Magnesium is a chemical element with symbol Mg and atomic number 12. It is a shiny gray solid which bears a close physical resemblance to the other five elements in the second column (Group 2, or alkaline earth metals) of the periodic table:they each have the same electron configuration in their outer electron shell producing a similar crystal structure. Magnesium is the ninth most abundant element in the universe.
It belongs to group 2 of the periodic table having trivial name alkaline earth metals*.
Read key information and facts about element Magnesium
|Appearance||shiny grey solid|
|Classification||Alkaline Earth Metal|
|Group in Periodic Table||2|
|Group Name||beryllium family|
|Period in Periodic Table||period 3|
|Block in Periodic Table||s -block|
|Electronic Configuration||[Ne] 3s2|
|Electronic Shell Structure (Electrons per shell)||2, 8, 2|
|Melting Point||923 K|
|Boiling Point||1363 K|
How to Locate Magnesium on Periodic Table
Periodic table is arranged by atomic number, number of protons in the nucleus which is same as number of electrons. The atomic number increases from left to right. Periodic table starts at top left ( Atomic number 1) and ends at bottom right (atomic number 118). Therefore you can directly look for atomic number 12 to find Magnesium on periodic table.
Another way to read periodic table and locate an element is by using group number (column) and period number (row). To locate Magnesium on periodic table look for cross section of group 2 and period 3 in the modern periodic table.
The element Magnesium was discovered by J. Black in year 1755 in United Kingdom. Magnesium was first isolated by H. Davy in 1808. Magnesium derived its name from Magnesia, a district of Eastern Thessaly in Greece.
Black observed that magnesia alba (MgO) was not quicklime(CaO). Davy isolated the metal electrochemically from magnesia.
Magnesium Presence: Abundance in Nature and Around Us
The table below shows the abundance of Magnesium in Universe, Sun, Meteorites, Earth's Crust, Oceans and Human Body.
|ppb by weight (1ppb =10^-7 %)||ppb by atoms (1ppb =10^-7 %)|
|Abundance in Universe||600000||30000|
|Abundance in Sun||700000||30000|
|Abundance in Meteorites||120000000||100000000|
|Abundance in Earth's Crust||29000000||25000000|
|Abundance in Oceans||1326000||337000|
|Abundance in Humans||270000||70000|
Crystal Structure of Magnesium
The solid state structure of Magnesium is Simple Hexagonal.
The Crystal structure can be described in terms of its unit Cell. The unit Cells repeats itself in three dimensional space to form the structure.
Unit Cell Parameters
The unit cell is represented in terms of its lattice parameters, which are the lengths of the cell edges Lattice Constants (a, b and c)
|320.94 pm||320.94 pm||521.08 pm|
and the angles between them Lattice Angles (alpha, beta and gamma).
The positions of the atoms inside the unit cell are described by the set of atomic positions ( xi, yi, zi) measured from a reference lattice point.
The symmetry properties of the crystal are described by the concept of space groups. All possible symmetric arrangements of particles in three-dimensional space are described by the 230 space groups (219 distinct types, or 230 if chiral copies are considered distinct.
|Space Group Name||P63/mmc|
|Space Group Number||194|
|Crystal Structure||Simple Hexagonal|
|Number of atoms per unit cell|
The number of atoms per unit cell in a simple cubic, face-centered cubic and body-centred cubic are 1,4,2 respectively.
Magnesium Atomic and Orbital Properties
Magnesium atoms have 12 electrons and the electronic shell structure is [2, 8, 2] with Atomic Term Symbol (Quantum Numbers) 1S0.
|Number of Electrons (with no charge)||12|
|Number of Protons||12|
|Number of Neutrons||12|
|Shell structure (Electrons per energy level)||2, 8, 2|
|Electron Configuration||[Ne] 3s2|
|Main Oxidation States||2|
|Oxidation States||0, 1, 2|
|Atomic Term Symbol (Quantum Numbers)||1S0|
Bohr Atomic Model of Magnesium - Electrons per energy level
Ground State Electronic Configuration of Magnesium - neutral Magnesium atom
Abbreviated electronic configuration of Magnesium
The ground state abbreviated electronic configuration of Neutral Magnesium atom is [Ne] 3s2. The portion of Magnesium configuration that is equivalent to the noble gas of the preceding period, is abbreviated as [Ne]. For atoms with many electrons, this notation can become lengthy and so an abbreviated notation is used. This is important as it is the Valence electrons 3s2, electrons in the outermost shell that determine the chemical properties of the element.
Unabbreviated electronic configuration of neutral Magnesium
Complete ground state electronic configuration for the Magnesium atom, Unabbreviated electronic configuration
1s2 2s2 2p6 3s2
Electrons are filled in atomic orbitals as per the order determined by the Aufbau principle, Pauli Exclusion Principle and Hund’s Rule.
