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Cd Cadmium
Element Information, Facts, Properties, Trends, Uses, Comparison with other elements

48
Cd
Cadmium
Element 48 of Periodic table is Cadmium with atomic number 48, atomic weight 112.411. Cadmium, symbol Cd, has a Simple Hexagonal structure and Silver color. Cadmium is a Transition Metal element. It is part of group 12 (zinc family). Know everything about Cadmium Facts, Physical Properties, Chemical Properties, Electronic configuration, Atomic and Crystal Structure.
48 Cd - Cadmium | SchoolMyKids

Cadmium is a chemical element with symbol Cd and atomic number 48. This soft, bluish-white metal is chemically similar to the two other stable metals in group 12, zinc and mercury. Like zinc, it prefers oxidation state +2 in most of its compounds and like mercury it shows a low melting point compared to transition metals.

It belongs to group 12 of the periodic table having trivial name volatile metals.

Cadmium Facts

Read key information and facts about element Cadmium

NameCadmium
Atomic Number48
Atomic SymbolCd
Atomic Weight112.411
PhaseSolid
ColorSilver
Appearancesilvery bluish-gray metallic
ClassificationTransition Metal
Group in Periodic Table12
Group Namezinc family
Period in Periodic Tableperiod 5
Block in Periodic Tabled -block
Electronic Configuration[Kr] 4d10 5s2
Electronic Shell Structure (Electrons per shell)2, 8, 18, 18, 2
Melting Point594.22 K
Boiling Point1040 K
CAS NumberCAS7440-43-9
123456789101112131415161718
1
1
H
Hydrogen
1.008

Atomic #

Electronic Shell #

Symbol
Name
Atomic Weight
HGas
HgLiquid
CSolid
Metals
Metalloids
NonMetals
Alkali metals
Alkali earth metals
Lanthanoids
Transition metals
Post-transition metals
Other nonmetals
Halogens
Nobel gas
Actinoids
2
He
Helium
4.003
2
3
Li
Lithium
6.941
4
Be
Beryllium
9.012
5
B
Boron
10.811
6
C
Carbon
12.011
7
N
Nitrogen
14.007
8
O
Oxygen
15.999
9
F
Fluorine
18.998
10
Ne
Neon
20.180
3
11
Na
Sodium
22.990
12
Mg
Magnesium
24.305
13
Al
Aluminium
26.982
14
Si
Silicon
28.085
15
P
Phosphorus
30.974
16
S
Sulfur
32.065
17
Cl
Chlorine
35.453
18
Ar
Argon
39.948
4
19
K
Potassium
39.098
20
Ca
Calcium
40.078
21
Sc
Scandium
44.956
22
Ti
Titanium
47.867
23
V
Vanadium
50.941
24
Cr
Chromium
51.996
25
Mn
Manganese
54.938
26
Fe
Iron
55.845
27
Co
Cobalt
58.933
28
Ni
Nickel
58.693
29
Cu
Copper
63.546
30
Zn
Zinc
65.409
31
Ga
Gallium
69.723
32
Ge
Germanium
72.640
33
As
Arsenic
74.922
34
Se
Selenium
78.960
35
Br
Bromine
79.904
36
Kr
Krypton
83.798
5
37
Rb
Rubidium
85.468
38
Sr
Strontium
87.620
39
Y
Yttrium
88.906
40
Zr
Zirconium
91.224
41
Nb
Niobium
92.906
42
Mo
Molybdenum
95.940
43
Tc
Technetium
98
44
Ru
Ruthenium
101.070
45
Rh
Rhodium
102.906
46
Pd
Palladium
106.420
47
Ag
Silver
107.868
48
Cd
Cadmium
112.411
49
In
Indium
114.818
50
Sn
Tin
118.710
51
Sb
Antimony
121.760
52
Te
Tellurium
127.600
53
I
Iodine
126.904
54
Xe
Xenon
131.293
6
55
Cs
Cesium
132.905
56
Ba
Barium
137.327
57 - 71
La - Lu
Lanthanides
72
Hf
Hafnium
178.490
73
Ta
Tantalum
180.948
74
W
Tungsten
183.840
75
Re
Rhenium
186.207
76
Os
Osmium
190.230
77
Ir
Iridium
192.217
78
Pt
Platinum
195.078
79
Au
Gold
196.967
80
Hg
Mercury
200.590
81
Tl
Thallium
204.383
82
Pb
Lead
207.200
83
Bi
Bismuth
208.980
84
Po
Polonium
209
85
At
Astatine
210
86
Rn
Radon
222
7
87
Fr
Francium
223
88
Ra
Radium
226
89 - 103
Ac - Lr
Actinides
104
Rf
Rutherfordium
261
105
Db
Dubnium
262
106
Sg
Seaborgium
266
107
Bh
Bohrium
264
108
Hs
Hassium
277
109
Mt
Meitnerium
268
110
Ds
Darmstadtium
281
111
Rg
Roentgenium
272
112
Cn
Copernicium
285
113
Nh
Nihonium
284
114
Fl
Flerovium
289
115
Mc
Moscovium
288
116
Lv
Livermorium
292
117
Ts
Tennessine
294
118
Og
Oganesson
294
Lanthanides
57
La
Lanthanum
138.905
58
Ce
Cerium
140.116
59
Pr
Praseodymium
140.908
60
Nd
Neodymium
144.240
61
Pm
Promethium
145
62
Sm
Samarium
150.360
63
Eu
Europium
151.964
64
Gd
Gadolinium
157.250
65
Tb
Terbium
158.925
66
Dy
Dysprosium
162.500
67
Ho
Holmium
164.930
68
Er
Erbium
167.259
69
Tm
Thulium
168.934
70
Yb
Ytterbium
173.040
71
Lu
Lutetium
174.967
Actinides
89
Ac
Actinium
227
90
Th
Thorium
232.038
91
Pa
Protactinium
231.036
92
U
Uranium
238.029
93
Np
Neptunium
237
94
Pu
Plutonium
244
95
Am
Americium
243
96
Cm
Curium
247
97
Bk
Berkelium
247
98
Cf
Californium
251
99
Es
Einsteinium
252
100
Fm
Fermium
257
101
Md
Mendelevium
258
102
No
Nobelium
259
103
Lr
Lawrencium
262

