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Pr Praseodymium
Element Information, Facts, Properties, Trends, Uses, Comparison with other elements

59
Pr
Praseodymium
Element 59 of Periodic table is Praseodymium with atomic number 59, atomic weight 140.90765. Praseodymium, symbol Pr, has a Simple Hexagonal structure and Silver color. Praseodymium is a Lanthanide element. It is part of group null (). Know everything about Praseodymium Facts, Physical Properties, Chemical Properties, Electronic configuration, Atomic and Crystal Structure.
59 Pr - Praseodymium | SchoolMyKids

Praseodymium is a chemical element with symbol Pr and atomic number 59. Praseodymium is a soft, silvery, malleable and ductile metal in the Lanthanide group. It is valued for its magnetic, electrical, chemical, and optical properties.

It belongs to group of the periodic table having trivial name .

Praseodymium Facts

Read key information and facts about element Praseodymium

NamePraseodymium
Atomic Number59
Atomic SymbolPr
Atomic Weight140.90765
PhaseSolid
ColorSilver
Appearancegrayish white
ClassificationLanthanide
Group in Periodic Table-
Group Name
Period in Periodic Tableperiod 6
Block in Periodic Tablef -block
Electronic Configuration[Xe] 4f3 6s2
Electronic Shell Structure (Electrons per shell)2, 8, 18, 21, 8, 2
Melting Point1204 K
Boiling Point3563 K
CAS NumberCAS7440-10-0
Neighborhood Elements
123456789101112131415161718
1
1
H
Hydrogen
1.008

Atomic #

Electronic Shell #

Symbol
Name
Atomic Weight
HGas
HgLiquid
CSolid
Metals
Metalloids
NonMetals
Alkali metals
Alkali earth metals
Lanthanoids
Transition metals
Post-transition metals
Other nonmetals
Halogens
Nobel gas
Actinoids
2
He
Helium
4.003
2
3
Li
Lithium
6.941
4
Be
Beryllium
9.012
5
B
Boron
10.811
6
C
Carbon
12.011
7
N
Nitrogen
14.007
8
O
Oxygen
15.999
9
F
Fluorine
18.998
10
Ne
Neon
20.180
3
11
Na
Sodium
22.990
12
Mg
Magnesium
24.305
13
Al
Aluminium
26.982
14
Si
Silicon
28.085
15
P
Phosphorus
30.974
16
S
Sulfur
32.065
17
Cl
Chlorine
35.453
18
Ar
Argon
39.948
4
19
K
Potassium
39.098
20
Ca
Calcium
40.078
21
Sc
Scandium
44.956
22
Ti
Titanium
47.867
23
V
Vanadium
50.941
24
Cr
Chromium
51.996
25
Mn
Manganese
54.938
26
Fe
Iron
55.845
27
Co
Cobalt
58.933
28
Ni
Nickel
58.693
29
Cu
Copper
63.546
30
Zn
Zinc
65.409
31
Ga
Gallium
69.723
32
Ge
Germanium
72.640
33
As
Arsenic
74.922
34
Se
Selenium
78.960
35
Br
Bromine
79.904
36
Kr
Krypton
83.798
5
37
Rb
Rubidium
85.468
38
Sr
Strontium
87.620
39
Y
Yttrium
88.906
40
Zr
Zirconium
91.224
41
Nb
Niobium
92.906
42
Mo
Molybdenum
95.940
43
Tc
Technetium
98
44
Ru
Ruthenium
101.070
45
Rh
Rhodium
102.906
46
Pd
Palladium
106.420
47
Ag
Silver
107.868
48
Cd
Cadmium
112.411
49
In
Indium
114.818
50
Sn
Tin
118.710
51
Sb
Antimony
121.760
52
Te
Tellurium
127.600
53
I
Iodine
126.904
54
Xe
Xenon
131.293
6
55
Cs
Cesium
132.905
56
Ba
Barium
137.327
57 - 71
La - Lu
Lanthanides
72
Hf
Hafnium
178.490
73
Ta
Tantalum
180.948
74
W
Tungsten
183.840
75
Re
Rhenium
186.207
76
Os
Osmium
190.230
77
Ir
Iridium
192.217
78
Pt
Platinum
195.078
79
Au
Gold
196.967
80
Hg
Mercury
200.590
81
Tl
Thallium
204.383
82
Pb
Lead
207.200
83
Bi
Bismuth
208.980
84
Po
Polonium
209
85
At
Astatine
210
86
Rn
Radon
222
7
87
Fr
Francium
223
88
Ra
Radium
226
89 - 103
Ac - Lr
Actinides
104
Rf
Rutherfordium
261
105
Db
Dubnium
262
106
Sg
Seaborgium
266
107
Bh
Bohrium
264
108
Hs
Hassium
277
109
Mt
Meitnerium
268
110
Ds
Darmstadtium
281
111
Rg
Roentgenium
272
112
Cn
Copernicium
285
113
Nh
Nihonium
284
114
Fl
Flerovium
289
115
Mc
Moscovium
288
116
Lv
Livermorium
292
117
Ts
Tennessine
294
118
Og
Oganesson
294
Lanthanides
57
La
Lanthanum
138.905
58
Ce
Cerium
140.116
59
Pr
Praseodymium
140.908
60
Nd
Neodymium
144.240
61
Pm
Promethium
145
62
Sm
Samarium
150.360
63
Eu
Europium
151.964
64
Gd
Gadolinium
157.250
65
Tb
Terbium
158.925
66
Dy
Dysprosium
162.500
67
Ho
Holmium
164.930
68
Er
Erbium
167.259
69
Tm
Thulium
168.934
70
Yb
Ytterbium
173.040
71
Lu
Lutetium
174.967
Actinides
89
Ac
Actinium
227
90
Th
Thorium
232.038
91
Pa
Protactinium
231.036
92
U
Uranium
238.029
93
Np
Neptunium
237
94
Pu
Plutonium
244
95
Am
Americium
243
96
Cm
Curium
247
97
Bk
Berkelium
247
98
Cf
Californium
251
99
Es
Einsteinium
252
100
Fm
Fermium
257
101
Md
Mendelevium
258
102
No
Nobelium
259
103
Lr
Lawrencium
262

