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Na Sodium
Element Information, Facts, Properties, Trends, Uses, Comparison with other elements

11
Na
Sodium
Element 11 of Periodic table is Sodium with atomic number 11, atomic weight 22.98977. Sodium, symbol Na, has a Body Centered Cubic structure and Silver color. Sodium is a Alkali Metal element. It is part of group 1 (lithium family). Know everything about Sodium Facts, Physical Properties, Chemical Properties, Electronic configuration, Atomic and Crystal Structure.
11 Na - Sodium | SchoolMyKids

Sodium /ˈsoʊdiəm/ is a chemical element with symbol Na (from Ancient Greek Νάτριο) and atomic number 11. It is a soft, silver-white, highly reactive metal. In the Periodic table it is in column 1 (alkali metals), and shares with the other six elements in that column that it has a single electron in its outer shell, which it readily donates, creating a positively charged atom - a cation.

It belongs to group 1 of the periodic table having trivial name alkali metals*. Hydrogen resides within this column, but is not considered an alkali metal.

Sodium Facts

Read key information and facts about element Sodium

NameSodium
Atomic Number11
Atomic SymbolNa
Atomic Weight22.98977
PhaseSolid
ColorSilver
Appearancesilvery white metallic
ClassificationAlkali Metal
Group in Periodic Table1
Group Namelithium family
Period in Periodic Tableperiod 3
Block in Periodic Tables -block
Electronic Configuration[Ne] 3s1
Electronic Shell Structure (Electrons per shell)2, 8, 1
Melting Point370.87 K
Boiling Point1156 K
CAS NumberCAS7440-23-5
Neighborhood Elements
123456789101112131415161718
1
1
H
Hydrogen
1.008

Atomic #

Electronic Shell #

Symbol
Name
Atomic Weight
HGas
HgLiquid
CSolid
Metals
Metalloids
NonMetals
Alkali metals
Alkali earth metals
Lanthanoids
Transition metals
Post-transition metals
Other nonmetals
Halogens
Nobel gas
Actinoids
2
He
Helium
4.003
2
3
Li
Lithium
6.941
4
Be
Beryllium
9.012
5
B
Boron
10.811
6
C
Carbon
12.011
7
N
Nitrogen
14.007
8
O
Oxygen
15.999
9
F
Fluorine
18.998
10
Ne
Neon
20.180
3
11
Na
Sodium
22.990
12
Mg
Magnesium
24.305
13
Al
Aluminium
26.982
14
Si
Silicon
28.085
15
P
Phosphorus
30.974
16
S
Sulfur
32.065
17
Cl
Chlorine
35.453
18
Ar
Argon
39.948
4
19
K
Potassium
39.098
20
Ca
Calcium
40.078
21
Sc
Scandium
44.956
22
Ti
Titanium
47.867
23
V
Vanadium
50.941
24
Cr
Chromium
51.996
25
Mn
Manganese
54.938
26
Fe
Iron
55.845
27
Co
Cobalt
58.933
28
Ni
Nickel
58.693
29
Cu
Copper
63.546
30
Zn
Zinc
65.409
31
Ga
Gallium
69.723
32
Ge
Germanium
72.640
33
As
Arsenic
74.922
34
Se
Selenium
78.960
35
Br
Bromine
79.904
36
Kr
Krypton
83.798
5
37
Rb
Rubidium
85.468
38
Sr
Strontium
87.620
39
Y
Yttrium
88.906
40
Zr
Zirconium
91.224
41
Nb
Niobium
92.906
42
Mo
Molybdenum
95.940
43
Tc
Technetium
98
44
Ru
Ruthenium
101.070
45
Rh
Rhodium
102.906
46
Pd
Palladium
106.420
47
Ag
Silver
107.868
48
Cd
Cadmium
112.411
49
In
Indium
114.818
50
Sn
Tin
118.710
51
Sb
Antimony
121.760
52
Te
Tellurium
127.600
53
I
Iodine
126.904
54
Xe
Xenon
131.293
6
55
Cs
Cesium
132.905
56
Ba
Barium
137.327
57 - 71
La - Lu
Lanthanides
72
Hf
Hafnium
178.490
73
Ta
Tantalum
180.948
74
W
Tungsten
183.840
75
Re
Rhenium
186.207
76
Os
Osmium
190.230
77
Ir
Iridium
192.217
78
Pt
Platinum
195.078
79
Au
Gold
196.967
80
Hg
Mercury
200.590
81
Tl
Thallium
204.383
82
Pb
Lead
207.200
83
Bi
Bismuth
208.980
84
Po
Polonium
209
85
At
Astatine
210
86
Rn
Radon
222
7
87
Fr
Francium
223
88
Ra
Radium
226
89 - 103
Ac - Lr
Actinides
104
Rf
Rutherfordium
261
105
Db
Dubnium
262
106
Sg
Seaborgium
266
107
Bh
Bohrium
264
108
Hs
Hassium
277
109
Mt
Meitnerium
268
110
Ds
Darmstadtium
281
111
Rg
Roentgenium
272
112
Cn
Copernicium
285
113
Nh
Nihonium
284
114
Fl
Flerovium
289
115
Mc
Moscovium
288
116
Lv
Livermorium
292
117
Ts
Tennessine
294
118
Og
Oganesson
294
Lanthanides
57
La
Lanthanum
138.905
58
Ce
Cerium
140.116
59
Pr
Praseodymium
140.908
60
Nd
Neodymium
144.240
61
Pm
Promethium
145
62
Sm
Samarium
150.360
63
Eu
Europium
151.964
64
Gd
Gadolinium
157.250
65
Tb
Terbium
158.925
66
Dy
Dysprosium
162.500
67
Ho
Holmium
164.930
68
Er
Erbium
167.259
69
Tm
Thulium
168.934
70
Yb
Ytterbium
173.040
71
Lu
Lutetium
174.967
Actinides
89
Ac
Actinium
227
90
Th
Thorium
232.038
91
Pa
Protactinium
231.036
92
U
Uranium
238.029
93
Np
Neptunium
237
94
Pu
Plutonium
244
95
Am
Americium
243
96
Cm
Curium
247
97
Bk
Berkelium
247
98
Cf
Californium
251
99
Es
Einsteinium
252
100
Fm
Fermium
257
101
Md
Mendelevium
258
102
No
Nobelium
259
103
Lr
Lawrencium
262