How to Locate Cadmium on Periodic Table

Periodic table is arranged by atomic number, number of protons in the nucleus which is same as number of electrons. The atomic number increases from left to right. Periodic table starts at top left ( Atomic number 1) and ends at bottom right (atomic number 118). Therefore you can directly look for atomic number 48 to find Cadmium on periodic table.

Another way to read periodic table and locate an element is by using group number (column) and period number (row). To locate Cadmium on periodic table look for cross section of group 12 and period 5 in the modern periodic table.

Cadmium History

The element Cadmium was discovered by S. L Hermann,F. Stromeyer, and J.C.H. Roloff in year 1817 in Germany. Cadmium was first isolated by S. L Hermann, F. Stromeyer, and J.C.H. Roloff in 1817. Cadmium derived its name from the New Latin cadmia, from King Kadmos.

All three found an unknown metal in a sample of zinc oxidefrom Silesia, but the name that Stromeyer gave became the accepted one.

Cadmium Presence: Abundance in Nature and Around Us

The table below shows the abundance of Cadmium in Universe, Sun, Meteorites, Earth's Crust, Oceans and Human Body.

 ppb by weight (1ppb =10^-7 %)ppb by atoms (1ppb =10^-7 %)
Abundance in Universe20.02
Abundance in Sun60.07
Abundance in Meteorites45060
Abundance in Earth's Crust15030
Abundance in Oceans0.050.0028
Abundance in Humans70039

Crystal Structure of Cadmium

The solid state structure of Cadmium is Simple Hexagonal.

The Crystal structure can be described in terms of its unit Cell. The unit Cells repeats itself in three dimensional space to form the structure.

