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Pu Plutonium
Element Information, Facts, Properties, Trends, Uses, Comparison with other elements

94
Pu
Plutonium
Element 94 of Periodic table is Plutonium with atomic number 94, atomic weight 244. Plutonium, symbol Pu, has a Simple Monoclinic structure and Silver color. Plutonium is a Actinide element. It is part of group null (). Know everything about Plutonium Facts, Physical Properties, Chemical Properties, Electronic configuration, Atomic and Crystal Structure.
94 Pu - Plutonium | SchoolMyKids

Plutonium is a transuranic radioactive chemical element with symbol Pu and atomic number 94. It is an Actinide metal of silvery-gray appearance that tarnishes when exposed to air, and forms a dull coating when oxidized. The element normally exhibits six allotropes and four oxidation states.

It belongs to group of the periodic table having trivial name .

Plutonium Facts

Read key information and facts about element Plutonium

NamePlutonium
Atomic Number94
Atomic SymbolPu
Atomic Weight244
PhaseSolid
ColorSilver
Appearancesilvery white, tarnishing to dark gray in air
ClassificationActinide
Group in Periodic Table-
Group Name
Period in Periodic Tableperiod 7
Block in Periodic Tablef -block
Electronic Configuration[Rn] 5f6 7s2
Electronic Shell Structure (Electrons per shell)2, 8, 18, 32, 24, 8, 2
Melting Point913 K
Boiling Point3503 K
CAS NumberCAS7440-07-5
Neighborhood Elements
123456789101112131415161718
1
1
H
Hydrogen
1.008

Atomic #

Electronic Shell #

Symbol
Name
Atomic Weight
HGas
HgLiquid
CSolid
Metals
Metalloids
NonMetals
Alkali metals
Alkali earth metals
Lanthanoids
Transition metals
Post-transition metals
Other nonmetals
Halogens
Nobel gas
Actinoids
2
He
Helium
4.003
2
3
Li
Lithium
6.941
4
Be
Beryllium
9.012
5
B
Boron
10.811
6
C
Carbon
12.011
7
N
Nitrogen
14.007
8
O
Oxygen
15.999
9
F
Fluorine
18.998
10
Ne
Neon
20.180
3
11
Na
Sodium
22.990
12
Mg
Magnesium
24.305
13
Al
Aluminium
26.982
14
Si
Silicon
28.085
15
P
Phosphorus
30.974
16
S
Sulfur
32.065
17
Cl
Chlorine
35.453
18
Ar
Argon
39.948
4
19
K
Potassium
39.098
20
Ca
Calcium
40.078
21
Sc
Scandium
44.956
22
Ti
Titanium
47.867
23
V
Vanadium
50.941
24
Cr
Chromium
51.996
25
Mn
Manganese
54.938
26
Fe
Iron
55.845
27
Co
Cobalt
58.933
28
Ni
Nickel
58.693
29
Cu
Copper
63.546
30
Zn
Zinc
65.409
31
Ga
Gallium
69.723
32
Ge
Germanium
72.640
33
As
Arsenic
74.922
34
Se
Selenium
78.960
35
Br
Bromine
79.904
36
Kr
Krypton
83.798
5
37
Rb
Rubidium
85.468
38
Sr
Strontium
87.620
39
Y
Yttrium
88.906
40
Zr
Zirconium
91.224
41
Nb
Niobium
92.906
42
Mo
Molybdenum
95.940
43
Tc
Technetium
98
44
Ru
Ruthenium
101.070
45
Rh
Rhodium
102.906
46
Pd
Palladium
106.420
47
Ag
Silver
107.868
48
Cd
Cadmium
112.411
49
In
Indium
114.818
50
Sn
Tin
118.710
51
Sb
Antimony
121.760
52
Te
Tellurium
127.600
53
I
Iodine
126.904
54
Xe
Xenon
131.293
6
55
Cs
Cesium
132.905
56
Ba
Barium
137.327
57 - 71
La - Lu
Lanthanides
72
Hf
Hafnium
178.490
73
Ta
Tantalum
180.948
74
W
Tungsten
183.840
75
Re
Rhenium
186.207
76
Os
Osmium
190.230
77
Ir
Iridium
192.217
78
Pt
Platinum
195.078
79
Au
Gold
196.967
80
Hg
Mercury
200.590
81
Tl
Thallium
204.383
82
Pb
Lead
207.200
83
Bi
Bismuth
208.980
84
Po
Polonium
209
85
At
Astatine
210
86
Rn
Radon
222
7
87
Fr
Francium
223
88
Ra
Radium
226
89 - 103
Ac - Lr
Actinides
104
Rf
Rutherfordium
261
105
Db
Dubnium
262
106
Sg
Seaborgium
266
107
Bh
Bohrium
264
108
Hs
Hassium
277
109
Mt
Meitnerium
268
110
Ds
Darmstadtium
281
111
Rg
Roentgenium
272
112
Cn
Copernicium
285
113
Nh
Nihonium
284
114
Fl
Flerovium
289
115
Mc
Moscovium
288
116
Lv
Livermorium
292
117
Ts
Tennessine
294
118
Og
Oganesson
294
Lanthanides
57
La
Lanthanum
138.905
58
Ce
Cerium
140.116
59
Pr
Praseodymium
140.908
60
Nd
Neodymium
144.240
61
Pm
Promethium
145
62
Sm
Samarium
150.360
63
Eu
Europium
151.964
64
Gd
Gadolinium
157.250
65
Tb
Terbium
158.925
66
Dy
Dysprosium
162.500
67
Ho
Holmium
164.930
68
Er
Erbium
167.259
69
Tm
Thulium
168.934
70
Yb
Ytterbium
173.040
71
Lu
Lutetium
174.967
Actinides
89
Ac
Actinium
227
90
Th
Thorium
232.038
91
Pa
Protactinium
231.036
92
U
Uranium
238.029
93
Np
Neptunium
237
94
Pu
Plutonium
244
95
Am
Americium
243
96
Cm
Curium
247
97
Bk
Berkelium
247
98
Cf
Californium
251
99
Es
Einsteinium
252
100
Fm
Fermium
257
101
Md
Mendelevium
258
102
No
Nobelium
259
103
Lr
Lawrencium
262