Atomic Structure of Magnesium
Magnesium atomic radius is 145 pm, while it's covalent radius is 130 pm.
|Atomic Radius Calculated|
145 pm (1.45 Å)
|Atomic Radius Empirical|
150 pm (1.5 Å)
|Atomic Volume||13.984 cm3/mol|
|Covalent Radius||130 pm (1.3 Å)|
|Van der Waals Radius||173 pm|
|Neutron Cross Section||0.063|
|Neutron Mass Absorption||0.0001|
Atomic Spectrum of Magnesium
Magnesium Chemical Properties: Magnesium Ionization Energies and electron affinity
The electron affinity of Magnesium is 0 kJ/mol.
Ionization Energy of Magnesium
Refer to table below for Ionization energies of Magnesium
|Ionization energy number||Enthalpy - kJ/mol|
Magnesium Physical Properties
Refer to below table for Magnesium Physical Properties
|Density||1.738 g/cm3(when liquid at m.p density is $1.584 g/cm3)|
|Molar Volume||13.984 cm3/mol|
|Shear Modulus||17 GPa|
|Bulk Modulus||45 GPa|
Hardness of Magnesium - Tests to Measure of Hardness of Element
|Mohs Hardness||2.5 MPa|
|Brinell Hardness||260 MPa|
Magnesium Electrical Properties
Magnesium is Conductor of electricity. Refer to table below for the Electrical properties ofMagnesium
|Electrical Conductivity||23000000 S/m|
|Resistivity||4.4e-8 m Ω|
Magnesium Heat and Conduction Properties
|Thermal Conductivity||160 W/(m K)|
|Thermal Expansion||0.0000082 /K|
Magnesium Magnetic Properties
|Mass Magnetic Susceptibility||6.9e-9 m3/kg|
|Molar Magnetic Susceptibility||1.68e-10 m3/mol|
|Volume Magnetic Susceptibility||0.000012|
Optical Properties of Magnesium
Acoustic Properties of Magnesium
|Speed of Sound||4602 m/s|
Magnesium Thermal Properties - Enthalpies and thermodynamics
Refer to table below for Thermal properties of Magnesium
|Melting Point||923 K (649.85°C, 1201.73 °F)|
|Boiling Point||1363 K (1089.85°C, 1993.73 °F)|
Enthalpies of Magnesium
|Heat of Fusion||8.7 kJ/mol|
|Heat of Vaporization||128 kJ/mol|
|Heat of Combustion||-668 J/(kg K)|
Magnesium Isotopes - Nuclear Properties of Magnesium
Magnesium has 22 isotopes, with between 19 and 40 nucleons. Magnesium has 3 stable naturally occuring isotopes.
Isotopes of Magnesium - Naturally occurring stable Isotopes: 24Mg, 25Mg, 26Mg.
|Isotope||Z||N||Isotope Mass||% Abundance||T half||Decay Mode|
Compare Magnesium with other elements
Compare Magnesium with all Group 2 elements
Compare Magnesium with all Period 3 elements
Compare Magnesium with all Alkaline Earth Metal elements
What is the electronic configuration of Magnesium?
The electronic configuration of Magnesium is 1s2 2s2 2p6 3s2.
What is the abbreviated electronic configuration of Magnesium?
The abbreviated electronic configuration of Magnesium is [Ne] 3s2. To form abbreviated notation of electronic configuration, the completely filled subshells are replaced by the noble gas of the preceding period in square brackets.
What is the symbol of Magnesium?
Symbol of Magnesium is Mg. Magnesium is a chemical element with symbol Mg and atomic number 12.
What is the position of Magnesium in the Periodic Table?
Magnesium is a chemical element with the symbol Mg and atomic number 12. Magnesium is the 12 element on the periodic table. It is located in group 2 and period 3 in the modern periodic table.
What is the atomic number of Magnesium?
The atomic number of Magnesium is 12.
What is the color of Magnesium?
Magnesium is of Silver color.
Who discovered Magnesium?
The element Magnesium was discovered by J. Black in year 1755 in United Kingdom. Magnesium was first isolated by H. Davy in 1808.
How many valence electrons does a Magnesium atom have?
Magnesium has 2 valence electrons. Magnesium has 12 electrons out of which 2 valence electrons are present in the 3s2 outer orbitals of atom.
What is the melting Point of Magnesium?
Melting Point of Magnesium is 923 K.
What is the boiling Point of Magnesium?
Boiling Point of Magnesium is 1363 K.
What is the melting Point of Magnesium in Kelvin?
Melting Point of Magnesium in Kelvin is 923 K.
What is the boiling Point of Magnesium in Kelvin?
Boiling Point of Magnesium in Kelvin is 1363 K.
What is the electronic configuration of Magnesium 12?
The electronic configuration of Magnesium will be 1s2 2s2 2p6 3s2.
How do you write the electron configuration for Magnesium?
The electronic configuration of Magnesium will be 1s2 2s2 2p6 3s2.