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Po Polonium
Element Information, Facts, Properties, Trends, Uses, Comparison with other elements

84
Po
Polonium
Element 84 of Periodic table is Polonium with atomic number 84, atomic weight 209. Polonium, symbol Po, has a Simple Cubic structure and Silver color. Polonium is a Metalloid element. It is part of group 16 (oxygen family). Know everything about Polonium Facts, Physical Properties, Chemical Properties, Electronic configuration, Atomic and Crystal Structure.
84 Po - Polonium | SchoolMyKids

Polonium is a chemical element with symbol Po and atomic number 84, discovered in 1898 by Marie Curie and Pierre Curie. A rare and highly radioactive element with no stable isotopes, polonium is chemically similar to bismuth and tellurium, and it occurs in uranium ores. Applications of polonium are few.

It belongs to group 16 of the periodic table having trivial name chalcogens.

Polonium Facts

Read key information and facts about element Polonium

NamePolonium
Atomic Number84
Atomic SymbolPo
Atomic Weight209
PhaseSolid
ColorSilver
Appearancesilvery
ClassificationMetalloid
Group in Periodic Table16
Group Nameoxygen family
Period in Periodic Tableperiod 6
Block in Periodic Tablep -block
Electronic Configuration[Xe] 4f14 5d10 6s2 6p4
Electronic Shell Structure (Electrons per shell)2, 8, 18, 32, 18, 6
Melting Point527 K
Boiling Point1235 K
CAS NumberCAS7440-08-6
123456789101112131415161718
1
1
H
Hydrogen
1.008

Atomic #

Electronic Shell #

Symbol
Name
Atomic Weight
HGas
HgLiquid
CSolid
Metals
Metalloids
NonMetals
Alkali metals
Alkali earth metals
Lanthanoids
Transition metals
Post-transition metals
Other nonmetals
Halogens
Nobel gas
Actinoids
2
He
Helium
4.003
2
3
Li
Lithium
6.941
4
Be
Beryllium
9.012
5
B
Boron
10.811
6
C
Carbon
12.011
7
N
Nitrogen
14.007
8
O
Oxygen
15.999
9
F
Fluorine
18.998
10
Ne
Neon
20.180
3
11
Na
Sodium
22.990
12
Mg
Magnesium
24.305
13
Al
Aluminium
26.982
14
Si
Silicon
28.085
15
P
Phosphorus
30.974
16
S
Sulfur
32.065
17
Cl
Chlorine
35.453
18
Ar
Argon
39.948
4
19
K
Potassium
39.098
20
Ca
Calcium
40.078
21
Sc
Scandium
44.956
22
Ti
Titanium
47.867
23
V
Vanadium
50.941
24
Cr
Chromium
51.996
25
Mn
Manganese
54.938
26
Fe
Iron
55.845
27
Co
Cobalt
58.933
28
Ni
Nickel
58.693
29
Cu
Copper
63.546
30
Zn
Zinc
65.409
31
Ga
Gallium
69.723
32
Ge
Germanium
72.640
33
As
Arsenic
74.922
34
Se
Selenium
78.960
35
Br
Bromine
79.904
36
Kr
Krypton
83.798
5
37
Rb
Rubidium
85.468
38
Sr
Strontium
87.620
39
Y
Yttrium
88.906
40
Zr
Zirconium
91.224
41
Nb
Niobium
92.906
42
Mo
Molybdenum
95.940
43
Tc
Technetium
98
44
Ru
Ruthenium
101.070
45
Rh
Rhodium
102.906
46
Pd
Palladium
106.420
47
Ag
Silver
107.868
48
Cd
Cadmium
112.411
49
In
Indium
114.818
50
Sn
Tin
118.710
51
Sb
Antimony
121.760
52
Te
Tellurium
127.600
53
I
Iodine
126.904
54
Xe
Xenon
131.293
6
55
Cs
Cesium
132.905
56
Ba
Barium
137.327
57 - 71
La - Lu
Lanthanides
72
Hf
Hafnium
178.490
73
Ta
Tantalum
180.948
74
W
Tungsten
183.840
75
Re
Rhenium
186.207
76
Os
Osmium
190.230
77
Ir
Iridium
192.217
78
Pt
Platinum
195.078
79
Au
Gold
196.967
80
Hg
Mercury
200.590
81
Tl
Thallium
204.383
82
Pb
Lead
207.200
83
Bi
Bismuth
208.980
84
Po
Polonium
209
85
At
Astatine
210
86
Rn
Radon
222
7
87
Fr
Francium
223
88
Ra
Radium
226
89 - 103
Ac - Lr
Actinides
104
Rf
Rutherfordium
261
105
Db
Dubnium
262
106
Sg
Seaborgium
266
107
Bh
Bohrium
264
108
Hs
Hassium
277
109
Mt
Meitnerium
268
110
Ds
Darmstadtium
281
111
Rg
Roentgenium
272
112
Cn
Copernicium
285
113
Nh
Nihonium
284
114
Fl
Flerovium
289
115
Mc
Moscovium
288
116
Lv
Livermorium
292
117
Ts
Tennessine
294
118
Og
Oganesson
294
Lanthanides
57
La
Lanthanum
138.905
58
Ce
Cerium
140.116
59
Pr
Praseodymium
140.908
60
Nd
Neodymium
144.240
61
Pm
Promethium
145
62
Sm
Samarium
150.360
63
Eu
Europium
151.964
64
Gd
Gadolinium
157.250
65
Tb
Terbium
158.925
66
Dy
Dysprosium
162.500
67
Ho
Holmium
164.930
68
Er
Erbium
167.259
69
Tm
Thulium
168.934
70
Yb
Ytterbium
173.040
71
Lu
Lutetium
174.967
Actinides
89
Ac
Actinium
227
90
Th
Thorium
232.038
91
Pa
Protactinium
231.036
92
U
Uranium
238.029
93
Np
Neptunium
237
94
Pu
Plutonium
244
95
Am
Americium
243
96
Cm
Curium
247
97
Bk
Berkelium
247
98
Cf
Californium
251
99
Es
Einsteinium
252
100
Fm
Fermium
257
101
Md
Mendelevium
258
102
No
Nobelium
259
103
Lr
Lawrencium
262

