Cadmium is a chemical element with symbol Cd and atomic number 48. This soft, bluish-white metal is chemically similar to the two other stable metals in group 12, zinc and mercury. Like zinc, it prefers oxidation state +2 in most of its compounds and like mercury it shows a low melting point compared to transition metals.
It belongs to group 12 of the periodic table having trivial name volatile metals.
Read key information and facts about element Cadmium
|Appearance||silvery bluish-gray metallic|
|Group in Periodic Table||12|
|Group Name||zinc family|
|Period in Periodic Table||period 5|
|Block in Periodic Table||d -block|
|Electronic Configuration||[Kr] 4d10 5s2|
|Electronic Shell Structure (Electrons per shell)||2, 8, 18, 18, 2|
|Melting Point||594.22 K|
|Boiling Point||1040 K|
How to Locate Cadmium on Periodic Table
Periodic table is arranged by atomic number, number of protons in the nucleus which is same as number of electrons. The atomic number increases from left to right. Periodic table starts at top left ( Atomic number 1) and ends at bottom right (atomic number 118). Therefore you can directly look for atomic number 48 to find Cadmium on periodic table.
Another way to read periodic table and locate an element is by using group number (column) and period number (row). To locate Cadmium on periodic table look for cross section of group 12 and period 5 in the modern periodic table.
The element Cadmium was discovered by S. L Hermann,F. Stromeyer, and J.C.H. Roloff in year 1817 in Germany. Cadmium was first isolated by S. L Hermann, F. Stromeyer, and J.C.H. Roloff in 1817. Cadmium derived its name from the New Latin cadmia, from King Kadmos.
All three found an unknown metal in a sample of zinc oxidefrom Silesia, but the name that Stromeyer gave became the accepted one.
Cadmium Presence: Abundance in Nature and Around Us
The table below shows the abundance of Cadmium in Universe, Sun, Meteorites, Earth's Crust, Oceans and Human Body.
|ppb by weight (1ppb =10^-7 %)||ppb by atoms (1ppb =10^-7 %)|
|Abundance in Universe||2||0.02|
|Abundance in Sun||6||0.07|
|Abundance in Meteorites||450||60|
|Abundance in Earth's Crust||150||30|
|Abundance in Oceans||0.05||0.0028|
|Abundance in Humans||700||39|
Crystal Structure of Cadmium
The solid state structure of Cadmium is Simple Hexagonal.
The Crystal structure can be described in terms of its unit Cell. The unit Cells repeats itself in three dimensional space to form the structure.
Unit Cell Parameters
The unit cell is represented in terms of its lattice parameters, which are the lengths of the cell edges Lattice Constants (a, b and c)
|297.94 pm||297.94 pm||561.86 pm|
and the angles between them Lattice Angles (alpha, beta and gamma).
The positions of the atoms inside the unit cell are described by the set of atomic positions ( xi, yi, zi) measured from a reference lattice point.
The symmetry properties of the crystal are described by the concept of space groups. All possible symmetric arrangements of particles in three-dimensional space are described by the 230 space groups (219 distinct types, or 230 if chiral copies are considered distinct.
|Space Group Name||P63/mmc|
|Space Group Number||194|
|Crystal Structure||Simple Hexagonal|
|Number of atoms per unit cell|
The number of atoms per unit cell in a simple cubic, face-centered cubic and body-centred cubic are 1,4,2 respectively.
Cadmium Atomic and Orbital Properties
Cadmium atoms have 48 electrons and the electronic shell structure is [2, 8, 18, 18, 2] with Atomic Term Symbol (Quantum Numbers) 1S0.
|Number of Electrons (with no charge)||48|
|Number of Protons||48|
|Number of Neutrons||64|
|Shell structure (Electrons per energy level)||2, 8, 18, 18, 2|
|Electron Configuration||[Kr] 4d10 5s2|
|Valence Electrons||4d10 5s2|
|Main Oxidation States||2|
|Oxidation States||-2, 1, 2|
|Atomic Term Symbol (Quantum Numbers)||1S0|
Bohr Atomic Model of Cadmium - Electrons per energy level
Ground State Electronic Configuration of Cadmium - neutral Cadmium atom
Abbreviated electronic configuration of Cadmium
The ground state abbreviated electronic configuration of Neutral Cadmium atom is [Kr] 4d10 5s2. The portion of Cadmium configuration that is equivalent to the noble gas of the preceding period, is abbreviated as [Kr]. For atoms with many electrons, this notation can become lengthy and so an abbreviated notation is used. This is important as it is the Valence electrons 4d10 5s2, electrons in the outermost shell that determine the chemical properties of the element.
Unabbreviated electronic configuration of neutral Cadmium
Complete ground state electronic configuration for the Cadmium atom, Unabbreviated electronic configuration
1s2 2s2 2p6 3s2 3p6 3d10 4s2 4p6 4d10 5s2
Electrons are filled in atomic orbitals as per the order determined by the Aufbau principle, Pauli Exclusion Principle and Hund’s Rule.
