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Sn Tin
Element Information, Facts, Properties, Trends, Uses, Comparison with other elements

50
Sn
Tin
Element 50 of Periodic table is Tin with atomic number 50, atomic weight 118.71. Tin, symbol Sn, has a Centered Tetragonal structure and Silver color. Tin is a Post Transition Metal element. It is part of group 14 (carbon family). Know everything about Tin Facts, Physical Properties, Chemical Properties, Electronic configuration, Atomic and Crystal Structure.
50 Sn - Tin | SchoolMyKids

Tin is a chemical element with the symbol Sn (for Latin:stannum) and atomic number 50. It is a main group metal in group 14 of the periodic table. Tin shows a chemical similarity to both neighboring group-14 elements, germanium and lead, and has two possible oxidation states, +2 and the slightly more stable +4.

It belongs to group 14 of the periodic table having trivial name tetrels, crystallogens. It got its trivial name from tetrels from Greek tetra (four, IV).

Tin Facts

Read key information and facts about element Tin

NameTin
Atomic Number50
Atomic SymbolSn
Atomic Weight118.71
PhaseSolid
ColorSilver
Appearancesilvery-white (beta, β) or gray (alpha, α)
ClassificationPost Transition Metal
Group in Periodic Table14
Group Namecarbon family
Period in Periodic Tableperiod 5
Block in Periodic Tablep -block
Electronic Configuration[Kr] 4d10 5s2 5p2
Electronic Shell Structure (Electrons per shell)2, 8, 18, 18, 4
Melting Point505.08 K
Boiling Point2875 K
CAS NumberCAS7440-31-5
123456789101112131415161718
1
1
H
Hydrogen
1.008

