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Gd Gadolinium
Element Information, Facts, Properties, Trends, Uses, Comparison with other elements

64
Gd
Gadolinium
Element 64 of Periodic table is Gadolinium with atomic number 64, atomic weight 157.25. Gadolinium, symbol Gd, has a Simple Hexagonal structure and Silver color. Gadolinium is a Lanthanide element. It is part of group null (). Know everything about Gadolinium Facts, Physical Properties, Chemical Properties, Electronic configuration, Atomic and Crystal Structure.
64 Gd - Gadolinium | SchoolMyKids

Gadolinium is a chemical element with symbol Gd and atomic number 64. It is a silvery-white, malleable and ductile rare-earth metal. It is found in nature only in combined (salt) form.

It belongs to group of the periodic table having trivial name .

Gadolinium Facts

Read key information and facts about element Gadolinium

NameGadolinium
Atomic Number64
Atomic SymbolGd
Atomic Weight157.25
PhaseSolid
ColorSilver
Appearancesilvery white
ClassificationLanthanide
Group in Periodic Table-
Group Name
Period in Periodic Tableperiod 6
Block in Periodic Tablef -block
Electronic Configuration[Xe] 4f7 5d1 6s2
Electronic Shell Structure (Electrons per shell)2, 8, 18, 25, 9, 2
Melting Point1586 K
Boiling Point3523 K
CAS NumberCAS7440-54-2
Neighborhood Elements
123456789101112131415161718
1
1
H
Hydrogen
1.008

Atomic #

Electronic Shell #

Symbol
Name
Atomic Weight
HGas
HgLiquid
CSolid
Metals
Metalloids
NonMetals
Alkali metals
Alkali earth metals
Lanthanoids
Transition metals
Post-transition metals
Other nonmetals
Halogens
Nobel gas
Actinoids
2
He
Helium
4.003
2
3
Li
Lithium
6.941
4
Be
Beryllium
9.012
5
B
Boron
10.811
6
C
Carbon
12.011
7
N
Nitrogen
14.007
8
O
Oxygen
15.999
9
F
Fluorine
18.998
10
Ne
Neon
20.180
3
11
Na
Sodium
22.990
12
Mg
Magnesium
24.305
13
Al
Aluminium
26.982
14
Si
Silicon
28.085
15
P
Phosphorus
30.974
16
S
Sulfur
32.065
17
Cl
Chlorine
35.453
18
Ar
Argon
39.948
4
19
K
Potassium
39.098
20
Ca
Calcium
40.078
21
Sc
Scandium
44.956
22
Ti
Titanium
47.867
23
V
Vanadium
50.941
24
Cr
Chromium
51.996
25
Mn
Manganese
54.938
26
Fe
Iron
55.845
27
Co
Cobalt
58.933
28
Ni
Nickel
58.693
29
Cu
Copper
63.546
30
Zn
Zinc
65.409
31
Ga
Gallium
69.723
32
Ge
Germanium
72.640
33
As
Arsenic
74.922
34
Se
Selenium
78.960
35
Br
Bromine
79.904
36
Kr
Krypton
83.798
5
37
Rb
Rubidium
85.468
38
Sr
Strontium
87.620
39
Y
Yttrium
88.906
40
Zr
Zirconium
91.224
41
Nb
Niobium
92.906
42
Mo
Molybdenum
95.940
43
Tc
Technetium
98
44
Ru
Ruthenium
101.070
45
Rh
Rhodium
102.906
46
Pd
Palladium
106.420
47
Ag
Silver
107.868
48
Cd
Cadmium
112.411
49
In
Indium
114.818
50
Sn
Tin
118.710
51
Sb
Antimony
121.760
52
Te
Tellurium
127.600
53
I
Iodine
126.904
54
Xe
Xenon
131.293
6
55
Cs
Cesium
132.905
56
Ba
Barium
137.327
57 - 71
La - Lu
Lanthanides
72
Hf
Hafnium
178.490
73
Ta
Tantalum
180.948
74
W
Tungsten
183.840
75
Re
Rhenium
186.207
76
Os
Osmium
190.230
77
Ir
Iridium
192.217
78
Pt
Platinum
195.078
79
Au
Gold
196.967
80
Hg
Mercury
200.590
81
Tl
Thallium
204.383
82
Pb
Lead
207.200
83
Bi
Bismuth
208.980
84
Po
Polonium
209
85
At
Astatine
210
86
Rn
Radon
222
7
87
Fr
Francium
223
88
Ra
Radium
226
89 - 103
Ac - Lr
Actinides
104
Rf
Rutherfordium
261
105
Db
Dubnium
262
106
Sg
Seaborgium
266
107
Bh
Bohrium
264
108
Hs
Hassium
277
109
Mt
Meitnerium
268
110
Ds
Darmstadtium
281
111
Rg
Roentgenium
272
112
Cn
Copernicium
285
113
Nh
Nihonium
284
114
Fl
Flerovium
289
115
Mc
Moscovium
288
116
Lv
Livermorium
292
117
Ts
Tennessine
294
118
Og
Oganesson
294
Lanthanides
57
La
Lanthanum
138.905
58
Ce
Cerium
140.116
59
Pr
Praseodymium
140.908
60
Nd
Neodymium
144.240
61
Pm
Promethium
145
62
Sm
Samarium
150.360
63
Eu
Europium
151.964
64
Gd
Gadolinium
157.250
65
Tb
Terbium
158.925
66
Dy
Dysprosium
162.500
67
Ho
Holmium
164.930
68
Er
Erbium
167.259
69
Tm
Thulium
168.934
70
Yb
Ytterbium
173.040
71
Lu
Lutetium
174.967
Actinides
89
Ac
Actinium
227
90
Th
Thorium
232.038
91
Pa
Protactinium
231.036
92
U
Uranium
238.029
93
Np
Neptunium
237
94
Pu
Plutonium
244
95
Am
Americium
243
96
Cm
Curium
247
97
Bk
Berkelium
247
98
Cf
Californium
251
99
Es
Einsteinium
252
100
Fm
Fermium
257
101
Md
Mendelevium
258
102
No
Nobelium
259
103
Lr
Lawrencium
262