How to Locate Praseodymium on Periodic Table

Periodic table is arranged by atomic number, number of protons in the nucleus which is same as number of electrons. The atomic number increases from left to right. Periodic table starts at top left ( Atomic number 1) and ends at bottom right (atomic number 118). Therefore you can directly look for atomic number 59 to find Praseodymium on periodic table.

Another way to read periodic table and locate an element is by using group number (column) and period number (row). To locate Praseodymium on periodic table look for cross section of group - and period 6 in the modern periodic table.

Praseodymium History

The element Praseodymium was discovered by C. A. von Welsbach in year 1885 in Austria. Praseodymium was first isolated by in . Praseodymium derived its name from the Greek praseios didymos meaning 'green twin'.

Von Welsbach discovered two new distinct elements in Mosander's didymia: praseodymium and neodymium.

Praseodymium Presence: Abundance in Nature and Around Us

The table below shows the abundance of Praseodymium in Universe, Sun, Meteorites, Earth's Crust, Oceans and Human Body.

 ppb by weight (1ppb =10^-7 %)ppb by atoms (1ppb =10^-7 %)
Abundance in Universe20.02
Abundance in Sun10.005
Abundance in Meteorites10010
Abundance in Earth's Crust87001300
Abundance in Oceans0.00060.000026
Abundance in Humans--

Crystal Structure of Praseodymium

The solid state structure of Praseodymium is Simple Hexagonal.

The Crystal structure can be described in terms of its unit Cell. The unit Cells repeats itself in three dimensional space to form the structure.

Unit Cell Parameters

The unit cell is represented in terms of its lattice parameters, which are the lengths of the cell edges Lattice Constants (a, b and c)

abc
367.25 pm367.25 pm1183.54 pm

and the angles between them Lattice Angles (alpha, beta and gamma).

alphabetagamma
π/2 π/2 2 π/3

The positions of the atoms inside the unit cell are described by the set of atomic positions ( xi, yi, zi) measured from a reference lattice point.