Atomic #

Electronic Shell #

Symbol
Name
Atomic Weight
HGas
HgLiquid
CSolid
Metals
Metalloids
NonMetals
Alkali metals
Alkali earth metals
Lanthanoids
Transition metals
Post-transition metals
Other nonmetals
Halogens
Nobel gas
Actinoids
2
He
Helium
4.003
2
3
Li
Lithium
6.941
4
Be
Beryllium
9.012
5
B
Boron
10.811
6
C
Carbon
12.011
7
N
Nitrogen
14.007
8
O
Oxygen
15.999
9
F
Fluorine
18.998
10
Ne
Neon
20.180
3
11
Na
Sodium
22.990
12
Mg
Magnesium
24.305
13
Al
Aluminium
26.982
14
Si
Silicon
28.085
15
P
Phosphorus
30.974
16
S
Sulfur
32.065
17
Cl
Chlorine
35.453
18
Ar
Argon
39.948
4
19
K
Potassium
39.098
20
Ca
Calcium
40.078
21
Sc
Scandium
44.956
22
Ti
Titanium
47.867
23
V
Vanadium
50.941
24
Cr
Chromium
51.996
25
Mn
Manganese
54.938
26
Fe
Iron
55.845
27
Co
Cobalt
58.933
28
Ni
Nickel
58.693
29
Cu
Copper
63.546
30
Zn
Zinc
65.409
31
Ga
Gallium
69.723
32
Ge
Germanium
72.640
33
As
Arsenic
74.922
34
Se
Selenium
78.960
35
Br
Bromine
79.904
36
Kr
Krypton
83.798
5
37
Rb
Rubidium
85.468
38
Sr
Strontium
87.620
39
Y
Yttrium
88.906
40
Zr
Zirconium
91.224
41
Nb
Niobium
92.906
42
Mo
Molybdenum
95.940
43
Tc
Technetium
98
44
Ru
Ruthenium
101.070
45
Rh
Rhodium
102.906
46
Pd
Palladium
106.420
47
Ag
Silver
107.868
48
Cd
Cadmium
112.411
49
In
Indium
114.818
50
Sn
Tin
118.710
51
Sb
Antimony
121.760
52
Te
Tellurium
127.600
53
I
Iodine
126.904
54
Xe
Xenon
131.293
6
55
Cs
Cesium
132.905
56
Ba
Barium
137.327
57 - 71
La - Lu
Lanthanides
72
Hf
Hafnium
178.490
73
Ta
Tantalum
180.948
74
W
Tungsten
183.840
75
Re
Rhenium
186.207
76
Os
Osmium
190.230
77
Ir
Iridium
192.217
78
Pt
Platinum
195.078
79
Au
Gold
196.967
80
Hg
Mercury
200.590
81
Tl
Thallium
204.383
82
Pb
Lead
207.200
83
Bi
Bismuth
208.980
84
Po
Polonium
209
85
At
Astatine
210
86
Rn
Radon
222
7
87
Fr
Francium
223
88
Ra
Radium
226
89 - 103
Ac - Lr
Actinides
104
Rf
Rutherfordium
261
105
Db
Dubnium
262
106
Sg
Seaborgium
266
107
Bh
Bohrium
264
108
Hs
Hassium
277
109
Mt
Meitnerium
268
110
Ds
Darmstadtium
281
111
Rg
Roentgenium
272
112
Cn
Copernicium
285
113
Nh
Nihonium
284
114
Fl
Flerovium
289
115
Mc
Moscovium
288
116
Lv
Livermorium
292
117
Ts
Tennessine
294
118
Og
Oganesson
294
Lanthanides
57
La
Lanthanum
138.905
58
Ce
Cerium
140.116
59
Pr
Praseodymium
140.908
60
Nd
Neodymium
144.240
61
Pm
Promethium
145
62
Sm
Samarium
150.360
63
Eu
Europium
151.964
64
Gd
Gadolinium
157.250
65
Tb
Terbium
158.925
66
Dy
Dysprosium
162.500
67
Ho
Holmium
164.930
68
Er
Erbium
167.259
69
Tm
Thulium
168.934
70
Yb
Ytterbium
173.040
71
Lu
Lutetium
174.967
Actinides
89
Ac
Actinium
227
90
Th
Thorium
232.038
91
Pa
Protactinium
231.036
92
U
Uranium
238.029
93
Np
Neptunium
237
94
Pu
Plutonium
244
95
Am
Americium
243
96
Cm
Curium
247
97
Bk
Berkelium
247
98
Cf
Californium
251
99
Es
Einsteinium
252
100
Fm
Fermium
257
101
Md
Mendelevium
258
102
No
Nobelium
259
103
Lr
Lawrencium
262

How to Locate Tin on Periodic Table

Periodic table is arranged by atomic number, number of protons in the nucleus which is same as number of electrons. The atomic number increases from left to right. Periodic table starts at top left ( Atomic number 1) and ends at bottom right (atomic number 118). Therefore you can directly look for atomic number 50 to find Tin on periodic table.

Another way to read periodic table and locate an element is by using group number (column) and period number (row). To locate Tin on periodic table look for cross section of group 14 and period 5 in the modern periodic table.

Tin History

The element Tin was discovered by Unknown in year 3500 BCE . Tin was first isolated by in 2000 BCE. Tin derived its name from English word (stannum in Latin).

First smelted in combination with copper around 3500 BCE to produce bronze. The oldest artifacts date from around 2000 BCE.

Tin Presence: Abundance in Nature and Around Us

The table below shows the abundance of Tin in Universe, Sun, Meteorites, Earth's Crust, Oceans and Human Body.

 ppb by weight (1ppb =10^-7 %)ppb by atoms (1ppb =10^-7 %)
Abundance in Universe40.04
Abundance in Sun90.1
Abundance in Meteorites1200170
Abundance in Earth's Crust2200380
Abundance in Oceans0.010.00052
Abundance in Humans20011

Crystal Structure of Tin

The solid state structure of Tin is Centered Tetragonal.

The Crystal structure can be described in terms of its unit Cell. The unit Cells repeats itself in three dimensional space to form the structure.

Unit Cell Parameters

The unit cell is represented in terms of its lattice parameters, which are the lengths of the cell edges Lattice Constants (a, b and c)

abc
583.18 pm583.18 pm318.19 pm

and the angles between them Lattice Angles (alpha, beta and gamma).

alphabetagamma
π/2 π/2 π/2

The positions of the atoms inside the unit cell are described by the set of atomic positions ( xi, yi, zi) measured from a reference lattice point.

