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Bi Bismuth
Element Information, Facts, Properties, Trends, Uses, Comparison with other elements

83
Bi
Bismuth
Element 83 of Periodic table is Bismuth with atomic number 83, atomic weight 208.98038. Bismuth, symbol Bi, has a Base Centered Monoclinic structure and Gray color. Bismuth is a Post Transition Metal element. It is part of group 15 (nitrogen family). Know everything about Bismuth Facts, Physical Properties, Chemical Properties, Electronic configuration, Atomic and Crystal Structure.
83 Bi - Bismuth | SchoolMyKids

Bismuth is a chemical element with symbol Bi and atomic number 83. Bismuth, a pentavalent Post Transition Metal, chemically resembles arsenic and antimony. Elemental bismuth may occur naturally, although its sulfide and oxide form important commercial ores.

It belongs to group 15 of the periodic table having trivial name pentels, pnictogens*. It got its trivial name from pentels from Greek penta (five, V).

Bismuth Facts

Read key information and facts about element Bismuth

NameBismuth
Atomic Number83
Atomic SymbolBi
Atomic Weight208.98038
PhaseSolid
ColorGray
Appearancelustrous silver
ClassificationPost Transition Metal
Group in Periodic Table15
Group Namenitrogen family
Period in Periodic Tableperiod 6
Block in Periodic Tablep -block
Electronic Configuration[Xe] 4f14 5d10 6s2 6p3
Electronic Shell Structure (Electrons per shell)2, 8, 18, 32, 18, 5
Melting Point544.4 K
Boiling Point1837 K
CAS NumberCAS7440-69-9
123456789101112131415161718
1
1
H
Hydrogen
1.008