How to Locate Plutonium on Periodic Table

Periodic table is arranged by atomic number, number of protons in the nucleus which is same as number of electrons. The atomic number increases from left to right. Periodic table starts at top left ( Atomic number 1) and ends at bottom right (atomic number 118). Therefore you can directly look for atomic number 94 to find Plutonium on periodic table.

Another way to read periodic table and locate an element is by using group number (column) and period number (row). To locate Plutonium on periodic table look for cross section of group - and period 7 in the modern periodic table.

Plutonium History

The element Plutonium was discovered by Glenn T. Seaborg,Arthur C. Wahl,W. Kennedy and E.M. McMillan in year 1940 in United States. Plutonium was first isolated by in . Plutonium derived its name from Pluto, a dwarf planet in the Solar System (then considered the ninth planet).

Prepared by bombardment of uranium with deuterons. Traces were found in natural Canadian pitchblende in 1941–1942

Plutonium Presence: Abundance in Nature and Around Us

The table below shows the abundance of Plutonium in Universe, Sun, Meteorites, Earth's Crust, Oceans and Human Body.

 ppb by weight (1ppb =10^-7 %)ppb by atoms (1ppb =10^-7 %)
Abundance in Universe--
Abundance in Sun--
Abundance in Meteorites--
Abundance in Earth's Crust--
Abundance in Oceans--
Abundance in Humans--

Crystal Structure of Plutonium

The solid state structure of Plutonium is Simple Monoclinic.

The Crystal structure can be described in terms of its unit Cell. The unit Cells repeats itself in three dimensional space to form the structure.

Unit Cell Parameters

The unit cell is represented in terms of its lattice parameters, which are the lengths of the cell edges Lattice Constants (a, b and c)

abc
618.3 pm482.2 pm1096.3 pm

and the angles between them Lattice Angles (alpha, beta and gamma).

alphabetagamma
π/2 1.776571 π/2

The positions of the atoms inside the unit cell are described by the set of atomic positions ( xi, yi, zi) measured from a reference lattice point.

The symmetry properties of the crystal are described by the concept of space groups. All possible symmetric arrangements of particles in three-dimensional space are described by the 230 space groups (219 distinct types, or 230 if chiral copies are considered distinct.

Space Group NameP121/m1 94 Pu Plutonium - Crystal Structure | SchoolMyKids
Oxidation StatesSpace Group Number11
Crystal StructureSimple Monoclinic

Plutonium Atomic and Orbital Properties

Plutonium atoms have 94 electrons and the electronic shell structure is [2, 8, 18, 32, 24, 8, 2] with Atomic Term Symbol (Quantum Numbers) 7F0.

Atomic Number94
Number of Electrons (with no charge)94
Number of Protons94
Mass Number244
Number of Neutrons150
Shell structure (Electrons per energy level)2, 8, 18, 32, 24, 8, 2
Electron Configuration[Rn] 5f6 7s2
Valence Electrons5f6 7s2
Valence (Valency)6
Main Oxidation States4
Oxidation States2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8
Atomic Term Symbol (Quantum Numbers)7F0

Bohr Atomic Model of Plutonium - Electrons per energy level

94 Pu Plutonium - Electron Shell Structure | SchoolMyKids
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Ground State Electronic Configuration of Plutonium - neutral Plutonium atom

Abbreviated electronic configuration of Plutonium

The ground state abbreviated electronic configuration of Neutral Plutonium atom is [Rn] 5f6 7s2. The portion of Plutonium configuration that is equivalent to the noble gas of the preceding period, is abbreviated as [Rn]. For atoms with many electrons, this notation can become lengthy and so an abbreviated notation is used. This is important as it is the Valence electrons 5f6 7s2, electrons in the outermost shell that determine the chemical properties of the element.

