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Sr Strontium
Element Information, Facts, Properties, Trends, Uses, Comparison with other elements

38
Sr
Strontium
Element 38 of Periodic table is Strontium with atomic number 38, atomic weight 87.62. Strontium, symbol Sr, has a Face Centered Cubic structure and Silver color. Strontium is a Alkaline Earth Metal element. It is part of group 2 (beryllium family). Know everything about Strontium Facts, Physical Properties, Chemical Properties, Electronic configuration, Atomic and Crystal Structure.
38 Sr - Strontium | SchoolMyKids

Strontium is a chemical element with symbol Sr and atomic number 38. An Alkaline Earth Metal, strontium is a soft silver-white or yellowish metallic element that is highly reactive chemically. The metal turns yellow when it is exposed to air.

It belongs to group 2 of the periodic table having trivial name alkaline earth metals*.

Strontium Facts

Read key information and facts about element Strontium

NameStrontium
Atomic Number38
Atomic SymbolSr
Atomic Weight87.62
PhaseSolid
ColorSilver
Appearance-
ClassificationAlkaline Earth Metal
Group in Periodic Table2
Group Nameberyllium family
Period in Periodic Tableperiod 5
Block in Periodic Tables -block
Electronic Configuration[Kr] 5s2
Electronic Shell Structure (Electrons per shell)2, 8, 18, 8, 2
Melting Point1050 K
Boiling Point1655 K
CAS NumberCAS7440-24-6
Neighborhood Elements
123456789101112131415161718
1
1
H
Hydrogen
1.008

Atomic #

Electronic Shell #

Symbol
Name
Atomic Weight
HGas
HgLiquid
CSolid
Metals
Metalloids
NonMetals
Alkali metals
Alkali earth metals
Lanthanoids
Transition metals
Post-transition metals
Other nonmetals
Halogens
Nobel gas
Actinoids
2
He
Helium
4.003
2
3
Li
Lithium
6.941
4
Be
Beryllium
9.012
5
B
Boron
10.811
6
C
Carbon
12.011
7
N
Nitrogen
14.007
8
O
Oxygen
15.999
9
F
Fluorine
18.998
10
Ne
Neon
20.180
3
11
Na
Sodium
22.990
12
Mg
Magnesium
24.305
13
Al
Aluminium
26.982
14
Si
Silicon
28.085
15
P
Phosphorus
30.974
16
S
Sulfur
32.065
17
Cl
Chlorine
35.453
18
Ar
Argon
39.948
4
19
K
Potassium
39.098
20
Ca
Calcium
40.078
21
Sc
Scandium
44.956
22
Ti
Titanium
47.867
23
V
Vanadium
50.941
24
Cr
Chromium
51.996
25
Mn
Manganese
54.938
26
Fe
Iron
55.845
27
Co
Cobalt
58.933
28
Ni
Nickel
58.693
29
Cu
Copper
63.546
30
Zn
Zinc
65.409
31
Ga
Gallium
69.723
32
Ge
Germanium
72.640
33
As
Arsenic
74.922
34
Se
Selenium
78.960
35
Br
Bromine
79.904
36
Kr
Krypton
83.798
5
37
Rb
Rubidium
85.468
38
Sr
Strontium
87.620
39
Y
Yttrium
88.906
40
Zr
Zirconium
91.224
41
Nb
Niobium
92.906
42
Mo
Molybdenum
95.940
43
Tc
Technetium
98
44
Ru
Ruthenium
101.070
45
Rh
Rhodium
102.906
46
Pd
Palladium
106.420
47
Ag
Silver
107.868
48
Cd
Cadmium
112.411
49
In
Indium
114.818
50
Sn
Tin
118.710
51
Sb
Antimony
121.760
52
Te
Tellurium
127.600
53
I
Iodine
126.904
54
Xe
Xenon
131.293
6
55
Cs
Cesium
132.905
56
Ba
Barium
137.327
57 - 71
La - Lu
Lanthanides
72
Hf
Hafnium
178.490
73
Ta
Tantalum
180.948
74
W
Tungsten
183.840
75
Re
Rhenium
186.207
76
Os
Osmium
190.230
77
Ir
Iridium
192.217
78
Pt
Platinum
195.078
79
Au
Gold
196.967
80
Hg
Mercury
200.590
81
Tl
Thallium
204.383
82
Pb
Lead
207.200
83
Bi
Bismuth
208.980
84
Po
Polonium
209
85
At
Astatine
210
86
Rn
Radon
222
7
87
Fr
Francium
223
88
Ra
Radium
226
89 - 103
Ac - Lr
Actinides
104
Rf
Rutherfordium
261
105
Db
Dubnium
262
106
Sg
Seaborgium
266
107
Bh
Bohrium
264
108
Hs
Hassium
277
109
Mt
Meitnerium
268
110
Ds
Darmstadtium
281
111
Rg
Roentgenium
272
112
Cn
Copernicium
285
113
Nh
Nihonium
284
114
Fl
Flerovium
289
115
Mc
Moscovium
288
116
Lv
Livermorium
292
117
Ts
Tennessine
294
118
Og
Oganesson
294
Lanthanides
57
La
Lanthanum
138.905
58
Ce
Cerium
140.116
59
Pr
Praseodymium
140.908
60
Nd
Neodymium
144.240
61
Pm
Promethium
145
62
Sm
Samarium
150.360
63
Eu
Europium
151.964
64
Gd
Gadolinium
157.250
65
Tb
Terbium
158.925
66
Dy
Dysprosium
162.500
67
Ho
Holmium
164.930
68
Er
Erbium
167.259
69
Tm
Thulium
168.934
70
Yb
Ytterbium
173.040
71
Lu
Lutetium
174.967
Actinides
89
Ac
Actinium
227
90
Th
Thorium
232.038
91
Pa
Protactinium
231.036
92
U
Uranium
238.029
93
Np
Neptunium
237
94
Pu
Plutonium
244
95
Am
Americium
243
96
Cm
Curium
247
97
Bk
Berkelium
247
98
Cf
Californium
251
99
Es
Einsteinium
252
100
Fm
Fermium
257
101
Md
Mendelevium
258
102
No
Nobelium
259
103
Lr
Lawrencium
262

