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Ru Ruthenium
Element Information, Facts, Properties, Trends, Uses, Comparison with other elements

44
Ru
Ruthenium
Element 44 of Periodic table is Ruthenium with atomic number 44, atomic weight 101.07. Ruthenium, symbol Ru, has a Simple Hexagonal structure and Silver color. Ruthenium is a Transition Metal element. It is part of group 8 (iron family). Know everything about Ruthenium Facts, Physical Properties, Chemical Properties, Electronic configuration, Atomic and Crystal Structure.
44 Ru - Ruthenium | SchoolMyKids

Ruthenium is a chemical element with symbol Ru and atomic number 44. It is a rare Transition Metal belonging to the platinum group of the periodic table. Like the other metals of the platinum group, ruthenium is inert to most other chemicals.

It belongs to group 8 of the periodic table having trivial name .

Ruthenium Facts

Read key information and facts about element Ruthenium

NameRuthenium
Atomic Number44
Atomic SymbolRu
Atomic Weight101.07
PhaseSolid
ColorSilver
Appearancesilvery white metallic
ClassificationTransition Metal
Group in Periodic Table8
Group Nameiron family
Period in Periodic Tableperiod 5
Block in Periodic Tabled -block
Electronic Configuration[Kr] 4d7 5s1
Electronic Shell Structure (Electrons per shell)2, 8, 18, 15, 1
Melting Point2607 K
Boiling Point4423 K
CAS NumberCAS7440-18-8
123456789101112131415161718
1
1
H
Hydrogen
1.008

Atomic #

Electronic Shell #

Symbol
Name
Atomic Weight
HGas
HgLiquid
CSolid
Metals
Metalloids
NonMetals
Alkali metals
Alkali earth metals
Lanthanoids
Transition metals
Post-transition metals
Other nonmetals
Halogens
Nobel gas
Actinoids
2
He
Helium
4.003
2
3
Li
Lithium
6.941
4
Be
Beryllium
9.012
5
B
Boron
10.811
6
C
Carbon
12.011
7
N
Nitrogen
14.007
8
O
Oxygen
15.999
9
F
Fluorine
18.998
10
Ne
Neon
20.180
3
11
Na
Sodium
22.990
12
Mg
Magnesium
24.305
13
Al
Aluminium
26.982
14
Si
Silicon
28.085
15
P
Phosphorus
30.974
16
S
Sulfur
32.065
17
Cl
Chlorine
35.453
18
Ar
Argon
39.948
4
19
K
Potassium
39.098
20
Ca
Calcium
40.078
21
Sc
Scandium
44.956
22
Ti
Titanium
47.867
23
V
Vanadium
50.941
24
Cr
Chromium
51.996
25
Mn
Manganese
54.938
26
Fe
Iron
55.845
27
Co
Cobalt
58.933
28
Ni
Nickel
58.693
29
Cu
Copper
63.546
30
Zn
Zinc
65.409
31
Ga
Gallium
69.723
32
Ge
Germanium
72.640
33
As
Arsenic
74.922
34
Se
Selenium
78.960
35
Br
Bromine
79.904
36
Kr
Krypton
83.798
5
37
Rb
Rubidium
85.468
38
Sr
Strontium
87.620
39
Y
Yttrium
88.906
40
Zr
Zirconium
91.224
41
Nb
Niobium
92.906
42
Mo
Molybdenum
95.940
43
Tc
Technetium
98
44
Ru
Ruthenium
101.070
45
Rh
Rhodium
102.906
46
Pd
Palladium
106.420
47
Ag
Silver
107.868
48
Cd
Cadmium
112.411
49
In
Indium
114.818
50
Sn
Tin
118.710
51
Sb
Antimony
121.760
52
Te
Tellurium
127.600
53
I
Iodine
126.904
54
Xe
Xenon
131.293
6
55
Cs
Cesium
132.905
56
Ba
Barium
137.327
57 - 71
La - Lu
Lanthanides
72
Hf
Hafnium
178.490
73
Ta
Tantalum
180.948
74
W
Tungsten
183.840
75
Re
Rhenium
186.207
76
Os
Osmium
190.230
77
Ir
Iridium
192.217
78
Pt
Platinum
195.078
79
Au
Gold
196.967
80
Hg
Mercury
200.590
81
Tl
Thallium
204.383
82
Pb
Lead
207.200
83
Bi
Bismuth
208.980
84
Po
Polonium
209
85
At
Astatine
210
86
Rn
Radon
222
7
87
Fr
Francium
223
88
Ra
Radium
226
89 - 103
Ac - Lr
Actinides
104
Rf
Rutherfordium
261
105
Db
Dubnium
262
106
Sg
Seaborgium
266
107
Bh
Bohrium
264
108
Hs
Hassium
277
109
Mt
Meitnerium
268
110
Ds
Darmstadtium
281
111
Rg
Roentgenium
272
112
Cn
Copernicium
285
113
Nh
Nihonium
284
114
Fl
Flerovium
289
115
Mc
Moscovium
288
116
Lv
Livermorium
292
117
Ts
Tennessine
294
118
Og
Oganesson
294
Lanthanides
57
La
Lanthanum
138.905
58
Ce
Cerium
140.116
59
Pr
Praseodymium
140.908
60
Nd
Neodymium
144.240
61
Pm
Promethium
145
62
Sm
Samarium
150.360
63
Eu
Europium
151.964
64
Gd
Gadolinium
157.250
65
Tb
Terbium
158.925
66
Dy
Dysprosium
162.500
67
Ho
Holmium
164.930
68
Er
Erbium
167.259
69
Tm
Thulium
168.934
70
Yb
Ytterbium
173.040
71
Lu
Lutetium
174.967
Actinides
89
Ac
Actinium
227
90
Th
Thorium
232.038
91
Pa
Protactinium
231.036
92
U
Uranium
238.029
93
Np
Neptunium
237
94
Pu
Plutonium
244
95
Am
Americium
243
96
Cm
Curium
247
97
Bk
Berkelium
247
98
Cf
Californium
251
99
Es
Einsteinium
252
100
Fm
Fermium
257
101
Md
Mendelevium
258
102
No
Nobelium
259
103
Lr
Lawrencium
262

