

It belongs to group 3 of the periodic table having trivial name . Scandium family is a periodic table group consisting of rare earth elements plus actinides.

Lutetium Facts

Read key information and facts about element Lutetium

NameLutetium
Atomic Number71
Atomic SymbolLu
Atomic Weight174.967
PhaseSolid
ColorSilver
Appearancesilvery white
ClassificationLanthanide
Group in Periodic Table3
Group Namescandium family
Period in Periodic Tableperiod 6
Block in Periodic Tabled -block
Electronic Configuration[Xe] 4f14 5d1 6s2
Electronic Shell Structure (Electrons per shell)2, 8, 18, 32, 9, 2
Melting Point1936 K
Boiling Point3675 K
CAS NumberCAS7439-94-3
Neighborhood Elements
123456789101112131415161718
1
1
H
Hydrogen
1.008

Atomic #

Electronic Shell #

Symbol
Name
Atomic Weight
HGas
HgLiquid
CSolid
Metals
Metalloids
NonMetals
Alkali metals
Alkali earth metals
Lanthanoids
Transition metals
Post-transition metals
Other nonmetals
Halogens
Nobel gas
Actinoids
2
He
Helium
4.003
2
3
Li
Lithium
6.941
4
Be
Beryllium
9.012
5
B
Boron
10.811
6
C
Carbon
12.011
7
N
Nitrogen
14.007
8
O
Oxygen
15.999
9
F
Fluorine
18.998
10
Ne
Neon
20.180
3
11
Na
Sodium
22.990
12
Mg
Magnesium
24.305
13
Al
Aluminium
26.982
14
Si
Silicon
28.085
15
P
Phosphorus
30.974
16
S
Sulfur
32.065
17
Cl
Chlorine
35.453
18
Ar
Argon
39.948
4
19
K
Potassium
39.098
20
Ca
Calcium
40.078
21
Sc
Scandium
44.956
22
Ti
Titanium
47.867
23
V
Vanadium
50.941
24
Cr
Chromium
51.996
25
Mn
Manganese
54.938
26
Fe
Iron
55.845
27
Co
Cobalt
58.933
28
Ni
Nickel
58.693
29
Cu
Copper
63.546
30
Zn
Zinc
65.409
31
Ga
Gallium
69.723
32
Ge
Germanium
72.640
33
As
Arsenic
74.922
34
Se
Selenium
78.960
35
Br
Bromine
79.904
36
Kr
Krypton
83.798
5
37
Rb
Rubidium
85.468
38
Sr
Strontium
87.620
39
Y
Yttrium
88.906
40
Zr
Zirconium
91.224
41
Nb
Niobium
92.906
42
Mo
Molybdenum
95.940
43
Tc
Technetium
98
44
Ru
Ruthenium
101.070
45
Rh
Rhodium
102.906
46
Pd
Palladium
106.420
47
Ag
Silver
107.868
48
Cd
Cadmium
112.411
49
In
Indium
114.818
50
Sn
Tin
118.710
51
Sb
Antimony
121.760
52
Te
Tellurium
127.600
53
I
Iodine
126.904
54
Xe
Xenon
131.293
6
55
Cs
Cesium
132.905
56
Ba
Barium
137.327
57 - 71
La - Lu
Lanthanides
72
Hf
Hafnium
178.490
73
Ta
Tantalum
180.948
74
W
Tungsten
183.840
75
Re
Rhenium
186.207
76
Os
Osmium
190.230
77
Ir
Iridium
192.217
78
Pt
Platinum
195.078
79
Au
Gold
196.967
80
Hg
Mercury
200.590
81
Tl
Thallium
204.383
82
Pb
Lead
207.200
83
Bi
Bismuth
208.980
84
Po
Polonium
209
85
At
Astatine
210
86
Rn
Radon
222
7
87
Fr
Francium
223
88
Ra
Radium
226
89 - 103
Ac - Lr
Actinides
104
Rf
Rutherfordium
261
105
Db
Dubnium
262
106
Sg
Seaborgium
266
107
Bh
Bohrium
264
108
Hs
Hassium
277
109
Mt
Meitnerium
268
110
Ds
Darmstadtium
281
111
Rg
Roentgenium
272
112
Cn
Copernicium
285
113
Nh
Nihonium
284
114
Fl
Flerovium
289
115
Mc
Moscovium
288
116
Lv
Livermorium
292
117
Ts
Tennessine
294
118
Og
Oganesson
294
Lanthanides
57
La
Lanthanum
138.905
58
Ce
Cerium
140.116
59
Pr
Praseodymium
140.908
60
Nd
Neodymium
144.240
61
Pm
Promethium
145
62
Sm
Samarium
150.360
63
Eu
Europium
151.964
64
Gd
Gadolinium
157.250
65
Tb
Terbium
158.925
66
Dy
Dysprosium
162.500
67
Ho
Holmium
164.930
68
Er
Erbium
167.259
69
Tm
Thulium
168.934
70
Yb
Ytterbium
173.040
71
Lu
Lutetium
174.967
Actinides
89
Ac
Actinium
227
90
Th
Thorium
232.038
91
Pa
Protactinium
231.036
92
U
Uranium
238.029
93
Np
Neptunium
237
94
Pu
Plutonium
244
95
Am
Americium
243
96
Cm
Curium
247
97
Bk
Berkelium
247
98
Cf
Californium
251
99
Es
Einsteinium
252
100
Fm
Fermium
257
101
Md
Mendelevium
258
102
No
Nobelium
259
103
Lr
Lawrencium
262