How to Locate Sodium on Periodic Table

Periodic table is arranged by atomic number, number of protons in the nucleus which is same as number of electrons. The atomic number increases from left to right. Periodic table starts at top left ( Atomic number 1) and ends at bottom right (atomic number 118). Therefore you can directly look for atomic number 11 to find Sodium on periodic table.

Another way to read periodic table and locate an element is by using group number (column) and period number (row). To locate Sodium on periodic table look for cross section of group 1 and period 3 in the modern periodic table.

Sodium History

The element Sodium was discovered by H. Davy in year 1807 in United Kingdom. Sodium was first isolated by H. Davy in 1807. Sodium derived its name from the English word soda (natrium in Latin).

Andreas Sigismund Marggraf recognised the difference between soda ash and potash in 1758. Davy discovered sodium a few days after potassium, by using electrolysis onsodium hydroxide.

Sodium Presence: Abundance in Nature and Around Us

The table below shows the abundance of Sodium in Universe, Sun, Meteorites, Earth's Crust, Oceans and Human Body.

 ppb by weight (1ppb =10^-7 %)ppb by atoms (1ppb =10^-7 %)
Abundance in Universe200001000
Abundance in Sun400002000
Abundance in Meteorites56000004800000
Abundance in Earth's Crust2300000021000000
Abundance in Oceans110500002970000
Abundance in Humans1400000380000

Crystal Structure of Sodium

The solid state structure of Sodium is Body Centered Cubic.

The Crystal structure can be described in terms of its unit Cell. The unit Cells repeats itself in three dimensional space to form the structure.

Unit Cell Parameters

The unit cell is represented in terms of its lattice parameters, which are the lengths of the cell edges Lattice Constants (a, b and c)

abc
429.06 pm429.06 pm429.06 pm

and the angles between them Lattice Angles (alpha, beta and gamma).

alphabetagamma
π/2 π/2 π/2

The positions of the atoms inside the unit cell are described by the set of atomic positions ( xi, yi, zi) measured from a reference lattice point.

The symmetry properties of the crystal are described by the concept of space groups. All possible symmetric arrangements of particles in three-dimensional space are described by the 230 space groups (219 distinct types, or 230 if chiral copies are considered distinct.

Space Group NameIm_ 3m 11 Na Sodium - Crystal Structure | SchoolMyKids
Oxidation StatesSpace Group Number229
Crystal StructureBody Centered Cubic

Sodium Atomic and Orbital Properties

Sodium atoms have 11 electrons and the electronic shell structure is [2, 8, 1] with Atomic Term Symbol (Quantum Numbers) 2S1/2.

Atomic Number11
Number of Electrons (with no charge)11
Number of Protons11
Mass Number23
Number of Neutrons12
Shell structure (Electrons per energy level)2, 8, 1
Electron Configuration[Ne] 3s1
Valence Electrons3s1
Valence (Valency)1
Main Oxidation States1
Oxidation States-1, 1
Atomic Term Symbol (Quantum Numbers)2S1/2

Bohr Atomic Model of Sodium - Electrons per energy level

11 Na Sodium - Electron Shell Structure | SchoolMyKids
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Ground State Electronic Configuration of Sodium - neutral Sodium atom

Abbreviated electronic configuration of Sodium

The ground state abbreviated electronic configuration of Neutral Sodium atom is [Ne] 3s1. The portion of Sodium configuration that is equivalent to the noble gas of the preceding period, is abbreviated as [Ne]. For atoms with many electrons, this notation can become lengthy and so an abbreviated notation is used. This is important as it is the Valence electrons 3s1, electrons in the outermost shell that determine the chemical properties of the element.