How to Locate Polonium on Periodic Table

Periodic table is arranged by atomic number, number of protons in the nucleus which is same as number of electrons. The atomic number increases from left to right. Periodic table starts at top left ( Atomic number 1) and ends at bottom right (atomic number 118). Therefore you can directly look for atomic number 84 to find Polonium on periodic table.

Another way to read periodic table and locate an element is by using group number (column) and period number (row). To locate Polonium on periodic table look for cross section of group 16 and period 6 in the modern periodic table.

Polonium History

The element Polonium was discovered by P. and M. Curie in year 1898 in France. Polonium was first isolated by W. Marckwald in 1902. Polonium derived its name from Named after the home country of Marie Curie(Poland), who is also the discoverer of Radium.

In an experiment done on July 13, 1898, the Curies noted an increased radioactivity in the uranium obtained frompitchblende, which they ascribed to an unknown element.

Polonium Presence: Abundance in Nature and Around Us

The table below shows the abundance of Polonium in Universe, Sun, Meteorites, Earth's Crust, Oceans and Human Body.

 ppb by weight (1ppb =10^-7 %)ppb by atoms (1ppb =10^-7 %)
Abundance in Universe--
Abundance in Sun--
Abundance in Meteorites--
Abundance in Earth's Crust--
Abundance in Oceans0.000000000020.0000000000006
Abundance in Humans--

Crystal Structure of Polonium

The solid state structure of Polonium is Simple Cubic.

The Crystal structure can be described in terms of its unit Cell. The unit Cells repeats itself in three dimensional space to form the structure.

Unit Cell Parameters

The unit cell is represented in terms of its lattice parameters, which are the lengths of the cell edges Lattice Constants (a, b and c)

abc
335.9 pm335.9 pm335.9 pm

and the angles between them Lattice Angles (alpha, beta and gamma).

alphabetagamma
π/2 π/2 π/2

The positions of the atoms inside the unit cell are described by the set of atomic positions ( xi, yi, zi) measured from a reference lattice point.

The symmetry properties of the crystal are described by the concept of space groups. All possible symmetric arrangements of particles in three-dimensional space are described by the 230 space groups (219 distinct types, or 230 if chiral copies are considered distinct.

Space Group NamePm-3m 84 Po Polonium - Crystal Structure | SchoolMyKids
Oxidation StatesSpace Group Number221
Crystal StructureSimple Cubic

Polonium Atomic and Orbital Properties

Polonium atoms have 84 electrons and the electronic shell structure is [2, 8, 18, 32, 18, 6] with Atomic Term Symbol (Quantum Numbers) 3P2.

Atomic Number84
Number of Electrons (with no charge)84
Number of Protons84
Mass Number209
Number of Neutrons125
Shell structure (Electrons per energy level)2, 8, 18, 32, 18, 6
Electron Configuration[Xe] 4f14 5d10 6s2 6p4
Valence Electrons6s2 6p4
Valence (Valency)6
Main Oxidation States-2, 2, 4
Oxidation States-2, 2, 4, 5, 6
Atomic Term Symbol (Quantum Numbers)3P2

Bohr Atomic Model of Polonium - Electrons per energy level

84 Po Polonium - Electron Shell Structure | SchoolMyKids
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Ground State Electronic Configuration of Polonium - neutral Polonium atom

Abbreviated electronic configuration of Polonium

The ground state abbreviated electronic configuration of Neutral Polonium atom is [Xe] 4f14 5d10 6s2 6p4. The portion of Polonium configuration that is equivalent to the noble gas of the preceding period, is abbreviated as [Xe]. For atoms with many electrons, this notation can become lengthy and so an abbreviated notation is used. This is important as it is the Valence electrons 6s2 6p4, electrons in the outermost shell that determine the chemical properties of the element.

