Element Information, Facts, Properties, Trends, Uses, Comparison with other elements
Molybdenum is a chemical element with symbol Mo and atomic number 42. The name is from Neo-Latin molybdaenum, from Ancient Greek Μόλυβδος molybdos, meaning lead, since its ores were confused with lead ores. Molybdenum minerals have been known throughout history, but the element was discovered (in the sense of differentiating it as a new entity from the mineral salts of other metals) in 1778 by Carl Wilhelm Scheele.
It belongs to group 6 of the periodic table having trivial name .
Read key information and facts about element Molybdenum
|Group in Periodic Table||6|
|Group Name||chromium family|
|Period in Periodic Table||period 5|
|Block in Periodic Table||d -block|
|Electronic Configuration||[Kr] 4d5 5s1|
|Electronic Shell Structure (Electrons per shell)||2, 8, 18, 13, 1|
|Melting Point||2896 K|
|Boiling Point||4912 K|
How to Locate Molybdenum on Periodic Table
Periodic table is arranged by atomic number, number of protons in the nucleus which is same as number of electrons. The atomic number increases from left to right. Periodic table starts at top left ( Atomic number 1) and ends at bottom right (atomic number 118). Therefore you can directly look for atomic number 42 to find Molybdenum on periodic table.
Another way to read periodic table and locate an element is by using group number (column) and period number (row). To locate Molybdenum on periodic table look for cross section of group 6 and period 5 in the modern periodic table.
The element Molybdenum was discovered by W. Scheele in year 1778 in Sweden. Molybdenum was first isolated by J. Hjelm in 1781. Molybdenum derived its name from the Greek word molybdos meaning 'lead'.
Scheele recognised the metal as a constituent ofmolybdena.
Molybdenum Presence: Abundance in Nature and Around Us
The table below shows the abundance of Molybdenum in Universe, Sun, Meteorites, Earth's Crust, Oceans and Human Body.
|ppb by weight (1ppb =10^-7 %)||ppb by atoms (1ppb =10^-7 %)|
|Abundance in Universe||5||0.1|
|Abundance in Sun||9||0.1|
|Abundance in Meteorites||1200||250|
|Abundance in Earth's Crust||1100||230|
|Abundance in Oceans||10||0.64|
|Abundance in Humans||100||7|
Crystal Structure of Molybdenum
The solid state structure of Molybdenum is Body Centered Cubic.
The Crystal structure can be described in terms of its unit Cell. The unit Cells repeats itself in three dimensional space to form the structure.
Unit Cell Parameters
The unit cell is represented in terms of its lattice parameters, which are the lengths of the cell edges Lattice Constants (a, b and c)
|314.7 pm||314.7 pm||314.7 pm|
and the angles between them Lattice Angles (alpha, beta and gamma).
The positions of the atoms inside the unit cell are described by the set of atomic positions ( xi, yi, zi) measured from a reference lattice point.
The symmetry properties of the crystal are described by the concept of space groups. All possible symmetric arrangements of particles in three-dimensional space are described by the 230 space groups (219 distinct types, or 230 if chiral copies are considered distinct.
|Space Group Name||Im_ 3m|
|Oxidation States||Space Group Number||229|
|Crystal Structure||Body Centered Cubic|
Molybdenum Atomic and Orbital Properties
Molybdenum atoms have 42 electrons and the electronic shell structure is [2, 8, 18, 13, 1] with Atomic Term Symbol (Quantum Numbers) 7S3.
|Number of Electrons (with no charge)||42|
|Number of Protons||42|
|Number of Neutrons||54|
|Shell structure (Electrons per energy level)||2, 8, 18, 13, 1|
|Electron Configuration||[Kr] 4d5 5s1|
|Valence Electrons||4d5 5s1|
|Main Oxidation States||4, 6|
|Oxidation States||-4, -2, -1, 0, 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6|
|Atomic Term Symbol (Quantum Numbers)||7S3|
Bohr Atomic Model of Molybdenum - Electrons per energy level
Ground State Electronic Configuration of Molybdenum - neutral Molybdenum atom
Abbreviated electronic configuration of Molybdenum
The ground state abbreviated electronic configuration of Neutral Molybdenum atom is [Kr] 4d5 5s1. The portion of Molybdenum configuration that is equivalent to the noble gas of the preceding period, is abbreviated as [Kr]. For atoms with many electrons, this notation can become lengthy and so an abbreviated notation is used. This is important as it is the Valence electrons 4d5 5s1, electrons in the outermost shell that determine the chemical properties of the element.