How to Locate Ruthenium on Periodic Table

Periodic table is arranged by atomic number, number of protons in the nucleus which is same as number of electrons. The atomic number increases from left to right. Periodic table starts at top left ( Atomic number 1) and ends at bottom right (atomic number 118). Therefore you can directly look for atomic number 44 to find Ruthenium on periodic table.

Another way to read periodic table and locate an element is by using group number (column) and period number (row). To locate Ruthenium on periodic table look for cross section of group 8 and period 5 in the modern periodic table.

Ruthenium History

The element Ruthenium was discovered by K. Claus in year 1844 in Russia. Ruthenium was first isolated by K. Claus in 1844. Ruthenium derived its name from Ruthenia, the New Latin name for Russia.

Gottfried Wilhelm Osann thought that he found three new metals in Russian platinum samples, and in 1844 Karl Karlovich Klaus confirmed that there was a new element.

Ruthenium Presence: Abundance in Nature and Around Us

The table below shows the abundance of Ruthenium in Universe, Sun, Meteorites, Earth's Crust, Oceans and Human Body.

 ppb by weight (1ppb =10^-7 %)ppb by atoms (1ppb =10^-7 %)
Abundance in Universe40.05
Abundance in Sun50.06
Abundance in Meteorites830160
Abundance in Earth's Crust1.00.2
Abundance in Oceans0.00070.000043
Abundance in Humans--

Crystal Structure of Ruthenium

The solid state structure of Ruthenium is Simple Hexagonal.

The Crystal structure can be described in terms of its unit Cell. The unit Cells repeats itself in three dimensional space to form the structure.