Atomic #

Electronic Shell #

Symbol
Name
Atomic Weight
HGas
HgLiquid
CSolid
Metals
Metalloids
NonMetals
Alkali metals
Alkali earth metals
Lanthanoids
Transition metals
Post-transition metals
Other nonmetals
Halogens
Nobel gas
Actinoids
2
He
Helium
4.003
2
3
Li
Lithium
6.941
4
Be
Beryllium
9.012
5
B
Boron
10.811
6
C
Carbon
12.011
7
N
Nitrogen
14.007
8
O
Oxygen
15.999
9
F
Fluorine
18.998
10
Ne
Neon
20.180
3
11
Na
Sodium
22.990
12
Mg
Magnesium
24.305
13
Al
Aluminium
26.982
14
Si
Silicon
28.085
15
P
Phosphorus
30.974
16
S
Sulfur
32.065
17
Cl
Chlorine
35.453
18
Ar
Argon
39.948
4
19
K
Potassium
39.098
20
Ca
Calcium
40.078
21
Sc
Scandium
44.956
22
Ti
Titanium
47.867
23
V
Vanadium
50.941
24
Cr
Chromium
51.996
25
Mn
Manganese
54.938
26
Fe
Iron
55.845
27
Co
Cobalt
58.933
28
Ni
Nickel
58.693
29
Cu
Copper
63.546
30
Zn
Zinc
65.409
31
Ga
Gallium
69.723
32
Ge
Germanium
72.640
33
As
Arsenic
74.922
34
Se
Selenium
78.960
35
Br
Bromine
79.904
36
Kr
Krypton
83.798
5
37
Rb
Rubidium
85.468
38
Sr
Strontium
87.620
39
Y
Yttrium
88.906
40
Zr
Zirconium
91.224
41
Nb
Niobium
92.906
42
Mo
Molybdenum
95.940
43
Tc
Technetium
98
44
Ru
Ruthenium
101.070
45
Rh
Rhodium
102.906
46
Pd
Palladium
106.420
47
Ag
Silver
107.868
48
Cd
Cadmium
112.411
49
In
Indium
114.818
50
Sn
Tin
118.710
51
Sb
Antimony
121.760
52
Te
Tellurium
127.600
53
I
Iodine
126.904
54
Xe
Xenon
131.293
6
55
Cs
Cesium
132.905
56
Ba
Barium
137.327
57 - 71
La - Lu
Lanthanides
72
Hf
Hafnium
178.490
73
Ta
Tantalum
180.948
74
W
Tungsten
183.840
75
Re
Rhenium
186.207
76
Os
Osmium
190.230
77
Ir
Iridium
192.217
78
Pt
Platinum
195.078
79
Au
Gold
196.967
80
Hg
Mercury
200.590
81
Tl
Thallium
204.383
82
Pb
Lead
207.200
83
Bi
Bismuth
208.980
84
Po
Polonium
209
85
At
Astatine
210
86
Rn
Radon
222
7
87
Fr
Francium
223
88
Ra
Radium
226
89 - 103
Ac - Lr
Actinides
104
Rf
Rutherfordium
261
105
Db
Dubnium
262
106
Sg
Seaborgium
266
107
Bh
Bohrium
264
108
Hs
Hassium
277
109
Mt
Meitnerium
268
110
Ds
Darmstadtium
281
111
Rg
Roentgenium
272
112
Cn
Copernicium
285
113
Nh
Nihonium
284
114
Fl
Flerovium
289
115
Mc
Moscovium
288
116
Lv
Livermorium
292
117
Ts
Tennessine
294
118
Og
Oganesson
294
Lanthanides
57
La
Lanthanum
138.905
58
Ce
Cerium
140.116
59
Pr
Praseodymium
140.908
60
Nd
Neodymium
144.240
61
Pm
Promethium
145
62
Sm
Samarium
150.360
63
Eu
Europium
151.964
64
Gd
Gadolinium
157.250
65
Tb
Terbium
158.925
66
Dy
Dysprosium
162.500
67
Ho
Holmium
164.930
68
Er
Erbium
167.259
69
Tm
Thulium
168.934
70
Yb
Ytterbium
173.040
71
Lu
Lutetium
174.967
Actinides
89
Ac
Actinium
227
90
Th
Thorium
232.038
91
Pa
Protactinium
231.036
92
U
Uranium
238.029
93
Np
Neptunium
237
94
Pu
Plutonium
244
95
Am
Americium
243
96
Cm
Curium
247
97
Bk
Berkelium
247
98
Cf
Californium
251
99
Es
Einsteinium
252
100
Fm
Fermium
257
101
Md
Mendelevium
258
102
No
Nobelium
259
103
Lr
Lawrencium
262

How to Locate Bismuth on Periodic Table

Periodic table is arranged by atomic number, number of protons in the nucleus which is same as number of electrons. The atomic number increases from left to right. Periodic table starts at top left ( Atomic number 1) and ends at bottom right (atomic number 118). Therefore you can directly look for atomic number 83 to find Bismuth on periodic table.

Another way to read periodic table and locate an element is by using group number (column) and period number (row). To locate Bismuth on periodic table look for cross section of group 15 and period 6 in the modern periodic table.

Bismuth History

The element Bismuth was discovered by C.F. Geoffroy in year 1753 in one. Bismuth was first isolated by in . Bismuth derived its name from German word, now obsolete.

Definitively identified by Claude François Geoffroy in 1753.

Bismuth Presence: Abundance in Nature and Around Us

The table below shows the abundance of Bismuth in Universe, Sun, Meteorites, Earth's Crust, Oceans and Human Body.

 ppb by weight (1ppb =10^-7 %)ppb by atoms (1ppb =10^-7 %)
Abundance in Universe0.70.004
Abundance in Sun100.07
Abundance in Meteorites705
Abundance in Earth's Crust252
Abundance in Oceans0.020.00059
Abundance in Humans--

Crystal Structure of Bismuth

The solid state structure of Bismuth is Base Centered Monoclinic.

The Crystal structure can be described in terms of its unit Cell. The unit Cells repeats itself in three dimensional space to form the structure.