Atomic Structure of Cadmium
Cadmium atomic radius is 161 pm, while it's covalent radius is 148 pm.
|Atomic Radius Calculated|
161 pm (1.61 Å)
|Atomic Radius Empirical|
155 pm (1.55 Å)
|Atomic Volume||12.995 cm3/mol|
|Covalent Radius||148 pm (1.48 Å)|
|Van der Waals Radius||158 pm|
|Neutron Cross Section||2450|
|Neutron Mass Absorption||1.4|
Atomic Spectrum of Cadmium
Cadmium Chemical Properties: Cadmium Ionization Energies and electron affinity
The electron affinity of Cadmium is 0 kJ/mol.
Ionization Energy of Cadmium
Refer to table below for Ionization energies of Cadmium
|Ionization energy number||Enthalpy - kJ/mol|
Cadmium Physical Properties
Refer to below table for Cadmium Physical Properties
|Density||8.65 g/cm3(when liquid at m.p density is $7.996 g/cm3)|
|Molar Volume||12.995 cm3/mol|
|Shear Modulus||19 GPa|
|Bulk Modulus||42 GPa|
Hardness of Cadmium - Tests to Measure of Hardness of Element
|Mohs Hardness||2 MPa|
|Brinell Hardness||203 MPa|
Cadmium Electrical Properties
Cadmium is Conductor of electricity. Refer to table below for the Electrical properties ofCadmium
|Electrical Conductivity||14000000 S/m|
|Resistivity||7e-8 m Ω|
Cadmium Heat and Conduction Properties
|Thermal Conductivity||97 W/(m K)|
|Thermal Expansion||0.0000308 /K|
Cadmium Magnetic Properties
|Mass Magnetic Susceptibility||-2.3e-9 m3/kg|
|Molar Magnetic Susceptibility||-2.59e-10 m3/mol|
|Volume Magnetic Susceptibility||-0.0000199|
Optical Properties of Cadmium
Acoustic Properties of Cadmium
|Speed of Sound||2310 m/s|
Cadmium Thermal Properties - Enthalpies and thermodynamics
Refer to table below for Thermal properties of Cadmium
|Melting Point||594.22 K (321.07°C, 609.9260000000002 °F)|
|Boiling Point||1040 K (766.85°C, 1412.3300000000002 °F)|
Enthalpies of Cadmium
|Heat of Fusion||6.3 kJ/mol|
|Heat of Vaporization||100 kJ/mol|
|Heat of Combustion||-|
Cadmium Isotopes - Nuclear Properties of Cadmium
Cadmium has 38 isotopes, with between 95 and 132 nucleons. Cadmium has 6 stable naturally occuring isotopes.
Isotopes of Cadmium - Naturally occurring stable Isotopes: 106Cd, 108Cd, 110Cd, 111Cd, 112Cd, 114Cd.
|Isotope||Z||N||Isotope Mass||% Abundance||T half||Decay Mode|
Regulatory and Health - Health and Safety Parameters and Guidelines
List of unique identifiers to search the element in various chemical registry databases
|CAS Number - Chemical Abstracts Service (CAS)||CAS7440-43-9|
Compare Cadmium with other elements
Compare Cadmium with all Group 12 elements
Compare Cadmium with all Period 5 elements
Compare Cadmium with all Transition Metal elements
What is the electronic configuration of Cadmium?
The electronic configuration of Cadmium is 1s2 2s2 2p6 3s2 3p6 3d10 4s2 4p6 4d10 5s2.
What is the abbreviated electronic configuration of Cadmium?
The abbreviated electronic configuration of Cadmium is [Kr] 4d10 5s2. To form abbreviated notation of electronic configuration, the completely filled subshells are replaced by the noble gas of the preceding period in square brackets.
What is the symbol of Cadmium?
Symbol of Cadmium is Cd. Cadmium is a chemical element with symbol Cd and atomic number 48.
What is the position of Cadmium in the Periodic Table?
Cadmium is a chemical element with the symbol Cd and atomic number 48. Cadmium is the 48 element on the periodic table. It is located in group 12 and period 5 in the modern periodic table.
What is the atomic number of Cadmium?
The atomic number of Cadmium is 48.
What is the color of Cadmium?
Cadmium is of Silver color.
Who discovered Cadmium?
The element Cadmium was discovered by S. L Hermann,F. Stromeyer, and J.C.H. Roloff in year 1817 in Germany. Cadmium was first isolated by S. L Hermann, F. Stromeyer, and J.C.H. Roloff in 1817.
How many valence electrons does a Cadmium atom have?
Cadmium has 2 valence electrons. Cadmium has 48 electrons out of which 2 valence electrons are present in the 4d10 5s2 outer orbitals of atom.
What is the melting Point of Cadmium?
Melting Point of Cadmium is 594.22 K.
What is the boiling Point of Cadmium?
Boiling Point of Cadmium is 1040 K.
What is the melting Point of Cadmium in Kelvin?
Melting Point of Cadmium in Kelvin is 594.22 K.
What is the boiling Point of Cadmium in Kelvin?
Boiling Point of Cadmium in Kelvin is 1040 K.
What is the electronic configuration of Cadmium 48?
The electronic configuration of Cadmium will be 1s2 2s2 2p6 3s2 3p6 3d10 4s2 4p6 4d10 5s2.
How do you write the electron configuration for Cadmium?
The electronic configuration of Cadmium will be 1s2 2s2 2p6 3s2 3p6 3d10 4s2 4p6 4d10 5s2.