Unit Cell Parameters

The unit cell is represented in terms of its lattice parameters, which are the lengths of the cell edges Lattice Constants (a, b and c)

abc
297.94 pm297.94 pm561.86 pm

and the angles between them Lattice Angles (alpha, beta and gamma).

alphabetagamma
π/2 π/2 2 π/3

The positions of the atoms inside the unit cell are described by the set of atomic positions ( xi, yi, zi) measured from a reference lattice point.

The symmetry properties of the crystal are described by the concept of space groups. All possible symmetric arrangements of particles in three-dimensional space are described by the 230 space groups (219 distinct types, or 230 if chiral copies are considered distinct.

Space Group NameP63/mmc 48 Cd Cadmium - Crystal Structure | SchoolMyKids
Oxidation StatesSpace Group Number194
Crystal StructureSimple Hexagonal

Cadmium Atomic and Orbital Properties

Cadmium atoms have 48 electrons and the electronic shell structure is [2, 8, 18, 18, 2] with Atomic Term Symbol (Quantum Numbers) 1S0.

Atomic Number48
Number of Electrons (with no charge)48
Number of Protons48
Mass Number112
Number of Neutrons64
Shell structure (Electrons per energy level)2, 8, 18, 18, 2
Electron Configuration[Kr] 4d10 5s2
Valence Electrons4d10 5s2
Valence (Valency)2
Main Oxidation States2
Oxidation States-2, 1, 2
Atomic Term Symbol (Quantum Numbers)1S0

Bohr Atomic Model of Cadmium - Electrons per energy level

48 Cd Cadmium - Electron Shell Structure | SchoolMyKids
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Ground State Electronic Configuration of Cadmium - neutral Cadmium atom

Abbreviated electronic configuration of Cadmium

The ground state abbreviated electronic configuration of Neutral Cadmium atom is [Kr] 4d10 5s2. The portion of Cadmium configuration that is equivalent to the noble gas of the preceding period, is abbreviated as [Kr]. For atoms with many electrons, this notation can become lengthy and so an abbreviated notation is used. This is important as it is the Valence electrons 4d10 5s2, electrons in the outermost shell that determine the chemical properties of the element.

Unabbreviated electronic configuration of neutral Cadmium

Complete ground state electronic configuration for the Cadmium atom, Unabbreviated electronic configuration

1s2 2s2 2p6 3s2 3p6 3d10 4s2 4p6 4d10 5s2

Electrons are filled in atomic orbitals as per the order determined by the Aufbau principle, Pauli Exclusion Principle and Hund’s Rule.

  • As per the Aufbau principle the electrons will occupy the orbitals having lower energies before occupying higher energy orbitals. According to this principle, electrons are filled in the following order: 1s, 2s, 2p, 3s, 3p, 4s, 3d, 4p, 5s, 4d, 5p, 6s, 4f, 5d, 6p, 7s, 5f, 6d, 7p…
  • The Pauli exclusion principle states that a maximum of two electrons, each having opposite spins, can fit in an orbital.
  • Hund's rule states that every orbital in a given subshell is singly occupied by electrons before a second electron is filled in an orbital.
  • Electron configuration of Cadmium
    Atomic Structure of Cadmium

    Cadmium atomic radius is 161 pm, while it's covalent radius is 148 pm.

    Atomic Radius Calculated

    161 pm (1.61 Å)

    Atomic Radius Empirical

    155 pm (1.55 Å)

    Atomic Volume12.995 cm3/mol
    Covalent Radius148 pm (1.48 Å)
    Van der Waals Radius158 pm
    Neutron Cross Section2450
    Neutron Mass Absorption 1.4

    Atomic Spectrum of Cadmium

    Atomic Spectrum of Cadmium | SchoolMyKids

    Cadmium Chemical Properties: Cadmium Ionization Energies and electron affinity

    The electron affinity of Cadmium is 0 kJ/mol.

