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Pt Platinum
Element Information, Facts, Properties, Trends, Uses, Comparison with other elements

78
Pt
Platinum
Element 78 of Periodic table is Platinum with atomic number 78, atomic weight 195.078. Platinum, symbol Pt, has a Face Centered Cubic structure and Gray color. Platinum is a Transition Metal element. It is part of group 10 (nickel family). Know everything about Platinum Facts, Physical Properties, Chemical Properties, Electronic configuration, Atomic and Crystal Structure.
78 Pt - Platinum | SchoolMyKids

Platinum is a chemical element with symbol Pt and atomic number 78. It is a dense, malleable, ductile, highly unreactive, precious, gray-white Transition Metal. Its name is derived from the Spanish term platina, which is literally translated into 'little silver'.

It belongs to group 10 of the periodic table having trivial name .

Platinum Facts

Read key information and facts about element Platinum

NamePlatinum
Atomic Number78
Atomic SymbolPt
Atomic Weight195.078
PhaseSolid
ColorGray
Appearancesilvery white
ClassificationTransition Metal
Group in Periodic Table10
Group Namenickel family
Period in Periodic Tableperiod 6
Block in Periodic Tabled -block
Electronic Configuration[Xe] 4f14 5d9 6s1
Electronic Shell Structure (Electrons per shell)2, 8, 18, 32, 17, 1
Melting Point2041.4 K
Boiling Point4098 K
CAS NumberCAS7440-06-4
123456789101112131415161718
1
1
H
Hydrogen
1.008

Atomic #

Electronic Shell #

Symbol
Name
Atomic Weight
HGas
HgLiquid
CSolid
Metals
Metalloids
NonMetals
Alkali metals
Alkali earth metals
Lanthanoids
Transition metals
Post-transition metals
Other nonmetals
Halogens
Nobel gas
Actinoids
2
He
Helium
4.003
2
3
Li
Lithium
6.941
4
Be
Beryllium
9.012
5
B
Boron
10.811
6
C
Carbon
12.011
7
N
Nitrogen
14.007
8
O
Oxygen
15.999
9
F
Fluorine
18.998
10
Ne
Neon
20.180
3
11
Na
Sodium
22.990
12
Mg
Magnesium
24.305
13
Al
Aluminium
26.982
14
Si
Silicon
28.085
15
P
Phosphorus
30.974
16
S
Sulfur
32.065
17
Cl
Chlorine
35.453
18
Ar
Argon
39.948
4
19
K
Potassium
39.098
20
Ca
Calcium
40.078
21
Sc
Scandium
44.956
22
Ti
Titanium
47.867
23
V
Vanadium
50.941
24
Cr
Chromium
51.996
25
Mn
Manganese
54.938
26
Fe
Iron
55.845
27
Co
Cobalt
58.933
28
Ni
Nickel
58.693
29
Cu
Copper
63.546
30
Zn
Zinc
65.409
31
Ga
Gallium
69.723
32
Ge
Germanium
72.640
33
As
Arsenic
74.922
34
Se
Selenium
78.960
35
Br
Bromine
79.904
36
Kr
Krypton
83.798
5
37
Rb
Rubidium
85.468
38
Sr
Strontium
87.620
39
Y
Yttrium
88.906
40
Zr
Zirconium
91.224
41
Nb
Niobium
92.906
42
Mo
Molybdenum
95.940
43
Tc
Technetium
98
44
Ru
Ruthenium
101.070
45
Rh
Rhodium
102.906
46
Pd
Palladium
106.420
47
Ag
Silver
107.868
48
Cd
Cadmium
112.411
49
In
Indium
114.818
50
Sn
Tin
118.710
51
Sb
Antimony
121.760
52
Te
Tellurium
127.600
53
I
Iodine
126.904
54
Xe
Xenon
131.293
6
55
Cs
Cesium
132.905
56
Ba
Barium
137.327
57 - 71
La - Lu
Lanthanides
72
Hf
Hafnium
178.490
73
Ta
Tantalum
180.948
74
W
Tungsten
183.840
75
Re
Rhenium
186.207
76
Os
Osmium
190.230
77
Ir
Iridium
192.217
78
Pt
Platinum
195.078
79
Au
Gold
196.967
80
Hg
Mercury
200.590
81
Tl
Thallium
204.383
82
Pb
Lead
207.200
83
Bi
Bismuth
208.980
84
Po
Polonium
209
85
At
Astatine
210
86
Rn
Radon
222
7
87
Fr
Francium
223
88
Ra
Radium
226
89 - 103
Ac - Lr
Actinides
104
Rf
Rutherfordium
261
105
Db
Dubnium
262
106
Sg
Seaborgium
266
107
Bh
Bohrium
264
108
Hs
Hassium
277
109
Mt
Meitnerium
268
110
Ds
Darmstadtium
281
111
Rg
Roentgenium
272
112
Cn
Copernicium
285
113
Nh
Nihonium
284
114
Fl
Flerovium
289
115
Mc
Moscovium
288
116
Lv
Livermorium
292
117
Ts
Tennessine
294
118
Og
Oganesson
294
Lanthanides
57
La
Lanthanum
138.905
58
Ce
Cerium
140.116
59
Pr
Praseodymium
140.908
60
Nd
Neodymium
144.240
61
Pm
Promethium
145
62
Sm
Samarium
150.360
63
Eu
Europium
151.964
64
Gd
Gadolinium
157.250
65
Tb
Terbium
158.925
66
Dy
Dysprosium
162.500
67
Ho
Holmium
164.930
68
Er
Erbium
167.259
69
Tm
Thulium
168.934
70
Yb
Ytterbium
173.040
71
Lu
Lutetium
174.967
Actinides
89
Ac
Actinium
227
90
Th
Thorium
232.038
91
Pa
Protactinium
231.036
92
U
Uranium
238.029
93
Np
Neptunium
237
94
Pu
Plutonium
244
95
Am
Americium
243
96
Cm
Curium
247
97
Bk
Berkelium
247
98
Cf
Californium
251
99
Es
Einsteinium
252
100
Fm
Fermium
257
101
Md
Mendelevium
258
102
No
Nobelium
259
103
Lr
Lawrencium
262