Unit Cell Parameters

The unit cell is represented in terms of its lattice parameters, which are the lengths of the cell edges Lattice Constants (a, b and c)

abc
270.59 pm270.59 pm428.15 pm

and the angles between them Lattice Angles (alpha, beta and gamma).

alphabetagamma
π/2 π/2 2 π/3

The positions of the atoms inside the unit cell are described by the set of atomic positions ( xi, yi, zi) measured from a reference lattice point.

The symmetry properties of the crystal are described by the concept of space groups. All possible symmetric arrangements of particles in three-dimensional space are described by the 230 space groups (219 distinct types, or 230 if chiral copies are considered distinct.

Space Group NameP63/mmc 44 Ru Ruthenium - Crystal Structure | SchoolMyKids
Oxidation StatesSpace Group Number194
Crystal StructureSimple Hexagonal

Ruthenium Atomic and Orbital Properties

Ruthenium atoms have 44 electrons and the electronic shell structure is [2, 8, 18, 15, 1] with Atomic Term Symbol (Quantum Numbers) 5F5.

Atomic Number44
Number of Electrons (with no charge)44
Number of Protons44
Mass Number101
Number of Neutrons57
Shell structure (Electrons per energy level)2, 8, 18, 15, 1
Electron Configuration[Kr] 4d7 5s1
Valence Electrons4d7 5s1
Valence (Valency)6
Main Oxidation States3, 4
Oxidation States-4, -2, 0, 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8
Atomic Term Symbol (Quantum Numbers)5F5

Bohr Atomic Model of Ruthenium - Electrons per energy level

44 Ru Ruthenium - Electron Shell Structure | SchoolMyKids
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Ground State Electronic Configuration of Ruthenium - neutral Ruthenium atom

Abbreviated electronic configuration of Ruthenium

The ground state abbreviated electronic configuration of Neutral Ruthenium atom is [Kr] 4d7 5s1. The portion of Ruthenium configuration that is equivalent to the noble gas of the preceding period, is abbreviated as [Kr]. For atoms with many electrons, this notation can become lengthy and so an abbreviated notation is used. This is important as it is the Valence electrons 4d7 5s1, electrons in the outermost shell that determine the chemical properties of the element.

Unabbreviated electronic configuration of neutral Ruthenium

Complete ground state electronic configuration for the Ruthenium atom, Unabbreviated electronic configuration

1s2 2s2 2p6 3s2 3p6 3d10 4s2 4p6 4d7 5s1

Electrons are filled in atomic orbitals as per the order determined by the Aufbau principle, Pauli Exclusion Principle and Hund’s Rule.

  • As per the Aufbau principle the electrons will occupy the orbitals having lower energies before occupying higher energy orbitals. According to this principle, electrons are filled in the following order: 1s, 2s, 2p, 3s, 3p, 4s, 3d, 4p, 5s, 4d, 5p, 6s, 4f, 5d, 6p, 7s, 5f, 6d, 7p…
  • The Pauli exclusion principle states that a maximum of two electrons, each having opposite spins, can fit in an orbital.
  • Hund's rule states that every orbital in a given subshell is singly occupied by electrons before a second electron is filled in an orbital.
  • Electron configuration of Ruthenium
    Atomic Structure of Ruthenium

    Ruthenium atomic radius is 178 pm, while it's covalent radius is 126 pm.

    Atomic Radius Calculated

    178 pm (1.78 Å)

    Atomic Radius Empirical

    130 pm (1.3 Å)

    Atomic Volume8.1706 cm3/mol
    Covalent Radius126 pm (1.26 Å)
    Van der Waals Radius-
    Neutron Cross Section2.6
    Neutron Mass Absorption 0.0009

    Atomic Spectrum of Ruthenium

    Atomic Spectrum of Ruthenium | SchoolMyKids

    Ruthenium Chemical Properties: Ruthenium Ionization Energies and electron affinity

    The electron affinity of Ruthenium is 101.3 kJ/mol.