    Valence2
    Electronegativity1.69
    ElectronAffinity0 kJ/mol

    Ionization Energy of Cadmium

    Refer to table below for Ionization energies of Cadmium

    Ionization energy numberEnthalpy - kJ/mol
    1st867.8
    2nd1631.4
    3rd3616

    Cadmium Physical Properties

    Refer to below table for Cadmium Physical Properties

    Density8.65 g/cm3(when liquid at m.p density is $7.996 g/cm3)
    Molar Volume12.995 cm3/mol

    Elastic Properties

    Young Modulus50
    Shear Modulus19 GPa
    Bulk Modulus 42 GPa
    Poisson Ratio0.3

    Hardness of Cadmium - Tests to Measure of Hardness of Element

    Mohs Hardness2 MPa
    Vickers Hardness-
    Brinell Hardness203 MPa

    Cadmium Electrical Properties

    Cadmium is Conductor of electricity. Refer to table below for the Electrical properties ofCadmium

    Electrical Conductivity14000000 S/m
    Resistivity7e-8 m Ω
    Superconducting Point0.517

    Cadmium Heat and Conduction Properties

    Thermal Conductivity97 W/(m K)
    Thermal Expansion0.0000308 /K

    Cadmium Magnetic Properties

    Magnetic TypeDiamagnetic
    Curie Point-
    Mass Magnetic Susceptibility-2.3e-9 m3/kg
    Molar Magnetic Susceptibility-2.59e-10 m3/mol
    Volume Magnetic Susceptibility-0.0000199

    Optical Properties of Cadmium

    Refractive Index-

    Acoustic Properties of Cadmium

    Speed of Sound2310 m/s

    Cadmium Thermal Properties - Enthalpies and thermodynamics

    Refer to table below for Thermal properties of Cadmium

    Melting Point594.22 K (321.07°C, 609.9260000000002 °F)
    Boiling Point1040 K (766.85°C, 1412.3300000000002 °F)
    Critical Temperature-
    Superconducting Point0.517

    Enthalpies of Cadmium

    Heat of Fusion6.3 kJ/mol
    Heat of Vaporization100 kJ/mol
    Heat of Combustion-

    Cadmium Isotopes - Nuclear Properties of Cadmium

    Cadmium has 38 isotopes, with between 95 and 132 nucleons. Cadmium has 6 stable naturally occuring isotopes.

    Isotopes of Cadmium - Naturally occurring stable Isotopes: 106Cd, 108Cd, 110Cd, 111Cd, 112Cd, 114Cd.

    IsotopeZNIsotope Mass% AbundanceT halfDecay Mode
    95Cd484795Synthetic
    96Cd484896Synthetic
    97Cd484997Synthetic
    98Cd485098Synthetic
    99Cd485199Synthetic
    100Cd4852100Synthetic
    101Cd4853101Synthetic
    102Cd4854102Synthetic
    103Cd4855103Synthetic
    104Cd4856104Synthetic
    105Cd4857105Synthetic
    106Cd48581061.25%StableN/A
    107Cd4859107Synthetic
    108Cd48601080.89%StableN/A
    109Cd4861109Synthetic
    110Cd486211012.49%StableN/A
    111Cd486311112.8%StableN/A
    112Cd486411224.13%Stable
    113Cd486511312.22%StableN/A
    114Cd486611428.73%StableN/A
    115Cd4867115Synthetic
    116Cd48681167.49%StableN/A
    117Cd4869117Synthetic
    118Cd4870118Synthetic
    119Cd4871119Synthetic
    120Cd4872120Synthetic
    121Cd4873121Synthetic
    122Cd4874122Synthetic
    123Cd4875123Synthetic
    124Cd4876124Synthetic
    125Cd4877125Synthetic
    126Cd4878126Synthetic
    127Cd4879127Synthetic
    128Cd4880128Synthetic
    129Cd4881129Synthetic
    130Cd4882130Synthetic
    131Cd4883131Synthetic
    132Cd4884132Synthetic

    Regulatory and Health - Health and Safety Parameters and Guidelines

    Database Search

    List of unique identifiers to search the element in various chemical registry databases

    DatabaseIdentifier number
    CAS Number - Chemical Abstracts Service (CAS)CAS7440-43-9
    RTECS NumberRTECSEU9800000
    CID Number CID23973
    Gmelin Number-
    NSC Number-