Unabbreviated electronic configuration of neutral Molybdenum
Complete ground state electronic configuration for the Molybdenum atom, Unabbreviated electronic configuration
1s2 2s2 2p6 3s2 3p6 3d10 4s2 4p6 4d5 5s1
Electrons are filled in atomic orbitals as per the order determined by the Aufbau principle, Pauli Exclusion Principle and Hund’s Rule.
Atomic Structure of Molybdenum
Molybdenum atomic radius is 190 pm, while it's covalent radius is 145 pm.
|Atomic Radius Calculated|
190 pm (1.9 Å)
|Atomic Radius Empirical|
145 pm (1.45 Å)
|Atomic Volume||9.333 cm3/mol|
|Covalent Radius||145 pm (1.45 Å)|
|Van der Waals Radius||-|
|Neutron Cross Section||2.6|
|Neutron Mass Absorption||0.0009|
Atomic Spectrum of Molybdenum
Molybdenum Chemical Properties: Molybdenum Ionization Energies and electron affinity
The electron affinity of Molybdenum is 71.9 kJ/mol.
Ionization Energy of Molybdenum
Refer to table below for Ionization energies of Molybdenum
|Ionization energy number||Enthalpy - kJ/mol|
Molybdenum Physical Properties
Refer to below table for Molybdenum Physical Properties
|Density||10.28 g/cm3(when liquid at m.p density is $9.33 g/cm3)|
|Molar Volume||9.333 cm3/mol|
|Shear Modulus||20 GPa|
|Bulk Modulus||230 GPa|
Hardness of Molybdenum - Tests to Measure of Hardness of Element
|Mohs Hardness||5.5 MPa|
|Vickers Hardness||1530 MPa|
|Brinell Hardness||1500 MPa|
Molybdenum Electrical Properties
Molybdenum is Conductor of electricity. Refer to table below for the Electrical properties ofMolybdenum
|Electrical Conductivity||20000000 S/m|
|Resistivity||5e-8 m Ω|
Molybdenum Heat and Conduction Properties
|Thermal Conductivity||139 W/(m K)|
|Thermal Expansion||0.0000048 /K|
Molybdenum Magnetic Properties
|Mass Magnetic Susceptibility||1.17e-8 m3/kg|
|Molar Magnetic Susceptibility||1.122e-9 m3/mol|
|Volume Magnetic Susceptibility||0.0001203|
Optical Properties of Molybdenum
Acoustic Properties of Molybdenum
|Speed of Sound||6190 m/s|
Molybdenum Thermal Properties - Enthalpies and thermodynamics
Refer to table below for Thermal properties of Molybdenum
|Melting Point||2896 K (2622.85°C, 4753.129999999999 °F)|
|Boiling Point||4912 K (4638.85°C, 8381.93 °F)|
Enthalpies of Molybdenum
|Heat of Fusion||36 kJ/mol|
|Heat of Vaporization||600 kJ/mol|
|Heat of Combustion||-|
Molybdenum Isotopes - Nuclear Properties of Molybdenum
Molybdenum has 33 isotopes, with between 83 and 115 nucleons. Molybdenum has 6 stable naturally occuring isotopes.
Isotopes of Molybdenum - Naturally occurring stable Isotopes: 92Mo, 94Mo, 95Mo, 96Mo, 97Mo, 98Mo.
|Isotope||Z||N||Isotope Mass||% Abundance||T half||Decay Mode|