Element Information, Facts, Properties, Trends, Uses, Comparison with other elements
Californium is a radioactive metallic chemical element with symbol Cf and atomic number 98. The element was first made in 1950 at the University of California Radiation Laboratory in Berkeley, by bombarding curium with alpha particles (helium-4 ions). It is an Actinide element, the sixth transuranium element to be synthesized, and has the second-highest atomic mass of all the elements that have been produced in amounts large enough to see with the unaided eye (after einsteinium).
It belongs to group of the periodic table having trivial name .
Read key information and facts about element Californium
|Group in Periodic Table||-|
|Period in Periodic Table||period 7|
|Block in Periodic Table||f -block|
|Electronic Configuration||[Rn] 5f10 7s2|
|Electronic Shell Structure (Electrons per shell)||2, 8, 18, 32, 28, 8, 2|
|Melting Point||1173 K|
How to Locate Californium on Periodic Table
Periodic table is arranged by atomic number, number of protons in the nucleus which is same as number of electrons. The atomic number increases from left to right. Periodic table starts at top left ( Atomic number 1) and ends at bottom right (atomic number 118). Therefore you can directly look for atomic number 98 to find Californium on periodic table.
Another way to read periodic table and locate an element is by using group number (column) and period number (row). To locate Californium on periodic table look for cross section of group - and period 7 in the modern periodic table.
The element Californium was discovered by S. G. Thompson,K. Street, Jr., A. Ghiorso and G. T. Seaborg(University of California, Berkeley) in year 1950 in United States. Californium was first isolated by in . Californium derived its name from California, where the element was first synthesized.
Bombardment of curium with alpha particles.
Californium Presence: Abundance in Nature and Around Us
The table below shows the abundance of Californium in Universe, Sun, Meteorites, Earth's Crust, Oceans and Human Body.
|ppb by weight (1ppb =10^-7 %)||ppb by atoms (1ppb =10^-7 %)|
|Abundance in Universe||-||-|
|Abundance in Sun||-||-|
|Abundance in Meteorites||-||-|
|Abundance in Earth's Crust||-||-|
|Abundance in Oceans||-||-|
|Abundance in Humans||-||-|
Crystal Structure of Californium
The solid state structure of Californium is Simple Hexagonal.
The Crystal structure can be described in terms of its unit Cell. The unit Cells repeats itself in three dimensional space to form the structure.
Unit Cell Parameters
The unit cell is represented in terms of its lattice parameters, which are the lengths of the cell edges Lattice Constants (a, b and c)
|338 pm||338 pm||1102.5 pm|
and the angles between them Lattice Angles (alpha, beta and gamma).
The positions of the atoms inside the unit cell are described by the set of atomic positions ( xi, yi, zi) measured from a reference lattice point.
The symmetry properties of the crystal are described by the concept of space groups. All possible symmetric arrangements of particles in three-dimensional space are described by the 230 space groups (219 distinct types, or 230 if chiral copies are considered distinct.
|Space Group Name||P63/mmc|
|Oxidation States||Space Group Number||194|
|Crystal Structure||Simple Hexagonal|
Californium Atomic and Orbital Properties
Californium atoms have 98 electrons and the electronic shell structure is [2, 8, 18, 32, 28, 8, 2] with Atomic Term Symbol (Quantum Numbers) 5I8.
|Number of Electrons (with no charge)||98|
|Number of Protons||98|
|Number of Neutrons||153|
|Shell structure (Electrons per energy level)||2, 8, 18, 32, 28, 8, 2|
|Electron Configuration||[Rn] 5f10 7s2|
|Valence Electrons||5f10 7s2|
|Main Oxidation States||3|
|Oxidation States||2, 3, 4, 5|
|Atomic Term Symbol (Quantum Numbers)||5I8|
Bohr Atomic Model of Californium - Electrons per energy level
Ground State Electronic Configuration of Californium - neutral Californium atom
Abbreviated electronic configuration of Californium
The ground state abbreviated electronic configuration of Neutral Californium atom is [Rn] 5f10 7s2. The portion of Californium configuration that is equivalent to the noble gas of the preceding period, is abbreviated as [Rn]. For atoms with many electrons, this notation can become lengthy and so an abbreviated notation is used. This is important as it is the Valence electrons 5f10 7s2, electrons in the outermost shell that determine the chemical properties of the element.
Unabbreviated electronic configuration of neutral Californium
Complete ground state electronic configuration for the Californium atom, Unabbreviated electronic configuration
1s2 2s2 2p6 3s2 3p6 3d10 4s2 4p6 4d10 5s2 5p6 4f14 5d10 6s2 6p6 5f10 7s2
Electrons are filled in atomic orbitals as per the order determined by the Aufbau principle, Pauli Exclusion Principle and Hund’s Rule.
Atomic Structure of Californium
Californium atomic radius is - , while it's covalent radius is - .
|Atomic Radius Calculated|
- (0 Å)
|Atomic Radius Empirical|
- (0 Å)
|Atomic Volume||16.5 cm3/mol|
|Van der Waals Radius||-|
|Neutron Cross Section||2900|
|Neutron Mass Absorption||-|
Atomic Spectrum of Californium
Californium Chemical Properties: Californium Ionization Energies and electron affinity
The electron affinity of Californium is - .
Ionization Energy of Californium
Refer to table below for Ionization energies of Californium
|Ionization energy number||Enthalpy - kJ/mol|
Californium Physical Properties
Refer to below table for Californium Physical Properties
|Molar Volume||16.5 cm3/mol|
Hardness of Californium - Tests to Measure of Hardness of Element
Californium Electrical Properties
Californium is Conductor of electricity. Refer to table below for the Electrical properties ofCalifornium
Californium Heat and Conduction Properties
Californium Magnetic Properties
|Mass Magnetic Susceptibility||-|
|Molar Magnetic Susceptibility||-|
|Volume Magnetic Susceptibility||-|
Optical Properties of Californium
Acoustic Properties of Californium
|Speed of Sound||-|
Californium Thermal Properties - Enthalpies and thermodynamics
Refer to table below for Thermal properties of Californium
|Melting Point||1173 K (899.85°C, 1651.73 °F)|
|Boiling Point||- (-273.15°C, -459.66999999999996 °F)|
Enthalpies of Californium
|Heat of Fusion||-|
|Heat of Vaporization||-|
|Heat of Combustion||-|
Californium Isotopes - Nuclear Properties of Californium
Californium has 20 isotopes, with between 237 and 256 nucleons. Californium has 0 stable naturally occuring isotopes.
Isotopes of Californium - Naturally occurring stable Isotopes: -.
|Isotope||Z||N||Isotope Mass||% Abundance||T half||Decay Mode|