    Valence6
    Electronegativity2.2
    ElectronAffinity101.3 kJ/mol

    Ionization Energy of Ruthenium

    Refer to table below for Ionization energies of Ruthenium

    Ionization energy numberEnthalpy - kJ/mol
    1st710.2
    2nd1620
    3rd2747

    Ruthenium Physical Properties

    Refer to below table for Ruthenium Physical Properties

    Density12.37 g/cm3(when liquid at m.p density is $10.65 g/cm3)
    Molar Volume8.1706 cm3/mol

    Elastic Properties

    Young Modulus447
    Shear Modulus173 GPa
    Bulk Modulus 220 GPa
    Poisson Ratio0.3

    Hardness of Ruthenium - Tests to Measure of Hardness of Element

    Mohs Hardness6.5 MPa
    Vickers Hardness-
    Brinell Hardness2160 MPa

    Ruthenium Electrical Properties

    Ruthenium is Conductor of electricity. Refer to table below for the Electrical properties ofRuthenium

    Electrical Conductivity14000000 S/m
    Resistivity7.1e-8 m Ω
    Superconducting Point0.49

    Ruthenium Heat and Conduction Properties

    Thermal Conductivity120 W/(m K)
    Thermal Expansion0.0000064 /K

    Ruthenium Magnetic Properties

    Magnetic TypeParamagnetic
    Curie Point-
    Mass Magnetic Susceptibility5.42e-9 m3/kg
    Molar Magnetic Susceptibility5.48e-10 m3/mol
    Volume Magnetic Susceptibility0.000067

    Optical Properties of Ruthenium

    Refractive Index-

    Acoustic Properties of Ruthenium

    Speed of Sound5970 m/s

    Ruthenium Thermal Properties - Enthalpies and thermodynamics

    Refer to table below for Thermal properties of Ruthenium

    Melting Point2607 K (2333.85°C, 4232.929999999999 °F)
    Boiling Point4423 K (4149.85°C, 7501.7300000000005 °F)
    Critical Temperature-
    Superconducting Point0.49

    Enthalpies of Ruthenium

    Heat of Fusion25.7 kJ/mol
    Heat of Vaporization580 kJ/mol
    Heat of Combustion-

    Ruthenium Isotopes - Nuclear Properties of Ruthenium

    Ruthenium has 34 isotopes, with between 87 and 120 nucleons. Ruthenium has 7 stable naturally occuring isotopes.

    Isotopes of Ruthenium - Naturally occurring stable Isotopes: 100Ru, 101Ru, 102Ru, 104Ru, 96Ru, 98Ru, 99Ru.

    IsotopeZNIsotope Mass% AbundanceT halfDecay Mode
    87Ru444387Synthetic
    88Ru444488Synthetic
    89Ru444589Synthetic
    90Ru444690Synthetic
    91Ru444791Synthetic
    92Ru444892Synthetic
    93Ru444993Synthetic
    94Ru445094Synthetic
    95Ru445195Synthetic
    96Ru4452965.54%StableN/A
    97Ru445397Synthetic
    98Ru4454981.87%StableN/A
    99Ru44559912.76%StableN/A
    100Ru445610012.6%StableN/A
    101Ru445710117.06%Stable
    102Ru445810231.55%StableN/A
    103Ru4459103Synthetic
    104Ru446010418.62%StableN/A
    105Ru4461105Synthetic
    106Ru4462106Synthetic
    107Ru4463107Synthetic
    108Ru4464108Synthetic
    109Ru4465109Synthetic
    110Ru4466110Synthetic
    111Ru4467111Synthetic
    112Ru4468112Synthetic
    113Ru4469113Synthetic
    114Ru4470114Synthetic
    115Ru4471115Synthetic
    116Ru4472116Synthetic
    117Ru4473117Synthetic
    118Ru4474118Synthetic
    119Ru4475119Synthetic
    120Ru4476120Synthetic

    Regulatory and Health - Health and Safety Parameters and Guidelines

    Database Search

    List of unique identifiers to search the element in various chemical registry databases

    DatabaseIdentifier number
    CAS Number - Chemical Abstracts Service (CAS)CAS7440-18-8
    RTECS Number-
    CID Number CID23950
    Gmelin Number-
    NSC Number-