The symmetry properties of the crystal are described by the concept of space groups. All possible symmetric arrangements of particles in three-dimensional space are described by the 230 space groups (219 distinct types, or 230 if chiral copies are considered distinct.

Space Group NameI41/amd 50 Sn Tin - Crystal Structure | SchoolMyKids
Oxidation StatesSpace Group Number141
Crystal StructureCentered Tetragonal

Tin Atomic and Orbital Properties

Tin atoms have 50 electrons and the electronic shell structure is [2, 8, 18, 18, 4] with Atomic Term Symbol (Quantum Numbers) 3P0.

Atomic Number50
Number of Electrons (with no charge)50
Number of Protons50
Mass Number119
Number of Neutrons69
Shell structure (Electrons per energy level)2, 8, 18, 18, 4
Electron Configuration[Kr] 4d10 5s2 5p2
Valence Electrons5s2 5p2
Valence (Valency)4
Main Oxidation States-4, 2, 4
Oxidation States-4, -3, -2, -1, 0, 1, 2, 3, 4
Atomic Term Symbol (Quantum Numbers)3P0

Bohr Atomic Model of Tin - Electrons per energy level

50 Sn Tin - Electron Shell Structure | SchoolMyKids
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Ground State Electronic Configuration of Tin - neutral Tin atom

Abbreviated electronic configuration of Tin

The ground state abbreviated electronic configuration of Neutral Tin atom is [Kr] 4d10 5s2 5p2. The portion of Tin configuration that is equivalent to the noble gas of the preceding period, is abbreviated as [Kr]. For atoms with many electrons, this notation can become lengthy and so an abbreviated notation is used. This is important as it is the Valence electrons 5s2 5p2, electrons in the outermost shell that determine the chemical properties of the element.

Unabbreviated electronic configuration of neutral Tin

Complete ground state electronic configuration for the Tin atom, Unabbreviated electronic configuration

1s2 2s2 2p6 3s2 3p6 3d10 4s2 4p6 4d10 5s2 5p2

Electrons are filled in atomic orbitals as per the order determined by the Aufbau principle, Pauli Exclusion Principle and Hund’s Rule.

  • As per the Aufbau principle the electrons will occupy the orbitals having lower energies before occupying higher energy orbitals. According to this principle, electrons are filled in the following order: 1s, 2s, 2p, 3s, 3p, 4s, 3d, 4p, 5s, 4d, 5p, 6s, 4f, 5d, 6p, 7s, 5f, 6d, 7p…
  • The Pauli exclusion principle states that a maximum of two electrons, each having opposite spins, can fit in an orbital.
  • Hund's rule states that every orbital in a given subshell is singly occupied by electrons before a second electron is filled in an orbital.
  • Electron configuration of Tin
    Atomic Structure of Tin

    Tin atomic radius is 145 pm, while it's covalent radius is 141 pm.

    Atomic Radius Calculated

    145 pm (1.45 Å)

    Atomic Radius Empirical

    145 pm (1.45 Å)

    Atomic Volume16.239 cm3/mol
    Covalent Radius141 pm (1.41 Å)
    Van der Waals Radius217 pm
    Neutron Cross Section0.63
    Neutron Mass Absorption 0.0002

    Atomic Spectrum of Tin

    Atomic Spectrum of Tin | SchoolMyKids

    Tin Chemical Properties: Tin Ionization Energies and electron affinity

    The electron affinity of Tin is 107.3 kJ/mol.