How to Locate Platinum on Periodic Table

Periodic table is arranged by atomic number, number of protons in the nucleus which is same as number of electrons. The atomic number increases from left to right. Periodic table starts at top left ( Atomic number 1) and ends at bottom right (atomic number 118). Therefore you can directly look for atomic number 78 to find Platinum on periodic table.

Another way to read periodic table and locate an element is by using group number (column) and period number (row). To locate Platinum on periodic table look for cross section of group 10 and period 6 in the modern periodic table.

Platinum History

The element Platinum was discovered by A. de Ulloa in year 1748 in Peru. Platinum was first isolated by in . Platinum derived its name from the Spanish platina, meaning 'little silver'.

First description of a metal found inSouth American gold was in 1557 by Julius Caesar Scaliger. Ulloa published his findings in 1748, butSir Charles Woodalso investigated the metal in 1741. First reference to it as a new metal was made byWilliam Brownriggin 1750.

Platinum Presence: Abundance in Nature and Around Us

The table below shows the abundance of Platinum in Universe, Sun, Meteorites, Earth's Crust, Oceans and Human Body.

 ppb by weight (1ppb =10^-7 %)ppb by atoms (1ppb =10^-7 %)
Abundance in Universe50.03
Abundance in Sun90.06
Abundance in Meteorites1000100
Abundance in Earth's Crust374
Abundance in Oceans--
Abundance in Humans--

Crystal Structure of Platinum

The solid state structure of Platinum is Face Centered Cubic.

The Crystal structure can be described in terms of its unit Cell. The unit Cells repeats itself in three dimensional space to form the structure.

Unit Cell Parameters

The unit cell is represented in terms of its lattice parameters, which are the lengths of the cell edges Lattice Constants (a, b and c)

abc
392.42 pm392.42 pm392.42 pm

and the angles between them Lattice Angles (alpha, beta and gamma).

alphabetagamma
π/2 π/2 π/2

The positions of the atoms inside the unit cell are described by the set of atomic positions ( xi, yi, zi) measured from a reference lattice point.

