Element Information, Facts, Properties, Trends, Uses, Comparison with other elements
Fermium is a synthetic element with symbol Fm and atomic number 100. It is a member of the Actinide series. It is the heaviest element that can be formed by neutron bombardment of lighter elements, and hence the last element that can be prepared in macroscopic quantities, although pure fermium metal has not yet been prepared.
It belongs to group of the periodic table having trivial name .
Read key information and facts about element Fermium
|Group in Periodic Table||-|
|Period in Periodic Table||period 7|
|Block in Periodic Table||f -block|
|Electronic Configuration||[Rn] 5f12 7s2|
|Electronic Shell Structure (Electrons per shell)||2, 8, 18, 32, 30, 8, 2|
|Melting Point||1800 K|
How to Locate Fermium on Periodic Table
Periodic table is arranged by atomic number, number of protons in the nucleus which is same as number of electrons. The atomic number increases from left to right. Periodic table starts at top left ( Atomic number 1) and ends at bottom right (atomic number 118). Therefore you can directly look for atomic number 100 to find Fermium on periodic table.
Another way to read periodic table and locate an element is by using group number (column) and period number (row). To locate Fermium on periodic table look for cross section of group - and period 7 in the modern periodic table.
The element Fermium was discovered by A. Ghiorso et al.(Argonne Laboratory, Los Alamos Laboratory and University of California, Berkeley) in year 1952 in United States. Fermium was first isolated by in . Fermium derived its name from Enrico Fermi, physicist.
Formed in the first thermonuclear explosion in November 1952, by irradiation of uranium with neutrons; kept secret for several years.
Fermium Presence: Abundance in Nature and Around Us
The table below shows the abundance of Fermium in Universe, Sun, Meteorites, Earth's Crust, Oceans and Human Body.
|ppb by weight (1ppb =10^-7 %)||ppb by atoms (1ppb =10^-7 %)|
|Abundance in Universe||-||-|
|Abundance in Sun||-||-|
|Abundance in Meteorites||-||-|
|Abundance in Earth's Crust||-||-|
|Abundance in Oceans||-||-|
|Abundance in Humans||-||-|
Crystal Structure of Fermium
The solid state structure of Fermium is Body Centered Cubic.
The Crystal structure can be described in terms of its unit Cell. The unit Cells repeats itself in three dimensional space to form the structure.
Unit Cell Parameters
The unit cell is represented in terms of its lattice parameters, which are the lengths of the cell edges Lattice Constants (a, b and c)
and the angles between them Lattice Angles (alpha, beta and gamma).
The positions of the atoms inside the unit cell are described by the set of atomic positions ( xi, yi, zi) measured from a reference lattice point.
The symmetry properties of the crystal are described by the concept of space groups. All possible symmetric arrangements of particles in three-dimensional space are described by the 230 space groups (219 distinct types, or 230 if chiral copies are considered distinct.
|Space Group Name||-|
|Oxidation States||Space Group Number||-|
|Crystal Structure||Body Centered Cubic|
Fermium Atomic and Orbital Properties
Fermium atoms have 100 electrons and the electronic shell structure is [2, 8, 18, 32, 30, 8, 2] with Atomic Term Symbol (Quantum Numbers) 3H6.
|Number of Electrons (with no charge)||100|
|Number of Protons||100|
|Number of Neutrons||157|
|Shell structure (Electrons per energy level)||2, 8, 18, 32, 30, 8, 2|
|Electron Configuration||[Rn] 5f12 7s2|
|Valence Electrons||5f12 7s2|
|Main Oxidation States||3|
|Oxidation States||2, 3|
|Atomic Term Symbol (Quantum Numbers)||3H6|
Bohr Atomic Model of Fermium - Electrons per energy level
Ground State Electronic Configuration of Fermium - neutral Fermium atom
Abbreviated electronic configuration of Fermium
The ground state abbreviated electronic configuration of Neutral Fermium atom is [Rn] 5f12 7s2. The portion of Fermium configuration that is equivalent to the noble gas of the preceding period, is abbreviated as [Rn]. For atoms with many electrons, this notation can become lengthy and so an abbreviated notation is used. This is important as it is the Valence electrons 5f12 7s2, electrons in the outermost shell that determine the chemical properties of the element.
Unabbreviated electronic configuration of neutral Fermium
Complete ground state electronic configuration for the Fermium atom, Unabbreviated electronic configuration
1s2 2s2 2p6 3s2 3p6 3d10 4s2 4p6 4d10 5s2 5p6 4f14 5d10 6s2 6p6 5f12 7s2
Electrons are filled in atomic orbitals as per the order determined by the Aufbau principle, Pauli Exclusion Principle and Hund’s Rule.
Atomic Structure of Fermium
Fermium atomic radius is - , while it's covalent radius is - .
|Atomic Radius Calculated|
- (0 Å)
|Atomic Radius Empirical|
- (0 Å)
|Van der Waals Radius||-|
|Neutron Cross Section||5800|
|Neutron Mass Absorption||-|
Atomic Spectrum of Fermium
Fermium Chemical Properties: Fermium Ionization Energies and electron affinity
The electron affinity of Fermium is - .
Ionization Energy of Fermium
Refer to table below for Ionization energies of Fermium
|Ionization energy number||Enthalpy - kJ/mol|
Fermium Physical Properties
Refer to below table for Fermium Physical Properties
Hardness of Fermium - Tests to Measure of Hardness of Element
Fermium Electrical Properties
Fermium is Conductor of electricity. Refer to table below for the Electrical properties ofFermium
Fermium Heat and Conduction Properties
Fermium Magnetic Properties
|Mass Magnetic Susceptibility||-|
|Molar Magnetic Susceptibility||-|
|Volume Magnetic Susceptibility||-|
Optical Properties of Fermium
Acoustic Properties of Fermium
|Speed of Sound||-|
Fermium Thermal Properties - Enthalpies and thermodynamics
Refer to table below for Thermal properties of Fermium
|Melting Point||1800 K (1526.85°C, 2780.33 °F)|
|Boiling Point||- (-273.15°C, -459.66999999999996 °F)|
Enthalpies of Fermium
|Heat of Fusion||-|
|Heat of Vaporization||-|
|Heat of Combustion||-|
Fermium Isotopes - Nuclear Properties of Fermium
Fermium has 19 isotopes, with between 242 and 260 nucleons. Fermium has 0 stable naturally occuring isotopes.
Isotopes of Fermium - Naturally occurring stable Isotopes: -.
|Isotope||Z||N||Isotope Mass||% Abundance||T half||Decay Mode|