How to Locate Strontium on Periodic Table

Periodic table is arranged by atomic number, number of protons in the nucleus which is same as number of electrons. The atomic number increases from left to right. Periodic table starts at top left ( Atomic number 1) and ends at bottom right (atomic number 118). Therefore you can directly look for atomic number 38 to find Strontium on periodic table.

Another way to read periodic table and locate an element is by using group number (column) and period number (row). To locate Strontium on periodic table look for cross section of group 2 and period 5 in the modern periodic table.

Strontium History

The element Strontium was discovered by W. Cruikshank in year 1787 in United Kingdom. Strontium was first isolated by H. Davy in 1808. Strontium derived its name from Strontian, a small town in Scotland.

Cruikshank and Adair Crawfordin 1790 concluded that strontianite contained a new earth. It was eventually isolated electrochemically in 1808 by Humphry Davy.

Strontium Presence: Abundance in Nature and Around Us

The table below shows the abundance of Strontium in Universe, Sun, Meteorites, Earth's Crust, Oceans and Human Body.

 ppb by weight (1ppb =10^-7 %)ppb by atoms (1ppb =10^-7 %)
Abundance in Universe400.6
Abundance in Sun500.7
Abundance in Meteorites89002000
Abundance in Earth's Crust36000085000
Abundance in Oceans8100570
Abundance in Humans4600330

Crystal Structure of Strontium

The solid state structure of Strontium is Face Centered Cubic.

The Crystal structure can be described in terms of its unit Cell. The unit Cells repeats itself in three dimensional space to form the structure.

Unit Cell Parameters

The unit cell is represented in terms of its lattice parameters, which are the lengths of the cell edges Lattice Constants (a, b and c)

abc
608.49 pm608.49 pm608.49 pm

and the angles between them Lattice Angles (alpha, beta and gamma).

alphabetagamma
π/2 π/2 π/2

The positions of the atoms inside the unit cell are described by the set of atomic positions ( xi, yi, zi) measured from a reference lattice point.

The symmetry properties of the crystal are described by the concept of space groups. All possible symmetric arrangements of particles in three-dimensional space are described by the 230 space groups (219 distinct types, or 230 if chiral copies are considered distinct.

Space Group NameFm_ 3m 38 Sr Strontium - Crystal Structure | SchoolMyKids
Oxidation StatesSpace Group Number225
Crystal StructureFace Centered Cubic

Strontium Atomic and Orbital Properties

Strontium atoms have 38 electrons and the electronic shell structure is [2, 8, 18, 8, 2] with Atomic Term Symbol (Quantum Numbers) 1S0.

Atomic Number38
Number of Electrons (with no charge)38
Number of Protons38
Mass Number88
Number of Neutrons50
Shell structure (Electrons per energy level)2, 8, 18, 8, 2
Electron Configuration[Kr] 5s2
Valence Electrons5s2
Valence (Valency)2
Main Oxidation States2
Oxidation States1, 2
Atomic Term Symbol (Quantum Numbers)1S0

Bohr Atomic Model of Strontium - Electrons per energy level

38 Sr Strontium - Electron Shell Structure | SchoolMyKids
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Ground State Electronic Configuration of Strontium - neutral Strontium atom

Abbreviated electronic configuration of Strontium

The ground state abbreviated electronic configuration of Neutral Strontium atom is [Kr] 5s2. The portion of Strontium configuration that is equivalent to the noble gas of the preceding period, is abbreviated as [Kr]. For atoms with many electrons, this notation can become lengthy and so an abbreviated notation is used. This is important as it is the Valence electrons 5s2, electrons in the outermost shell that determine the chemical properties of the element.

Unabbreviated electronic configuration of neutral Strontium

Complete ground state electronic configuration for the Strontium atom, Unabbreviated electronic configuration

1s2 2s2 2p6 3s2 3p6 3d10 4s2 4p6 5s2

Electrons are filled in atomic orbitals as per the order determined by the Aufbau principle, Pauli Exclusion Principle and Hund’s Rule.