Unit Cell Parameters

The unit cell is represented in terms of its lattice parameters, which are the lengths of the cell edges Lattice Constants (a, b and c)

abc
667.4 pm611.7 pm330.4 pm

and the angles between them Lattice Angles (alpha, beta and gamma).

alphabetagamma
π/2 1.925622 π/2

The positions of the atoms inside the unit cell are described by the set of atomic positions ( xi, yi, zi) measured from a reference lattice point.

The symmetry properties of the crystal are described by the concept of space groups. All possible symmetric arrangements of particles in three-dimensional space are described by the 230 space groups (219 distinct types, or 230 if chiral copies are considered distinct.

Space Group NameC12/m1 83 Bi Bismuth - Crystal Structure | SchoolMyKids
Oxidation StatesSpace Group Number12
Crystal StructureBase Centered Monoclinic

Bismuth Atomic and Orbital Properties

Bismuth atoms have 83 electrons and the electronic shell structure is [2, 8, 18, 32, 18, 5] with Atomic Term Symbol (Quantum Numbers) 4S3/2.

Atomic Number83
Number of Electrons (with no charge)83
Number of Protons83
Mass Number209
Number of Neutrons126
Shell structure (Electrons per energy level)2, 8, 18, 32, 18, 5
Electron Configuration[Xe] 4f14 5d10 6s2 6p3
Valence Electrons6s2 6p3
Valence (Valency)5
Main Oxidation States3
Oxidation States-3, -2, -1, 1, 2, 3, 4, 5
Atomic Term Symbol (Quantum Numbers)4S3/2

Bohr Atomic Model of Bismuth - Electrons per energy level

83 Bi Bismuth - Electron Shell Structure | SchoolMyKids
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Ground State Electronic Configuration of Bismuth - neutral Bismuth atom

Abbreviated electronic configuration of Bismuth

The ground state abbreviated electronic configuration of Neutral Bismuth atom is [Xe] 4f14 5d10 6s2 6p3. The portion of Bismuth configuration that is equivalent to the noble gas of the preceding period, is abbreviated as [Xe]. For atoms with many electrons, this notation can become lengthy and so an abbreviated notation is used. This is important as it is the Valence electrons 6s2 6p3, electrons in the outermost shell that determine the chemical properties of the element.

Unabbreviated electronic configuration of neutral Bismuth

Complete ground state electronic configuration for the Bismuth atom, Unabbreviated electronic configuration

1s2 2s2 2p6 3s2 3p6 3d10 4s2 4p6 4d10 5s2 5p6 4f14 5d10 6s2 6p3

Electrons are filled in atomic orbitals as per the order determined by the Aufbau principle, Pauli Exclusion Principle and Hund’s Rule.

  • As per the Aufbau principle the electrons will occupy the orbitals having lower energies before occupying higher energy orbitals. According to this principle, electrons are filled in the following order: 1s, 2s, 2p, 3s, 3p, 4s, 3d, 4p, 5s, 4d, 5p, 6s, 4f, 5d, 6p, 7s, 5f, 6d, 7p…
  • The Pauli exclusion principle states that a maximum of two electrons, each having opposite spins, can fit in an orbital.
  • Hund's rule states that every orbital in a given subshell is singly occupied by electrons before a second electron is filled in an orbital.
  • Electron configuration of Bismuth
    Atomic Structure of Bismuth

    Bismuth atomic radius is 143 pm, while it's covalent radius is 146 pm.

    Atomic Radius Calculated

    143 pm (1.43 Å)

    Atomic Radius Empirical

    160 pm (1.6 Å)

    Atomic Volume21.31 cm3/mol
    Covalent Radius146 pm (1.46 Å)
    Van der Waals Radius207 pm
    Neutron Cross Section0.034
    Neutron Mass Absorption 0.000006

    Atomic Spectrum of Bismuth

    Atomic Spectrum of Bismuth | SchoolMyKids

    Bismuth Chemical Properties: Bismuth Ionization Energies and electron affinity

    The electron affinity of Bismuth is 91.2 kJ/mol.