How to Locate Lutetium on Periodic Table

Periodic table is arranged by atomic number, number of protons in the nucleus which is same as number of electrons. The atomic number increases from left to right. Periodic table starts at top left ( Atomic number 1) and ends at bottom right (atomic number 118). Therefore you can directly look for atomic number 71 to find Lutetium on periodic table.

Another way to read periodic table and locate an element is by using group number (column) and period number (row). To locate Lutetium on periodic table look for cross section of group 3 and period 6 in the modern periodic table.

Lutetium History

The element Lutetium was discovered by C. A. von Welsbach and G. Urbain in year 1906 in France and Germany. Lutetium was first isolated by C. A. von Welsbach in 1906. Lutetium derived its name from Lutetia, the Latin name for Paris.

von Welsbach proved that the old ytterbium also contained a new element, which he named cassiopeium. Urbain also proved this simultaneously, but his samples were very impure and only contained trace quantities of the new element. Despite this, his chosen namelutetiumwas adopted.

Lutetium Presence: Abundance in Nature and Around Us

The table below shows the abundance of Lutetium in Universe, Sun, Meteorites, Earth's Crust, Oceans and Human Body.

 ppb by weight (1ppb =10^-7 %)ppb by atoms (1ppb =10^-7 %)
Abundance in Universe0.10.001
Abundance in Sun10.01
Abundance in Meteorites303
Abundance in Earth's Crust56070
Abundance in Oceans0.000150.000005
Abundance in Humans--

Crystal Structure of Lutetium

The solid state structure of Lutetium is Simple Hexagonal.

The Crystal structure can be described in terms of its unit Cell. The unit Cells repeats itself in three dimensional space to form the structure.

Unit Cell Parameters

The unit cell is represented in terms of its lattice parameters, which are the lengths of the cell edges Lattice Constants (a, b and c)

abc
350.31 pm350.31 pm555.09 pm

and the angles between them Lattice Angles (alpha, beta and gamma).

alphabetagamma
π/2 π/2 2 π/3

The positions of the atoms inside the unit cell are described by the set of atomic positions ( xi, yi, zi) measured from a reference lattice point.

The symmetry properties of the crystal are described by the concept of space groups. All possible symmetric arrangements of particles in three-dimensional space are described by the 230 space groups (219 distinct types, or 230 if chiral copies are considered distinct.

Space Group NameP63/mmc 71 Lu Lutetium - Crystal Structure | SchoolMyKids
Oxidation StatesSpace Group Number194
Crystal StructureSimple Hexagonal

Lutetium Atomic and Orbital Properties

Lutetium atoms have 71 electrons and the electronic shell structure is [2, 8, 18, 32, 9, 2] with Atomic Term Symbol (Quantum Numbers) 2D3/2.

Atomic Number71
Number of Electrons (with no charge)71
Number of Protons71
Mass Number175
Number of Neutrons104
Shell structure (Electrons per energy level)2, 8, 18, 32, 9, 2
Electron Configuration[Xe] 4f14 5d1 6s2
Valence Electrons5d1 6s2
Valence (Valency)3
Main Oxidation States3
Oxidation States0, 2, 3
Atomic Term Symbol (Quantum Numbers)2D3/2

Bohr Atomic Model of Lutetium - Electrons per energy level

71 Lu Lutetium - Electron Shell Structure | SchoolMyKids
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Ground State Electronic Configuration of Lutetium - neutral Lutetium atom

Abbreviated electronic configuration of Lutetium

The ground state abbreviated electronic configuration of Neutral Lutetium atom is [Xe] 4f14 5d1 6s2. The portion of Lutetium configuration that is equivalent to the noble gas of the preceding period, is abbreviated as [Xe]. For atoms with many electrons, this notation can become lengthy and so an abbreviated notation is used. This is important as it is the Valence electrons 5d1 6s2, electrons in the outermost shell that determine the chemical properties of the element.

Unabbreviated electronic configuration of neutral Lutetium

Complete ground state electronic configuration for the Lutetium atom, Unabbreviated electronic configuration

1s2 2s2 2p6 3s2 3p6 3d10 4s2 4p6 4d10 5s2 5p6 4f14 5d1 6s2

Electrons are filled in atomic orbitals as per the order determined by the Aufbau principle, Pauli Exclusion Principle and Hund’s Rule.