How to Locate Gadolinium on Periodic Table

Periodic table is arranged by atomic number, number of protons in the nucleus which is same as number of electrons. The atomic number increases from left to right. Periodic table starts at top left ( Atomic number 1) and ends at bottom right (atomic number 118). Therefore you can directly look for atomic number 64 to find Gadolinium on periodic table.

Another way to read periodic table and locate an element is by using group number (column) and period number (row). To locate Gadolinium on periodic table look for cross section of group - and period 6 in the modern periodic table.

Gadolinium History

The element Gadolinium was discovered by J. C. G. de Marignac in year 1880 in Switzerland. Gadolinium was first isolated by P.E.L. de Boisbaudran in 1886. Gadolinium derived its name from Johan Gadolin, chemist, physicist and mineralogist.

Marignac initially observed the new earth in terbia, and later Boisbaudran obtained a pure sample from samarskite.

Gadolinium Presence: Abundance in Nature and Around Us

The table below shows the abundance of Gadolinium in Universe, Sun, Meteorites, Earth's Crust, Oceans and Human Body.

 ppb by weight (1ppb =10^-7 %)ppb by atoms (1ppb =10^-7 %)
Abundance in Universe20.02
Abundance in Sun20.01
Abundance in Meteorites23030
Abundance in Earth's Crust5200680
Abundance in Oceans0.00070.000028
Abundance in Humans--

Crystal Structure of Gadolinium

The solid state structure of Gadolinium is Simple Hexagonal.

The Crystal structure can be described in terms of its unit Cell. The unit Cells repeats itself in three dimensional space to form the structure.

Unit Cell Parameters

The unit cell is represented in terms of its lattice parameters, which are the lengths of the cell edges Lattice Constants (a, b and c)

abc
363.6 pm363.6 pm578.26 pm

and the angles between them Lattice Angles (alpha, beta and gamma).

alphabetagamma
π/2 π/2 2 π/3

The positions of the atoms inside the unit cell are described by the set of atomic positions ( xi, yi, zi) measured from a reference lattice point.