    Valence5
    Electronegativity2.02
    ElectronAffinity91.2 kJ/mol

    Ionization Energy of Bismuth

    Refer to table below for Ionization energies of Bismuth

    Ionization energy numberEnthalpy - kJ/mol
    1st703
    2nd1610
    3rd2466
    4th4370
    5th5400
    6th8520

    Bismuth Physical Properties

    Refer to below table for Bismuth Physical Properties

    Density9.78 g/cm3(when liquid at m.p density is $10.05 g/cm3)
    Molar Volume21.31 cm3/mol

    Elastic Properties

    Young Modulus32
    Shear Modulus12 GPa
    Bulk Modulus 31 GPa
    Poisson Ratio0.33

    Hardness of Bismuth - Tests to Measure of Hardness of Element

    Mohs Hardness2.25 MPa
    Vickers Hardness-
    Brinell Hardness94.2 MPa

    Bismuth Electrical Properties

    Bismuth is Conductor of electricity. Refer to table below for the Electrical properties ofBismuth

    Electrical Conductivity770000 S/m
    Resistivity0.0000013 m Ω
    Superconducting Point-

    Bismuth Heat and Conduction Properties

    Thermal Conductivity8 W/(m K)
    Thermal Expansion0.0000134 /K

    Bismuth Magnetic Properties

    Magnetic TypeDiamagnetic
    Curie Point-
    Mass Magnetic Susceptibility-1.7e-8 m3/kg
    Molar Magnetic Susceptibility-3.6e-9 m3/mol
    Volume Magnetic Susceptibility-0.00017

    Optical Properties of Bismuth

    Refractive Index-

    Acoustic Properties of Bismuth

    Speed of Sound1790 m/s

    Bismuth Thermal Properties - Enthalpies and thermodynamics

    Refer to table below for Thermal properties of Bismuth

    Melting Point544.4 K (271.25°C, 520.25 °F)
    Boiling Point1837 K (1563.85°C, 2846.93 °F)
    Critical Temperature-
    Superconducting Point-

    Enthalpies of Bismuth

    Heat of Fusion10.9 kJ/mol
    Heat of Vaporization160 kJ/mol
    Heat of Combustion-

    Bismuth Isotopes - Nuclear Properties of Bismuth

    Bismuth has 35 isotopes, with between 184 and 218 nucleons. Bismuth has 0 stable naturally occuring isotopes.

    Isotopes of Bismuth - Naturally occurring stable Isotopes: -.

    IsotopeZNIsotope Mass% AbundanceT halfDecay Mode
    184Bi83101184Synthetic
    185Bi83102185Synthetic
    186Bi83103186Synthetic
    187Bi83104187Synthetic
    188Bi83105188Synthetic
    189Bi83106189Synthetic
    190Bi83107190Synthetic
    191Bi83108191Synthetic
    192Bi83109192Synthetic
    193Bi83110193Synthetic
    194Bi83111194Synthetic
    195Bi83112195Synthetic
    196Bi83113196Synthetic
    197Bi83114197Synthetic
    198Bi83115198Synthetic
    199Bi83116199Synthetic
    200Bi83117200Synthetic
    201Bi83118201Synthetic
    202Bi83119202Synthetic
    203Bi83120203Synthetic
    204Bi83121204Synthetic
    205Bi83122205Synthetic
    206Bi83123206Synthetic
    207Bi83124207Synthetic
    208Bi83125208Synthetic
    209Bi83126209100%1.9×10^19 yearsAlphaEmission
    210Bi83127210Synthetic
    211Bi83128211Synthetic
    212Bi83129212Synthetic
    213Bi83130213Synthetic
    214Bi83131214Synthetic
    215Bi83132215Synthetic
    216Bi83133216Synthetic
    217Bi83134217Synthetic
    218Bi83135218Synthetic

    Regulatory and Health - Health and Safety Parameters and Guidelines

    Database Search

    List of unique identifiers to search the element in various chemical registry databases

    DatabaseIdentifier number
    CAS Number - Chemical Abstracts Service (CAS)CAS7440-69-9
    RTECS NumberRTECSEB2600000
    CID Number CID5359367
    Gmelin Number-
    NSC Number-