Unabbreviated electronic configuration of neutral Sodium

Complete ground state electronic configuration for the Sodium atom, Unabbreviated electronic configuration

1s2 2s2 2p6 3s1

Electrons are filled in atomic orbitals as per the order determined by the Aufbau principle, Pauli Exclusion Principle and Hund’s Rule.

  • As per the Aufbau principle the electrons will occupy the orbitals having lower energies before occupying higher energy orbitals. According to this principle, electrons are filled in the following order: 1s, 2s, 2p, 3s, 3p, 4s, 3d, 4p, 5s, 4d, 5p, 6s, 4f, 5d, 6p, 7s, 5f, 6d, 7p…
  • The Pauli exclusion principle states that a maximum of two electrons, each having opposite spins, can fit in an orbital.
  • Hund's rule states that every orbital in a given subshell is singly occupied by electrons before a second electron is filled in an orbital.
  • Electron configuration of Sodium
    Atomic Structure of Sodium

    Sodium atomic radius is 190 pm, while it's covalent radius is 154 pm.

    Atomic Radius Calculated

    190 pm (1.9 Å)

    Atomic Radius Empirical

    180 pm (1.8 Å)

    Atomic Volume23.75 cm3/mol
    Covalent Radius154 pm (1.54 Å)
    Van der Waals Radius227 pm
    Neutron Cross Section0.53
    Neutron Mass Absorption 0.0007

    Atomic Spectrum of Sodium

    Atomic Spectrum of Sodium | SchoolMyKids

    Sodium Chemical Properties: Sodium Ionization Energies and electron affinity

    The electron affinity of Sodium is 52.8 kJ/mol.

    Valence1
    Electronegativity0.93
    ElectronAffinity52.8 kJ/mol

    Ionization Energy of Sodium

    Refer to table below for Ionization energies of Sodium

    Ionization energy numberEnthalpy - kJ/mol
    1st495.8
    2nd4562
    3rd6910.3
    4th9543
    5th13354
    6th16613
    7th20117
    8th25496
    9th28932
    10th141362
    11th159076

    Sodium Physical Properties

    Refer to below table for Sodium Physical Properties

    Density0.968 g/cm3(when liquid at m.p density is $0.927 g/cm3)
    Molar Volume23.75 cm3/mol

    Elastic Properties

    Young Modulus10
    Shear Modulus3.3 GPa
    Bulk Modulus 6.3 GPa
    Poisson Ratio-

    Hardness of Sodium - Tests to Measure of Hardness of Element

    Mohs Hardness0.5 MPa
    Vickers Hardness-
    Brinell Hardness0.69 MPa

    Sodium Electrical Properties

    Sodium is Conductor of electricity. Refer to table below for the Electrical properties ofSodium

    Electrical Conductivity21000000 S/m
    Resistivity4.7e-8 m Ω
    Superconducting Point-

    Sodium Heat and Conduction Properties

    Thermal Conductivity140 W/(m K)
    Thermal Expansion0.000071 /K

    Sodium Magnetic Properties

    Magnetic TypeParamagnetic
    Curie Point-
    Mass Magnetic Susceptibility8.8e-9 m3/kg
    Molar Magnetic Susceptibility2e-10 m3/mol
    Volume Magnetic Susceptibility0.0000085

    Optical Properties of Sodium

    Refractive Index-

    Acoustic Properties of Sodium

    Speed of Sound3200 m/s

    Sodium Thermal Properties - Enthalpies and thermodynamics

    Refer to table below for Thermal properties of Sodium

    Melting Point370.87 K (97.72°C, 207.89600000000004 °F)
    Boiling Point1156 K (882.85°C, 1621.13 °F)
    Critical Temperature2573 K
    Superconducting Point-

    Enthalpies of Sodium

    Heat of Fusion2.6 kJ/mol
    Heat of Vaporization97.7 kJ/mol
    Heat of Combustion-

    Sodium Isotopes - Nuclear Properties of Sodium

    Sodium has 20 isotopes, with between 18 and 37 nucleons. Sodium has 1 stable naturally occuring isotopes.

    Isotopes of Sodium - Naturally occurring stable Isotopes: 23Na.

    IsotopeZNIsotope Mass% AbundanceT halfDecay Mode
    18Na11718Synthetic
    19Na11819Synthetic
    20Na11920Synthetic
    21Na111021Synthetic
    22Na111122Synthetic
    23Na111223100%Stable
    24Na111324Synthetic
    25Na111425Synthetic
    26Na111526Synthetic
    27Na111627Synthetic
    28Na111728Synthetic
    29Na111829Synthetic
    30Na111930Synthetic
    31Na112031Synthetic
    32Na112132Synthetic
    33Na112233Synthetic
    34Na112334Synthetic
    35Na112435Synthetic
    36Na112536Synthetic
    37Na112637Synthetic

    Regulatory and Health - Health and Safety Parameters and Guidelines

    Database Search

    List of unique identifiers to search the element in various chemical registry databases

    DatabaseIdentifier number
    CAS Number - Chemical Abstracts Service (CAS)CAS7440-23-5
    RTECS NumberRTECSVY0686000
    CID Number CID5360545
    Gmelin Number-
    NSC Number-