The symmetry properties of the crystal are described by the concept of space groups. All possible symmetric arrangements of particles in three-dimensional space are described by the 230 space groups (219 distinct types, or 230 if chiral copies are considered distinct.

Space Group NameFm_ 3m 78 Pt Platinum - Crystal Structure | SchoolMyKids
Oxidation StatesSpace Group Number225
Crystal StructureFace Centered Cubic

Platinum Atomic and Orbital Properties

Platinum atoms have 78 electrons and the electronic shell structure is [2, 8, 18, 32, 17, 1] with Atomic Term Symbol (Quantum Numbers) 3D3.

Atomic Number78
Number of Electrons (with no charge)78
Number of Protons78
Mass Number195
Number of Neutrons117
Shell structure (Electrons per energy level)2, 8, 18, 32, 17, 1
Electron Configuration[Xe] 4f14 5d9 6s1
Valence Electrons5d9 6s1
Valence (Valency)6
Main Oxidation States2, 4
Oxidation States-3, -2, -1, 0, 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6
Atomic Term Symbol (Quantum Numbers)3D3

Bohr Atomic Model of Platinum - Electrons per energy level

78 Pt Platinum - Electron Shell Structure | SchoolMyKids
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Ground State Electronic Configuration of Platinum - neutral Platinum atom

Abbreviated electronic configuration of Platinum

The ground state abbreviated electronic configuration of Neutral Platinum atom is [Xe] 4f14 5d9 6s1. The portion of Platinum configuration that is equivalent to the noble gas of the preceding period, is abbreviated as [Xe]. For atoms with many electrons, this notation can become lengthy and so an abbreviated notation is used. This is important as it is the Valence electrons 5d9 6s1, electrons in the outermost shell that determine the chemical properties of the element.

Unabbreviated electronic configuration of neutral Platinum

Complete ground state electronic configuration for the Platinum atom, Unabbreviated electronic configuration

1s2 2s2 2p6 3s2 3p6 3d10 4s2 4p6 4d10 5s2 5p6 4f14 5d9 6s1

Electrons are filled in atomic orbitals as per the order determined by the Aufbau principle, Pauli Exclusion Principle and Hund’s Rule.

  • As per the Aufbau principle the electrons will occupy the orbitals having lower energies before occupying higher energy orbitals. According to this principle, electrons are filled in the following order: 1s, 2s, 2p, 3s, 3p, 4s, 3d, 4p, 5s, 4d, 5p, 6s, 4f, 5d, 6p, 7s, 5f, 6d, 7p…
  • The Pauli exclusion principle states that a maximum of two electrons, each having opposite spins, can fit in an orbital.
  • Hund's rule states that every orbital in a given subshell is singly occupied by electrons before a second electron is filled in an orbital.
  • Electron configuration of Platinum
    Atomic Structure of Platinum

    Platinum atomic radius is 177 pm, while it's covalent radius is 128 pm.

    Atomic Radius Calculated

    177 pm (1.77 Å)

    Atomic Radius Empirical

    135 pm (1.35 Å)

    Atomic Volume9.09 cm3/mol
    Covalent Radius128 pm (1.28 Å)
    Van der Waals Radius175 pm
    Neutron Cross Section10
    Neutron Mass Absorption 0.002

    Atomic Spectrum of Platinum

    Atomic Spectrum of Platinum | SchoolMyKids

    Platinum Chemical Properties: Platinum Ionization Energies and electron affinity

    The electron affinity of Platinum is 205.3 kJ/mol.