  • As per the Aufbau principle the electrons will occupy the orbitals having lower energies before occupying higher energy orbitals. According to this principle, electrons are filled in the following order: 1s, 2s, 2p, 3s, 3p, 4s, 3d, 4p, 5s, 4d, 5p, 6s, 4f, 5d, 6p, 7s, 5f, 6d, 7p…
  • The Pauli exclusion principle states that a maximum of two electrons, each having opposite spins, can fit in an orbital.
  • Hund's rule states that every orbital in a given subshell is singly occupied by electrons before a second electron is filled in an orbital.
  • Electron configuration of Lutetium
    Atomic Structure of Lutetium

    Lutetium atomic radius is 217 pm, while it's covalent radius is 160 pm.

    Atomic Radius Calculated

    217 pm (2.17 Å)

    Atomic Radius Empirical

    175 pm (1.75 Å)

    Atomic Volume17.78 cm3/mol
    Covalent Radius160 pm (1.6 Å)
    Van der Waals Radius-
    Neutron Cross Section84
    Neutron Mass Absorption 0.022

    Atomic Spectrum of Lutetium

    Atomic Spectrum of Lutetium | SchoolMyKids

    Lutetium Chemical Properties: Lutetium Ionization Energies and electron affinity

    The electron affinity of Lutetium is 50 kJ/mol.

    Valence3
    Electronegativity1.27
    ElectronAffinity50 kJ/mol

    Ionization Energy of Lutetium

    Refer to table below for Ionization energies of Lutetium

    Ionization energy numberEnthalpy - kJ/mol
    1st523.5
    2nd1340
    3rd2022.3
    4th4370
    5th6445

    Lutetium Physical Properties

    Refer to below table for Lutetium Physical Properties

    Density9.841 g/cm3(when liquid at m.p density is $9.3 g/cm3)
    Molar Volume17.78 cm3/mol

    Elastic Properties

    Young Modulus69
    Shear Modulus27 GPa
    Bulk Modulus 48 GPa
    Poisson Ratio0.26

    Hardness of Lutetium - Tests to Measure of Hardness of Element

    Mohs Hardness-
    Vickers Hardness1160 MPa
    Brinell Hardness893 MPa

    Lutetium Electrical Properties

    Lutetium is Conductor of electricity. Refer to table below for the Electrical properties ofLutetium

    Electrical Conductivity1800000 S/m
    Resistivity5.59e-7 m Ω
    Superconducting Point0.1

    Lutetium Heat and Conduction Properties

    Thermal Conductivity16 W/(m K)
    Thermal Expansion0.0000099 /K

    Lutetium Magnetic Properties

    Magnetic TypeParamagnetic
    Curie Point-
    Mass Magnetic Susceptibility1.2e-9 m3/kg
    Molar Magnetic Susceptibility2.1e-10 m3/mol
    Volume Magnetic Susceptibility0.0000118

    Optical Properties of Lutetium

    Refractive Index-

    Acoustic Properties of Lutetium

    Speed of Sound-

    Lutetium Thermal Properties - Enthalpies and thermodynamics

    Refer to table below for Thermal properties of Lutetium

    Melting Point1936 K (1662.85°C, 3025.13 °F)
    Boiling Point3675 K (3401.85°C, 6155.33 °F)
    Critical Temperature-
    Superconducting Point0.1

    Enthalpies of Lutetium

    Heat of Fusion22 kJ/mol
    Heat of Vaporization415 kJ/mol
    Heat of Combustion-

    Lutetium Isotopes - Nuclear Properties of Lutetium

    Lutetium has 35 isotopes, with between 150 and 184 nucleons. Lutetium has 1 stable naturally occuring isotopes.

    Isotopes of Lutetium - Naturally occurring stable Isotopes: 175Lu.

    IsotopeZNIsotope Mass% AbundanceT halfDecay Mode
    150Lu7179150Synthetic
    151Lu7180151Synthetic
    152Lu7181152Synthetic
    153Lu7182153Synthetic
    154Lu7183154Synthetic
    155Lu7184155Synthetic
    156Lu7185156Synthetic
    157Lu7186157Synthetic
    158Lu7187158Synthetic
    159Lu7188159Synthetic
    160Lu7189160Synthetic
    161Lu7190161Synthetic
    162Lu7191162Synthetic
    163Lu7192163Synthetic
    164Lu7193164Synthetic
    165Lu7194165Synthetic
    166Lu7195166Synthetic
    167Lu7196167Synthetic
    168Lu7197168Synthetic
    169Lu7198169Synthetic
    170Lu7199170Synthetic
    171Lu71100171Synthetic
    172Lu71101172Synthetic
    173Lu71102173Synthetic
    174Lu71103174Synthetic
    175Lu7110417597.41%Stable
    176Lu711051762.59%StableN/A
    177Lu71106177Synthetic
    178Lu71107178Synthetic
    179Lu71108179Synthetic
    180Lu71109180Synthetic
    181Lu71110181Synthetic
    182Lu71111182Synthetic
    183Lu71112183Synthetic
    184Lu71113184Synthetic

    Regulatory and Health - Health and Safety Parameters and Guidelines

    Database Search

    List of unique identifiers to search the element in various chemical registry databases

    DatabaseIdentifier number
    CAS Number - Chemical Abstracts Service (CAS)CAS7439-94-3
    RTECS Number-
    CID Number CID23929
    Gmelin Number-
    NSC Number-