    Valence4
    Electronegativity1.96
    ElectronAffinity107.3 kJ/mol

    Ionization Energy of Tin

    Refer to table below for Ionization energies of Tin

    Ionization energy numberEnthalpy - kJ/mol
    1st708.6
    2nd1411.8
    3rd2943
    4th3930.3
    5th7456

    Tin Physical Properties

    Refer to below table for Tin Physical Properties

    Density7.31 g/cm3(when liquid at m.p density is $6.99 g/cm3)
    Molar Volume16.239 cm3/mol

    Elastic Properties

    Young Modulus50
    Shear Modulus18 GPa
    Bulk Modulus 58 GPa
    Poisson Ratio0.36

    Hardness of Tin - Tests to Measure of Hardness of Element

    Mohs Hardness1.5 MPa
    Vickers Hardness-
    Brinell Hardness51 MPa

    Tin Electrical Properties

    Tin is Conductor of electricity. Refer to table below for the Electrical properties ofTin

    Electrical Conductivity9100000 S/m
    Resistivity1.1e-7 m Ω
    Superconducting Point3.72

    Tin Heat and Conduction Properties

    Thermal Conductivity67 W/(m K)
    Thermal Expansion0.000022 /K

    Tin Magnetic Properties

    Magnetic TypeDiamagnetic
    Curie Point-
    Mass Magnetic Susceptibility-3.1e-9 m3/kg
    Molar Magnetic Susceptibility-3.68e-10 m3/mol
    Volume Magnetic Susceptibility-0.0000227

    Optical Properties of Tin

    Refractive Index-

    Acoustic Properties of Tin

    Speed of Sound2500 m/s

    Tin Thermal Properties - Enthalpies and thermodynamics

    Refer to table below for Thermal properties of Tin

    Melting Point505.08 K (231.93°C, 449.474 °F)
    Boiling Point2875 K (2601.85°C, 4715.33 °F)
    Critical Temperature-
    Superconducting Point3.72

    Enthalpies of Tin

    Heat of Fusion7 kJ/mol
    Heat of Vaporization290 kJ/mol
    Heat of Combustion-

    Tin Isotopes - Nuclear Properties of Tin

    Tin has 39 isotopes, with between 99 and 137 nucleons. Tin has 10 stable naturally occuring isotopes.

    Isotopes of Tin - Naturally occurring stable Isotopes: 112Sn, 114Sn, 115Sn, 116Sn, 117Sn, 118Sn, 119Sn, 120Sn, 122Sn, 124Sn.

    IsotopeZNIsotope Mass% AbundanceT halfDecay Mode
    99Sn504999Synthetic
    100Sn5050100Synthetic
    101Sn5051101Synthetic
    102Sn5052102Synthetic
    103Sn5053103Synthetic
    104Sn5054104Synthetic
    105Sn5055105Synthetic
    106Sn5056106Synthetic
    107Sn5057107Synthetic
    108Sn5058108Synthetic
    109Sn5059109Synthetic
    110Sn5060110Synthetic
    111Sn5061111Synthetic
    112Sn50621120.97%StableN/A
    113Sn5063113Synthetic
    114Sn50641140.66%StableN/A
    115Sn50651150.34%StableN/A
    116Sn506611614.54%StableN/A
    117Sn50671177.68%StableN/A
    118Sn506811824.22%StableN/A
    119Sn50691198.59%Stable
    120Sn507012032.58%StableN/A
    121Sn5071121Synthetic
    122Sn50721224.63%StableN/A
    123Sn5073123Synthetic
    124Sn50741245.79%StableN/A
    125Sn5075125Synthetic
    126Sn5076126Synthetic
    127Sn5077127Synthetic
    128Sn5078128Synthetic
    129Sn5079129Synthetic
    130Sn5080130Synthetic
    131Sn5081131Synthetic
    132Sn5082132Synthetic
    133Sn5083133Synthetic
    134Sn5084134Synthetic
    135Sn5085135Synthetic
    136Sn5086136Synthetic
    137Sn5087137Synthetic

    Regulatory and Health - Health and Safety Parameters and Guidelines

    Database Search

    List of unique identifiers to search the element in various chemical registry databases

    DatabaseIdentifier number
    CAS Number - Chemical Abstracts Service (CAS)CAS7440-31-5
    RTECS Number{N/A, RTECSXP7320000}
    CID Number {CID5352426, CID5352426}
    Gmelin Number-
    NSC Number-