Unabbreviated electronic configuration of neutral Plutonium

Complete ground state electronic configuration for the Plutonium atom, Unabbreviated electronic configuration

1s2 2s2 2p6 3s2 3p6 3d10 4s2 4p6 4d10 5s2 5p6 4f14 5d10 6s2 6p6 5f6 7s2

Electrons are filled in atomic orbitals as per the order determined by the Aufbau principle, Pauli Exclusion Principle and Hund’s Rule.

  • As per the Aufbau principle the electrons will occupy the orbitals having lower energies before occupying higher energy orbitals. According to this principle, electrons are filled in the following order: 1s, 2s, 2p, 3s, 3p, 4s, 3d, 4p, 5s, 4d, 5p, 6s, 4f, 5d, 6p, 7s, 5f, 6d, 7p…
  • The Pauli exclusion principle states that a maximum of two electrons, each having opposite spins, can fit in an orbital.
  • Hund's rule states that every orbital in a given subshell is singly occupied by electrons before a second electron is filled in an orbital.
  • Electron configuration of Plutonium
    Atomic Structure of Plutonium

    Plutonium atomic radius is 175 pm, while it's covalent radius is - .

    Atomic Radius Calculated

    175 pm (1.75 Å)

    Atomic Radius Empirical

    175 pm (1.75 Å)

    Atomic Volume12.29 cm3/mol
    Covalent Radius-
    Van der Waals Radius-
    Neutron Cross Section1.7
    Neutron Mass Absorption -

    Atomic Spectrum of Plutonium

    Atomic Spectrum of Plutonium | SchoolMyKids

    Plutonium Chemical Properties: Plutonium Ionization Energies and electron affinity

    The electron affinity of Plutonium is - .

    Valence6
    Electronegativity1.28
    ElectronAffinity-

    Ionization Energy of Plutonium

    Refer to table below for Ionization energies of Plutonium

    Ionization energy numberEnthalpy - kJ/mol
    1st584.7

    Plutonium Physical Properties

    Refer to below table for Plutonium Physical Properties

    Density19.816 g/cm3(when liquid at m.p density is $16.63 g/cm3)
    Molar Volume12.29 cm3/mol

    Elastic Properties

    Young Modulus96
    Shear Modulus43 GPa
    Bulk Modulus -
    Poisson Ratio0.21

    Hardness of Plutonium - Tests to Measure of Hardness of Element

    Mohs Hardness-
    Vickers Hardness-
    Brinell Hardness-

    Plutonium Electrical Properties

    Plutonium is Conductor of electricity. Refer to table below for the Electrical properties ofPlutonium

    Electrical Conductivity670000 S/m
    Resistivity0.0000015 m Ω
    Superconducting Point-

    Plutonium Heat and Conduction Properties

    Thermal Conductivity6 W/(m K)
    Thermal Expansion-

    Plutonium Magnetic Properties

    Magnetic TypeParamagnetic
    Curie Point-
    Mass Magnetic Susceptibility3.17e-8 m3/kg
    Molar Magnetic Susceptibility7.735e-9 m3/mol
    Volume Magnetic Susceptibility0.0006282

    Optical Properties of Plutonium

    Refractive Index-

    Acoustic Properties of Plutonium

    Speed of Sound2260 m/s

    Plutonium Thermal Properties - Enthalpies and thermodynamics

    Refer to table below for Thermal properties of Plutonium

    Melting Point913 K (639.85°C, 1183.73 °F)
    Boiling Point3503 K (3229.85°C, 5845.73 °F)
    Critical Temperature-
    Superconducting Point-

    Enthalpies of Plutonium

    Heat of Fusion-
    Heat of Vaporization325 kJ/mol
    Heat of Combustion-

    Plutonium Isotopes - Nuclear Properties of Plutonium

    Plutonium has 20 isotopes, with between 228 and 247 nucleons. Plutonium has 0 stable naturally occuring isotopes.

    Isotopes of Plutonium - Naturally occurring stable Isotopes: -.

    IsotopeZNIsotope Mass% AbundanceT halfDecay Mode
    228Pu94134228Synthetic
    229Pu94135229Synthetic
    230Pu94136230Synthetic
    231Pu94137231Synthetic
    232Pu94138232Synthetic
    233Pu94139233Synthetic
    234Pu94140234Synthetic
    235Pu94141235Synthetic
    236Pu94142236Synthetic
    237Pu94143237Synthetic
    238Pu94144238Synthetic
    239Pu94145239Synthetic
    240Pu94146240Synthetic
    241Pu94147241Synthetic
    242Pu94148242Synthetic
    243Pu94149243Synthetic
    244Pu94150244Synthetic7.93×10^7 yearsAlphaEmission
    245Pu94151245Synthetic
    246Pu94152246Synthetic
    247Pu94153247Synthetic

    Regulatory and Health - Health and Safety Parameters and Guidelines

    Database Search

    List of unique identifiers to search the element in various chemical registry databases

    DatabaseIdentifier number
    CAS Number - Chemical Abstracts Service (CAS)CAS7440-07-5
    RTECS Number-
    CID Number CID23940
    Gmelin NumberGmelin40432
    NSC Number-

    Compare Plutonium with other elements

    Compare Plutonium with all Group elements

    Compare Plutonium with all Period 7 elements

    Compare Plutonium with all Actinide elements