The symmetry properties of the crystal are described by the concept of space groups. All possible symmetric arrangements of particles in three-dimensional space are described by the 230 space groups (219 distinct types, or 230 if chiral copies are considered distinct.

Space Group NameP63/mmc 64 Gd Gadolinium - Crystal Structure | SchoolMyKids
Oxidation StatesSpace Group Number194
Crystal StructureSimple Hexagonal

Gadolinium Atomic and Orbital Properties

Gadolinium atoms have 64 electrons and the electronic shell structure is [2, 8, 18, 25, 9, 2] with Atomic Term Symbol (Quantum Numbers) 9D2.

Atomic Number64
Number of Electrons (with no charge)64
Number of Protons64
Mass Number157
Number of Neutrons93
Shell structure (Electrons per energy level)2, 8, 18, 25, 9, 2
Electron Configuration[Xe] 4f7 5d1 6s2
Valence Electrons4f7 5d1 6s2
Valence (Valency)3
Main Oxidation States3
Oxidation States0, 1, 2, 3
Atomic Term Symbol (Quantum Numbers)9D2

Bohr Atomic Model of Gadolinium - Electrons per energy level

64 Gd Gadolinium - Electron Shell Structure | SchoolMyKids
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Ground State Electronic Configuration of Gadolinium - neutral Gadolinium atom

Abbreviated electronic configuration of Gadolinium

The ground state abbreviated electronic configuration of Neutral Gadolinium atom is [Xe] 4f7 5d1 6s2. The portion of Gadolinium configuration that is equivalent to the noble gas of the preceding period, is abbreviated as [Xe]. For atoms with many electrons, this notation can become lengthy and so an abbreviated notation is used. This is important as it is the Valence electrons 4f7 5d1 6s2, electrons in the outermost shell that determine the chemical properties of the element.

Unabbreviated electronic configuration of neutral Gadolinium

Complete ground state electronic configuration for the Gadolinium atom, Unabbreviated electronic configuration

1s2 2s2 2p6 3s2 3p6 3d10 4s2 4p6 4d10 5s2 5p6 4f7 5d1 6s2

Electrons are filled in atomic orbitals as per the order determined by the Aufbau principle, Pauli Exclusion Principle and Hund’s Rule.

  • As per the Aufbau principle the electrons will occupy the orbitals having lower energies before occupying higher energy orbitals. According to this principle, electrons are filled in the following order: 1s, 2s, 2p, 3s, 3p, 4s, 3d, 4p, 5s, 4d, 5p, 6s, 4f, 5d, 6p, 7s, 5f, 6d, 7p…
  • The Pauli exclusion principle states that a maximum of two electrons, each having opposite spins, can fit in an orbital.
  • Hund's rule states that every orbital in a given subshell is singly occupied by electrons before a second electron is filled in an orbital.
  • Electron configuration of Gadolinium
    Atomic Structure of Gadolinium

    Gadolinium atomic radius is 233 pm, while it's covalent radius is - .

    Atomic Radius Calculated

    233 pm (2.33 Å)

    Atomic Radius Empirical

    180 pm (1.8 Å)

    Atomic Volume19.903 cm3/mol
    Covalent Radius-
    Van der Waals Radius-
    Neutron Cross Section49000
    Neutron Mass Absorption 7.3

    Atomic Spectrum of Gadolinium

    Atomic Spectrum of Gadolinium | SchoolMyKids

    Gadolinium Chemical Properties: Gadolinium Ionization Energies and electron affinity

    The electron affinity of Gadolinium is 50 kJ/mol.