The symmetry properties of the crystal are described by the concept of space groups. All possible symmetric arrangements of particles in three-dimensional space are described by the 230 space groups (219 distinct types, or 230 if chiral copies are considered distinct.

Space Group NameP63/mmc 59 Pr Praseodymium - Crystal Structure | SchoolMyKids
Oxidation StatesSpace Group Number194
Crystal StructureSimple Hexagonal

Praseodymium Atomic and Orbital Properties

Praseodymium atoms have 59 electrons and the electronic shell structure is [2, 8, 18, 21, 8, 2] with Atomic Term Symbol (Quantum Numbers) 4I9/2.

Atomic Number59
Number of Electrons (with no charge)59
Number of Protons59
Mass Number141
Number of Neutrons82
Shell structure (Electrons per energy level)2, 8, 18, 21, 8, 2
Electron Configuration[Xe] 4f3 6s2
Valence Electrons4f3 6s2
Valence (Valency)4
Main Oxidation States3
Oxidation States0, 1, 2, 3, 4, 5
Atomic Term Symbol (Quantum Numbers)4I9/2

Bohr Atomic Model of Praseodymium - Electrons per energy level

59 Pr Praseodymium - Electron Shell Structure | SchoolMyKids
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Ground State Electronic Configuration of Praseodymium - neutral Praseodymium atom

Abbreviated electronic configuration of Praseodymium

The ground state abbreviated electronic configuration of Neutral Praseodymium atom is [Xe] 4f3 6s2. The portion of Praseodymium configuration that is equivalent to the noble gas of the preceding period, is abbreviated as [Xe]. For atoms with many electrons, this notation can become lengthy and so an abbreviated notation is used. This is important as it is the Valence electrons 4f3 6s2, electrons in the outermost shell that determine the chemical properties of the element.

Unabbreviated electronic configuration of neutral Praseodymium

Complete ground state electronic configuration for the Praseodymium atom, Unabbreviated electronic configuration

1s2 2s2 2p6 3s2 3p6 3d10 4s2 4p6 4d10 5s2 5p6 4f3 6s2

Electrons are filled in atomic orbitals as per the order determined by the Aufbau principle, Pauli Exclusion Principle and Hund’s Rule.

  • As per the Aufbau principle the electrons will occupy the orbitals having lower energies before occupying higher energy orbitals. According to this principle, electrons are filled in the following order: 1s, 2s, 2p, 3s, 3p, 4s, 3d, 4p, 5s, 4d, 5p, 6s, 4f, 5d, 6p, 7s, 5f, 6d, 7p…
  • The Pauli exclusion principle states that a maximum of two electrons, each having opposite spins, can fit in an orbital.
  • Hund's rule states that every orbital in a given subshell is singly occupied by electrons before a second electron is filled in an orbital.
  • Electron configuration of Praseodymium
    Atomic Structure of Praseodymium

    Praseodymium atomic radius is 247 pm, while it's covalent radius is - .

    Atomic Radius Calculated

    247 pm (2.47 Å)

    Atomic Radius Empirical

    185 pm (1.85 Å)

    Atomic Volume20.8 cm3/mol
    Covalent Radius-
    Van der Waals Radius-
    Neutron Cross Section11.4
    Neutron Mass Absorption 0.0029

    Atomic Spectrum of Praseodymium

    Atomic Spectrum of Praseodymium | SchoolMyKids

    Praseodymium Chemical Properties: Praseodymium Ionization Energies and electron affinity

    The electron affinity of Praseodymium is 50 kJ/mol.

