Element Information, Facts, Properties, Trends, Uses, Comparison with other elements
Sodium /ˈsoʊdiəm/ is a chemical element with symbol Na (from Ancient Greek Νάτριο) and atomic number 11. It is a soft, silver-white, highly reactive metal. In the Periodic table it is in column 1 (alkali metals), and shares with the other six elements in that column that it has a single electron in its outer shell, which it readily donates, creating a positively charged atom - a cation.
It belongs to group 1 of the periodic table having trivial name alkali metals*. Hydrogen resides within this column, but is not considered an alkali metal.
Read key information and facts about element Sodium
|Appearance||silvery white metallic|
|Group in Periodic Table||1|
|Group Name||lithium family|
|Period in Periodic Table||period 3|
|Block in Periodic Table||s -block|
|Electronic Configuration||[Ne] 3s1|
|Electronic Shell Structure (Electrons per shell)||2, 8, 1|
|Melting Point||370.87 K|
|Boiling Point||1156 K|
How to Locate Sodium on Periodic Table
Periodic table is arranged by atomic number, number of protons in the nucleus which is same as number of electrons. The atomic number increases from left to right. Periodic table starts at top left ( Atomic number 1) and ends at bottom right (atomic number 118). Therefore you can directly look for atomic number 11 to find Sodium on periodic table.
Another way to read periodic table and locate an element is by using group number (column) and period number (row). To locate Sodium on periodic table look for cross section of group 1 and period 3 in the modern periodic table.
The element Sodium was discovered by H. Davy in year 1807 in United Kingdom. Sodium was first isolated by H. Davy in 1807. Sodium derived its name from the English word soda (natrium in Latin).
Andreas Sigismund Marggraf recognised the difference between soda ash and potash in 1758. Davy discovered sodium a few days after potassium, by using electrolysis onsodium hydroxide.
Sodium Presence: Abundance in Nature and Around Us
The table below shows the abundance of Sodium in Universe, Sun, Meteorites, Earth's Crust, Oceans and Human Body.
|ppb by weight (1ppb =10^-7 %)||ppb by atoms (1ppb =10^-7 %)|
|Abundance in Universe||20000||1000|
|Abundance in Sun||40000||2000|
|Abundance in Meteorites||5600000||4800000|
|Abundance in Earth's Crust||23000000||21000000|
|Abundance in Oceans||11050000||2970000|
|Abundance in Humans||1400000||380000|
Crystal Structure of Sodium
The solid state structure of Sodium is Body Centered Cubic.
The Crystal structure can be described in terms of its unit Cell. The unit Cells repeats itself in three dimensional space to form the structure.
Unit Cell Parameters
The unit cell is represented in terms of its lattice parameters, which are the lengths of the cell edges Lattice Constants (a, b and c)
|429.06 pm||429.06 pm||429.06 pm|
and the angles between them Lattice Angles (alpha, beta and gamma).
The positions of the atoms inside the unit cell are described by the set of atomic positions ( xi, yi, zi) measured from a reference lattice point.
The symmetry properties of the crystal are described by the concept of space groups. All possible symmetric arrangements of particles in three-dimensional space are described by the 230 space groups (219 distinct types, or 230 if chiral copies are considered distinct.
|Space Group Name||Im_ 3m|
|Oxidation States||Space Group Number||229|
|Crystal Structure||Body Centered Cubic|
Sodium Atomic and Orbital Properties
Sodium atoms have 11 electrons and the electronic shell structure is [2, 8, 1] with Atomic Term Symbol (Quantum Numbers) 2S1/2.
|Number of Electrons (with no charge)||11|
|Number of Protons||11|
|Number of Neutrons||12|
|Shell structure (Electrons per energy level)||2, 8, 1|
|Electron Configuration||[Ne] 3s1|
|Main Oxidation States||1|
|Oxidation States||-1, 1|
|Atomic Term Symbol (Quantum Numbers)||2S1/2|
Bohr Atomic Model of Sodium - Electrons per energy level
Ground State Electronic Configuration of Sodium - neutral Sodium atom
Abbreviated electronic configuration of Sodium
The ground state abbreviated electronic configuration of Neutral Sodium atom is [Ne] 3s1. The portion of Sodium configuration that is equivalent to the noble gas of the preceding period, is abbreviated as [Ne]. For atoms with many electrons, this notation can become lengthy and so an abbreviated notation is used. This is important as it is the Valence electrons 3s1, electrons in the outermost shell that determine the chemical properties of the element.
Unabbreviated electronic configuration of neutral Sodium
Complete ground state electronic configuration for the Sodium atom, Unabbreviated electronic configuration
1s2 2s2 2p6 3s1
Electrons are filled in atomic orbitals as per the order determined by the Aufbau principle, Pauli Exclusion Principle and Hund’s Rule.
Atomic Structure of Sodium
Sodium atomic radius is 190 pm, while it's covalent radius is 154 pm.
|Atomic Radius Calculated|
190 pm (1.9 Å)
|Atomic Radius Empirical|
180 pm (1.8 Å)
|Atomic Volume||23.75 cm3/mol|
|Covalent Radius||154 pm (1.54 Å)|
|Van der Waals Radius||227 pm|
|Neutron Cross Section||0.53|
|Neutron Mass Absorption||0.0007|
Atomic Spectrum of Sodium
Sodium Chemical Properties: Sodium Ionization Energies and electron affinity
The electron affinity of Sodium is 52.8 kJ/mol.
Ionization Energy of Sodium
Refer to table below for Ionization energies of Sodium
|Ionization energy number||Enthalpy - kJ/mol|
Sodium Physical Properties
Refer to below table for Sodium Physical Properties
|Density||0.968 g/cm3(when liquid at m.p density is $0.927 g/cm3)|
|Molar Volume||23.75 cm3/mol|
|Shear Modulus||3.3 GPa|
|Bulk Modulus||6.3 GPa|
Hardness of Sodium - Tests to Measure of Hardness of Element
|Mohs Hardness||0.5 MPa|
|Brinell Hardness||0.69 MPa|
Sodium Electrical Properties
Sodium is Conductor of electricity. Refer to table below for the Electrical properties ofSodium
|Electrical Conductivity||21000000 S/m|
|Resistivity||4.7e-8 m Ω|
Sodium Heat and Conduction Properties
|Thermal Conductivity||140 W/(m K)|
|Thermal Expansion||0.000071 /K|
Sodium Magnetic Properties
|Mass Magnetic Susceptibility||8.8e-9 m3/kg|
|Molar Magnetic Susceptibility||2e-10 m3/mol|
|Volume Magnetic Susceptibility||0.0000085|
Optical Properties of Sodium
Acoustic Properties of Sodium
|Speed of Sound||3200 m/s|
Sodium Thermal Properties - Enthalpies and thermodynamics
Refer to table below for Thermal properties of Sodium
|Melting Point||370.87 K (97.72°C, 207.89600000000004 °F)|
|Boiling Point||1156 K (882.85°C, 1621.13 °F)|
|Critical Temperature||2573 K|
Enthalpies of Sodium
|Heat of Fusion||2.6 kJ/mol|
|Heat of Vaporization||97.7 kJ/mol|
|Heat of Combustion||-|
Sodium Isotopes - Nuclear Properties of Sodium
Sodium has 20 isotopes, with between 18 and 37 nucleons. Sodium has 1 stable naturally occuring isotopes.
Isotopes of Sodium - Naturally occurring stable Isotopes: 23Na.
|Isotope||Z||N||Isotope Mass||% Abundance||T half||Decay Mode|