    Valence3
    Electronegativity1.2
    ElectronAffinity50 kJ/mol

    Ionization Energy of Gadolinium

    Refer to table below for Ionization energies of Gadolinium

    Ionization energy numberEnthalpy - kJ/mol
    1st593.4
    2nd1170
    3rd1990
    4th4250

    Gadolinium Physical Properties

    Refer to below table for Gadolinium Physical Properties

    Density7.901 g/cm3(when liquid at m.p density is $7.4 g/cm3)
    Molar Volume19.903 cm3/mol

    Elastic Properties

    Young Modulus55
    Shear Modulus22 GPa
    Bulk Modulus 38 GPa
    Poisson Ratio0.26

    Hardness of Gadolinium - Tests to Measure of Hardness of Element

    Mohs Hardness-
    Vickers Hardness570 MPa
    Brinell Hardness-

    Gadolinium Electrical Properties

    Gadolinium is Conductor of electricity. Refer to table below for the Electrical properties ofGadolinium

    Electrical Conductivity770000 S/m
    Resistivity0.0000013 m Ω
    Superconducting Point1.083

    Gadolinium Heat and Conduction Properties

    Thermal Conductivity11 W/(m K)
    Thermal Expansion0.0000094 /K

    Gadolinium Magnetic Properties

    Magnetic TypeFerromagnetic
    Curie Point292 K
    Mass Magnetic Susceptibility-
    Molar Magnetic Susceptibility-
    Volume Magnetic Susceptibility-

    Optical Properties of Gadolinium

    Refractive Index-

    Acoustic Properties of Gadolinium

    Speed of Sound2680 m/s

    Gadolinium Thermal Properties - Enthalpies and thermodynamics

    Refer to table below for Thermal properties of Gadolinium

    Melting Point1586 K (1312.85°C, 2395.13 °F)
    Boiling Point3523 K (3249.85°C, 5881.73 °F)
    Critical Temperature-
    Superconducting Point1.083

    Enthalpies of Gadolinium

    Heat of Fusion10 kJ/mol
    Heat of Vaporization305 kJ/mol
    Heat of Combustion-

    Gadolinium Isotopes - Nuclear Properties of Gadolinium

    Gadolinium has 36 isotopes, with between 134 and 169 nucleons. Gadolinium has 6 stable naturally occuring isotopes.

    Isotopes of Gadolinium - Naturally occurring stable Isotopes: 154Gd, 155Gd, 156Gd, 157Gd, 158Gd, 160Gd.

    IsotopeZNIsotope Mass% AbundanceT halfDecay Mode
    134Gd6470134Synthetic
    135Gd6471135Synthetic
    136Gd6472136Synthetic
    137Gd6473137Synthetic
    138Gd6474138Synthetic
    139Gd6475139Synthetic
    140Gd6476140Synthetic
    141Gd6477141Synthetic
    142Gd6478142Synthetic
    143Gd6479143Synthetic
    144Gd6480144Synthetic
    145Gd6481145Synthetic
    146Gd6482146Synthetic
    147Gd6483147Synthetic
    148Gd6484148Synthetic
    149Gd6485149Synthetic
    150Gd6486150Synthetic
    151Gd6487151Synthetic
    152Gd64881520.2%StableN/A
    153Gd6489153Synthetic
    154Gd64901542.18%StableN/A
    155Gd649115514.8%StableN/A
    156Gd649215620.47%StableN/A
    157Gd649315715.65%Stable
    158Gd649415824.84%StableN/A
    159Gd6495159Synthetic
    160Gd649616021.86%StableN/A
    161Gd6497161Synthetic
    162Gd6498162Synthetic
    163Gd6499163Synthetic
    164Gd64100164Synthetic
    165Gd64101165Synthetic
    166Gd64102166Synthetic
    167Gd64103167Synthetic
    168Gd64104168Synthetic
    169Gd64105169Synthetic

    Database Search

    List of unique identifiers to search the element in various chemical registry databases

    DatabaseIdentifier number
    CAS Number - Chemical Abstracts Service (CAS)CAS7440-54-2
    RTECS NumberRTECSLW3850000
    CID Number CID23982
    Gmelin Number-
    NSC Number-

    Compare Gadolinium with other elements

    Compare Gadolinium with all Group elements

    Compare Gadolinium with all Period 6 elements

    Compare Gadolinium with all Lanthanide elements