    Valence4
    Electronegativity1.13
    ElectronAffinity50 kJ/mol

    Ionization Energy of Praseodymium

    Refer to table below for Ionization energies of Praseodymium

    Ionization energy numberEnthalpy - kJ/mol
    1st527
    2nd1020
    3rd2086
    4th3761
    5th5551

    Praseodymium Physical Properties

    Refer to below table for Praseodymium Physical Properties

    Density6.64 g/cm3(when liquid at m.p density is $6.5 g/cm3)
    Molar Volume20.8 cm3/mol

    Elastic Properties

    Young Modulus37
    Shear Modulus15 GPa
    Bulk Modulus 29 GPa
    Poisson Ratio0.28

    Hardness of Praseodymium - Tests to Measure of Hardness of Element

    Mohs Hardness-
    Vickers Hardness400 MPa
    Brinell Hardness481 MPa

    Praseodymium Electrical Properties

    Praseodymium is Conductor of electricity. Refer to table below for the Electrical properties ofPraseodymium

    Electrical Conductivity1400000 S/m
    Resistivity7e-7 m Ω
    Superconducting Point-

    Praseodymium Heat and Conduction Properties

    Thermal Conductivity13 W/(m K)
    Thermal Expansion0.0000067 /K

    Praseodymium Magnetic Properties

    Magnetic TypeParamagnetic
    Curie Point-
    Mass Magnetic Susceptibility4.23e-7 m3/kg
    Molar Magnetic Susceptibility5.9604e-8 m3/mol
    Volume Magnetic Susceptibility0.0028087

    Optical Properties of Praseodymium

    Refractive Index-

    Acoustic Properties of Praseodymium

    Speed of Sound2280 m/s

    Praseodymium Thermal Properties - Enthalpies and thermodynamics

    Refer to table below for Thermal properties of Praseodymium

    Melting Point1204 K (930.85°C, 1707.53 °F)
    Boiling Point3563 K (3289.85°C, 5953.73 °F)
    Critical Temperature-
    Superconducting Point-

    Enthalpies of Praseodymium

    Heat of Fusion6.9 kJ/mol
    Heat of Vaporization330 kJ/mol
    Heat of Combustion-

    Praseodymium Isotopes - Nuclear Properties of Praseodymium

    Praseodymium has 39 isotopes, with between 121 and 159 nucleons. Praseodymium has 1 stable naturally occuring isotopes.

    Isotopes of Praseodymium - Naturally occurring stable Isotopes: 141Pr.

    IsotopeZNIsotope Mass% AbundanceT halfDecay Mode
    121Pr5962121Synthetic
    122Pr5963122Synthetic
    123Pr5964123Synthetic
    124Pr5965124Synthetic
    125Pr5966125Synthetic
    126Pr5967126Synthetic
    127Pr5968127Synthetic
    128Pr5969128Synthetic
    129Pr5970129Synthetic
    130Pr5971130Synthetic
    131Pr5972131Synthetic
    132Pr5973132Synthetic
    133Pr5974133Synthetic
    134Pr5975134Synthetic
    135Pr5976135Synthetic
    136Pr5977136Synthetic
    137Pr5978137Synthetic
    138Pr5979138Synthetic
    139Pr5980139Synthetic
    140Pr5981140Synthetic
    141Pr5982141100%Stable
    142Pr5983142Synthetic
    143Pr5984143Synthetic
    144Pr5985144Synthetic
    145Pr5986145Synthetic
    146Pr5987146Synthetic
    147Pr5988147Synthetic
    148Pr5989148Synthetic
    149Pr5990149Synthetic
    150Pr5991150Synthetic
    151Pr5992151Synthetic
    152Pr5993152Synthetic
    153Pr5994153Synthetic
    154Pr5995154Synthetic
    155Pr5996155Synthetic
    156Pr5997156Synthetic
    157Pr5998157Synthetic
    158Pr5999158Synthetic
    159Pr59100159Synthetic

    Database Search

    List of unique identifiers to search the element in various chemical registry databases

    DatabaseIdentifier number
    CAS Number - Chemical Abstracts Service (CAS)CAS7440-10-0
    RTECS Number-
    CID Number CID23942
    Gmelin Number-
    NSC Number-

    Compare Praseodymium with other elements

    Compare Praseodymium with all Group elements

    Compare Praseodymium with all Period 6 elements

    Compare Praseodymium with all Lanthanide elements