    Valence6
    Electronegativity2.28
    ElectronAffinity205.3 kJ/mol

    Ionization Energy of Platinum

    Refer to table below for Ionization energies of Platinum

    Ionization energy numberEnthalpy - kJ/mol
    1st870
    2nd1791

    Platinum Physical Properties

    Refer to below table for Platinum Physical Properties

    Density21.09 g/cm3(when liquid at m.p density is $19.77 g/cm3)
    Molar Volume9.09 cm3/mol

    Elastic Properties

    Young Modulus168
    Shear Modulus61 GPa
    Bulk Modulus 230 GPa
    Poisson Ratio0.38

    Hardness of Platinum - Tests to Measure of Hardness of Element

    Mohs Hardness3.5 MPa
    Vickers Hardness549 MPa
    Brinell Hardness392 MPa

    Platinum Electrical Properties

    Platinum is Conductor of electricity. Refer to table below for the Electrical properties ofPlatinum

    Electrical Conductivity9400000 S/m
    Resistivity1.1e-7 m Ω
    Superconducting Point-

    Platinum Heat and Conduction Properties

    Thermal Conductivity72 W/(m K)
    Thermal Expansion0.0000088 /K

    Platinum Magnetic Properties

    Magnetic TypeParamagnetic
    Curie Point-
    Mass Magnetic Susceptibility1.22e-8 m3/kg
    Molar Magnetic Susceptibility2.38e-9 m3/mol
    Volume Magnetic Susceptibility0.0002573

    Optical Properties of Platinum

    Refractive Index-

    Acoustic Properties of Platinum

    Speed of Sound2680 m/s

    Platinum Thermal Properties - Enthalpies and thermodynamics

    Refer to table below for Thermal properties of Platinum

    Melting Point2041.4 K (1768.25°C, 3214.85 °F)
    Boiling Point4098 K (3824.85°C, 6916.7300000000005 °F)
    Critical Temperature-
    Superconducting Point-

    Enthalpies of Platinum

    Heat of Fusion20 kJ/mol
    Heat of Vaporization490 kJ/mol
    Heat of Combustion-

    Platinum Isotopes - Nuclear Properties of Platinum

    Platinum has 37 isotopes, with between 166 and 202 nucleons. Platinum has 5 stable naturally occuring isotopes.

    Isotopes of Platinum - Naturally occurring stable Isotopes: 192Pt, 194Pt, 195Pt, 196Pt, 198Pt.

    IsotopeZNIsotope Mass% AbundanceT halfDecay Mode
    166Pt7888166Synthetic
    167Pt7889167Synthetic
    168Pt7890168Synthetic
    169Pt7891169Synthetic
    170Pt7892170Synthetic
    171Pt7893171Synthetic
    172Pt7894172Synthetic
    173Pt7895173Synthetic
    174Pt7896174Synthetic
    175Pt7897175Synthetic
    176Pt7898176Synthetic
    177Pt7899177Synthetic
    178Pt78100178Synthetic
    179Pt78101179Synthetic
    180Pt78102180Synthetic
    181Pt78103181Synthetic
    182Pt78104182Synthetic
    183Pt78105183Synthetic
    184Pt78106184Synthetic
    185Pt78107185Synthetic
    186Pt78108186Synthetic
    187Pt78109187Synthetic
    188Pt78110188Synthetic
    189Pt78111189Synthetic
    190Pt781121900.014%StableN/A
    191Pt78113191Synthetic
    192Pt781141920.782%StableN/A
    193Pt78115193Synthetic
    194Pt7811619432.967%StableN/A
    195Pt7811719533.832%Stable
    196Pt7811819625.242%StableN/A
    197Pt78119197Synthetic
    198Pt781201987.163%StableN/A
    199Pt78121199Synthetic
    200Pt78122200Synthetic
    201Pt78123201Synthetic
    202Pt78124202Synthetic

    Regulatory and Health - Health and Safety Parameters and Guidelines

    Database Search

    List of unique identifiers to search the element in various chemical registry databases

    DatabaseIdentifier number
    CAS Number - Chemical Abstracts Service (CAS)CAS7440-06-4
    RTECS NumberRTECSTP2160000
    CID Number CID23939
    Gmelin Number-
    NSC Number-

    Compare Platinum with other elements

    Compare Platinum with all Group 10 elements

    Compare Platinum with all Period 6 elements

    Compare Platinum with all Transition Metal elements