  • As per the Aufbau principle the electrons will occupy the orbitals having lower energies before occupying higher energy orbitals. According to this principle, electrons are filled in the following order: 1s, 2s, 2p, 3s, 3p, 4s, 3d, 4p, 5s, 4d, 5p, 6s, 4f, 5d, 6p, 7s, 5f, 6d, 7p…
  • The Pauli exclusion principle states that a maximum of two electrons, each having opposite spins, can fit in an orbital.
  • Hund's rule states that every orbital in a given subshell is singly occupied by electrons before a second electron is filled in an orbital.
  • Electron configuration of Strontium
    Atomic Structure of Strontium

    Strontium atomic radius is 219 pm, while it's covalent radius is 192 pm.

    Atomic Radius Calculated

    219 pm (2.19 Å)

    Atomic Radius Empirical

    200 pm (2 Å)

    Atomic Volume33.94 cm3/mol
    Covalent Radius192 pm (1.92 Å)
    Van der Waals Radius249 pm
    Neutron Cross Section1.2
    Neutron Mass Absorption 0.0005

    Atomic Spectrum of Strontium

    Atomic Spectrum of Strontium | SchoolMyKids

    Strontium Chemical Properties: Strontium Ionization Energies and electron affinity

    The electron affinity of Strontium is 5.03 kJ/mol.

    Valence2
    Electronegativity0.95
    ElectronAffinity5.03 kJ/mol

    Ionization Energy of Strontium

    Refer to table below for Ionization energies of Strontium

    Ionization energy numberEnthalpy - kJ/mol
    1st549.5
    2nd1064.2
    3rd4138
    4th5500
    5th6910
    6th8760
    7th10230
    8th11800
    9th15600
    10th17100
    11th31270

    Strontium Physical Properties

    Refer to below table for Strontium Physical Properties

    Density2.63 g/cm3(when liquid at m.p density is $6.98 g/cm3)
    Molar Volume33.94 cm3/mol

    Elastic Properties

    Young Modulus-
    Shear Modulus6.1 GPa
    Bulk Modulus -
    Poisson Ratio0.28

    Hardness of Strontium - Tests to Measure of Hardness of Element

    Mohs Hardness1.5 MPa
    Vickers Hardness-
    Brinell Hardness-

    Strontium Electrical Properties

    Strontium is Conductor of electricity. Refer to table below for the Electrical properties ofStrontium

    Electrical Conductivity7700000 S/m
    Resistivity1.3e-7 m Ω
    Superconducting Point-

    Strontium Heat and Conduction Properties

    Thermal Conductivity35 W/(m K)
    Thermal Expansion0.0000225 /K

    Strontium Magnetic Properties

    Magnetic TypeParamagnetic
    Curie Point-
    Mass Magnetic Susceptibility1.32e-9 m3/kg
    Molar Magnetic Susceptibility1.16e-10 m3/mol
    Volume Magnetic Susceptibility0.00000347

    Optical Properties of Strontium

    Refractive Index-

    Acoustic Properties of Strontium

    Speed of Sound-

    Strontium Thermal Properties - Enthalpies and thermodynamics

    Refer to table below for Thermal properties of Strontium

    Melting Point1050 K (776.85°C, 1430.3300000000002 °F)
    Boiling Point1655 K (1381.85°C, 2519.33 °F)
    Critical Temperature-
    Superconducting Point-

    Enthalpies of Strontium

    Heat of Fusion8 kJ/mol
    Heat of Vaporization137 kJ/mol
    Heat of Combustion-

    Strontium Isotopes - Nuclear Properties of Strontium

    Strontium has 33 isotopes, with between 73 and 105 nucleons. Strontium has 4 stable naturally occuring isotopes.

    Isotopes of Strontium - Naturally occurring stable Isotopes: 84Sr, 86Sr, 87Sr, 88Sr.

    IsotopeZNIsotope Mass% AbundanceT halfDecay Mode
    73Sr383573Synthetic
    74Sr383674Synthetic
    75Sr383775Synthetic
    76Sr383876Synthetic
    77Sr383977Synthetic
    78Sr384078Synthetic
    79Sr384179Synthetic
    80Sr384280Synthetic
    81Sr384381Synthetic
    82Sr384482Synthetic
    83Sr384583Synthetic
    84Sr3846840.56%StableN/A
    85Sr384785Synthetic
    86Sr3848869.86%StableN/A
    87Sr3849877%StableN/A
    88Sr38508882.58%Stable
    89Sr385189Synthetic
    90Sr385290Synthetic
    91Sr385391Synthetic
    92Sr385492Synthetic
    93Sr385593Synthetic
    94Sr385694Synthetic
    95Sr385795Synthetic
    96Sr385896Synthetic
    97Sr385997Synthetic
    98Sr386098Synthetic
    99Sr386199Synthetic
    100Sr3862100Synthetic
    101Sr3863101Synthetic
    102Sr3864102Synthetic
    103Sr3865103Synthetic
    104Sr3866104Synthetic
    105Sr3867105Synthetic