Unabbreviated electronic configuration of neutral Polonium

Complete ground state electronic configuration for the Polonium atom, Unabbreviated electronic configuration

1s2 2s2 2p6 3s2 3p6 3d10 4s2 4p6 4d10 5s2 5p6 4f14 5d10 6s2 6p4

Electrons are filled in atomic orbitals as per the order determined by the Aufbau principle, Pauli Exclusion Principle and Hund’s Rule.

  • As per the Aufbau principle the electrons will occupy the orbitals having lower energies before occupying higher energy orbitals. According to this principle, electrons are filled in the following order: 1s, 2s, 2p, 3s, 3p, 4s, 3d, 4p, 5s, 4d, 5p, 6s, 4f, 5d, 6p, 7s, 5f, 6d, 7p…
  • The Pauli exclusion principle states that a maximum of two electrons, each having opposite spins, can fit in an orbital.
  • Hund's rule states that every orbital in a given subshell is singly occupied by electrons before a second electron is filled in an orbital.
  • Electron configuration of Polonium
    Atomic Structure of Polonium

    Polonium atomic radius is 135 pm, while it's covalent radius is - .

    Atomic Radius Calculated

    135 pm (1.35 Å)

    Atomic Radius Empirical

    190 pm (1.9 Å)

    Atomic Volume22.97 cm3/mol
    Covalent Radius-
    Van der Waals Radius197 pm
    Neutron Cross Section0.5
    Neutron Mass Absorption -

    Atomic Spectrum of Polonium

    Atomic Spectrum of Polonium | SchoolMyKids

    Polonium Chemical Properties: Polonium Ionization Energies and electron affinity

    The electron affinity of Polonium is 183.3 kJ/mol.

    Valence6
    Electronegativity2
    ElectronAffinity183.3 kJ/mol

    Ionization Energy of Polonium

    Refer to table below for Ionization energies of Polonium

    Ionization energy numberEnthalpy - kJ/mol
    1st812.1

    Polonium Physical Properties

    Refer to below table for Polonium Physical Properties

    Density9.196 g/cm3
    Molar Volume22.97 cm3/mol

    Elastic Properties

    Young Modulus-
    Shear Modulus-
    Bulk Modulus -
    Poisson Ratio-

    Hardness of Polonium - Tests to Measure of Hardness of Element

    Mohs Hardness-
    Vickers Hardness-
    Brinell Hardness-

    Polonium Electrical Properties

    Polonium is Conductor of electricity. Refer to table below for the Electrical properties ofPolonium

    Electrical Conductivity2300000 S/m
    Resistivity4.29e-7 m Ω
    Superconducting Point-

    Polonium Heat and Conduction Properties

    Thermal Conductivity-
    Thermal Expansion-

    Polonium Magnetic Properties

    Magnetic Type-
    Curie Point-
    Mass Magnetic Susceptibility-
    Molar Magnetic Susceptibility-
    Volume Magnetic Susceptibility-

    Optical Properties of Polonium

    Refractive Index-

    Acoustic Properties of Polonium

    Speed of Sound-

    Polonium Thermal Properties - Enthalpies and thermodynamics

    Refer to table below for Thermal properties of Polonium

    Melting Point527 K (253.85°C, 488.93 °F)
    Boiling Point1235 K (961.85°C, 1763.33 °F)
    Critical Temperature-
    Superconducting Point-

    Enthalpies of Polonium

    Heat of Fusion13 kJ/mol
    Heat of Vaporization100 kJ/mol
    Heat of Combustion-

    Polonium Isotopes - Nuclear Properties of Polonium

    Polonium has 33 isotopes, with between 188 and 220 nucleons. Polonium has 0 stable naturally occuring isotopes.

    Isotopes of Polonium - Naturally occurring stable Isotopes: -.

    IsotopeZNIsotope Mass% AbundanceT halfDecay Mode
    188Po84104188Synthetic
    189Po84105189Synthetic
    190Po84106190Synthetic
    191Po84107191Synthetic
    192Po84108192Synthetic
    193Po84109193Synthetic
    194Po84110194Synthetic
    195Po84111195Synthetic
    196Po84112196Synthetic
    197Po84113197Synthetic
    198Po84114198Synthetic
    199Po84115199Synthetic
    200Po84116200Synthetic
    201Po84117201Synthetic
    202Po84118202Synthetic
    203Po84119203Synthetic
    204Po84120204Synthetic
    205Po84121205Synthetic
    206Po84122206Synthetic
    207Po84123207Synthetic
    208Po84124208Synthetic
    209Po84125209Synthetic102.1 yearsAlphaEmission
    210Po84126210Synthetic
    211Po84127211Synthetic
    212Po84128212Synthetic
    213Po84129213Synthetic
    214Po84130214Synthetic
    215Po84131215Synthetic
    216Po84132216Synthetic
    217Po84133217Synthetic
    218Po84134218Synthetic
    219Po84135219Synthetic
    220Po84136220Synthetic

    Database Search

    List of unique identifiers to search the element in various chemical registry databases

    DatabaseIdentifier number
    CAS Number - Chemical Abstracts Service (CAS)CAS7440-08-6
    RTECS Number-
    CID Number -
    Gmelin Number-
    NSC Number-