Element Information, Facts, Properties, Trends, Uses, Comparison with other elements
Scandium is a chemical element with symbol Sc and atomic number 21. A silvery-white metallic d-block element, it has historically been sometimes classified as a rare earth element, together with yttrium and the lanthanoids. It was discovered in 1879 by spectral analysis of the minerals euxenite and gadolinite from Scandinavia.
It belongs to group 3 of the periodic table having trivial name . Scandium family is a periodic table group consisting of rare earth elements plus actinides.
Read key information and facts about element Scandium
|Group in Periodic Table||3|
|Group Name||scandium family|
|Period in Periodic Table||period 4|
|Block in Periodic Table||d -block|
|Electronic Configuration||[Ar] 3d1 4s2|
|Electronic Shell Structure (Electrons per shell)||2, 8, 9, 2|
|Melting Point||1814 K|
|Boiling Point||3103 K|
How to Locate Scandium on Periodic Table
Periodic table is arranged by atomic number, number of protons in the nucleus which is same as number of electrons. The atomic number increases from left to right. Periodic table starts at top left ( Atomic number 1) and ends at bottom right (atomic number 118). Therefore you can directly look for atomic number 21 to find Scandium on periodic table.
Another way to read periodic table and locate an element is by using group number (column) and period number (row). To locate Scandium on periodic table look for cross section of group 3 and period 4 in the modern periodic table.
The element Scandium was discovered by F. Nilson in year 1879 in Sweden. Scandium was first isolated by F. Nilson in 1879. Scandium derived its name from Scandia, the Latin name for Scandinavia.
Nilson split Marignac's ytterbia into pure ytterbia and a new element that matched Mendeleev's 1871 predicted eka-boron.
Scandium Presence: Abundance in Nature and Around Us
The table below shows the abundance of Scandium in Universe, Sun, Meteorites, Earth's Crust, Oceans and Human Body.
|ppb by weight (1ppb =10^-7 %)||ppb by atoms (1ppb =10^-7 %)|
|Abundance in Universe||30||1|
|Abundance in Sun||40||1|
|Abundance in Meteorites||6500||2900|
|Abundance in Earth's Crust||26000||12000|
|Abundance in Oceans||0.0015||0.00021|
|Abundance in Humans||-||-|
Crystal Structure of Scandium
The solid state structure of Scandium is Simple Hexagonal.
The Crystal structure can be described in terms of its unit Cell. The unit Cells repeats itself in three dimensional space to form the structure.
Unit Cell Parameters
The unit cell is represented in terms of its lattice parameters, which are the lengths of the cell edges Lattice Constants (a, b and c)
|330.9 pm||330.9 pm||527.33 pm|
and the angles between them Lattice Angles (alpha, beta and gamma).
The positions of the atoms inside the unit cell are described by the set of atomic positions ( xi, yi, zi) measured from a reference lattice point.
The symmetry properties of the crystal are described by the concept of space groups. All possible symmetric arrangements of particles in three-dimensional space are described by the 230 space groups (219 distinct types, or 230 if chiral copies are considered distinct.
|Space Group Name||P63/mmc|
|Oxidation States||Space Group Number||194|
|Crystal Structure||Simple Hexagonal|
Scandium Atomic and Orbital Properties
Scandium atoms have 21 electrons and the electronic shell structure is [2, 8, 9, 2] with Atomic Term Symbol (Quantum Numbers) 2D3/2.
|Number of Electrons (with no charge)||21|
|Number of Protons||21|
|Number of Neutrons||24|
|Shell structure (Electrons per energy level)||2, 8, 9, 2|
|Electron Configuration||[Ar] 3d1 4s2|
|Valence Electrons||3d1 4s2|
|Main Oxidation States||3|
|Oxidation States||0, 1, 2, 3|
|Atomic Term Symbol (Quantum Numbers)||2D3/2|
Bohr Atomic Model of Scandium - Electrons per energy level
Ground State Electronic Configuration of Scandium - neutral Scandium atom
Abbreviated electronic configuration of Scandium
The ground state abbreviated electronic configuration of Neutral Scandium atom is [Ar] 3d1 4s2. The portion of Scandium configuration that is equivalent to the noble gas of the preceding period, is abbreviated as [Ar]. For atoms with many electrons, this notation can become lengthy and so an abbreviated notation is used. This is important as it is the Valence electrons 3d1 4s2, electrons in the outermost shell that determine the chemical properties of the element.
Unabbreviated electronic configuration of neutral Scandium
Complete ground state electronic configuration for the Scandium atom, Unabbreviated electronic configuration
1s2 2s2 2p6 3s2 3p6 3d1 4s2
Electrons are filled in atomic orbitals as per the order determined by the Aufbau principle, Pauli Exclusion Principle and Hund’s Rule.
Atomic Structure of Scandium
Scandium atomic radius is 184 pm, while it's covalent radius is 144 pm.
|Atomic Radius Calculated|
184 pm (1.84 Å)
|Atomic Radius Empirical|
160 pm (1.6 Å)
|Atomic Volume||15.061 cm3/mol|
|Covalent Radius||144 pm (1.44 Å)|
|Van der Waals Radius||211 pm|
|Neutron Cross Section||27.2|
|Neutron Mass Absorption||0.025|
Atomic Spectrum of Scandium
Scandium Chemical Properties: Scandium Ionization Energies and electron affinity
The electron affinity of Scandium is 18.1 kJ/mol.
Ionization Energy of Scandium
Refer to table below for Ionization energies of Scandium
|Ionization energy number||Enthalpy - kJ/mol|
Scandium Physical Properties
Refer to below table for Scandium Physical Properties
|Density||2.985 g/cm3(when liquid at m.p density is $2.8 g/cm3)|
|Molar Volume||15.061 cm3/mol|
|Shear Modulus||29 GPa|
|Bulk Modulus||57 GPa|
Hardness of Scandium - Tests to Measure of Hardness of Element
|Brinell Hardness||750 MPa|
Scandium Electrical Properties
Scandium is Conductor of electricity. Refer to table below for the Electrical properties ofScandium
|Electrical Conductivity||1800000 S/m|
|Resistivity||5.5e-7 m Ω|
Scandium Heat and Conduction Properties
|Thermal Conductivity||16 W/(m K)|
|Thermal Expansion||0.0000102 /K|
Scandium Magnetic Properties
|Mass Magnetic Susceptibility||8.8e-8 m3/kg|
|Molar Magnetic Susceptibility||3.956e-9 m3/mol|
|Volume Magnetic Susceptibility||0.0002627|
Optical Properties of Scandium
Acoustic Properties of Scandium
|Speed of Sound||-|
Scandium Thermal Properties - Enthalpies and thermodynamics
Refer to table below for Thermal properties of Scandium
|Melting Point||1814 K (1540.85°C, 2805.5299999999997 °F)|
|Boiling Point||3103 K (2829.85°C, 5125.73 °F)|
Enthalpies of Scandium
|Heat of Fusion||16 kJ/mol|
|Heat of Vaporization||318 kJ/mol|
|Heat of Combustion||-|
Scandium Isotopes - Nuclear Properties of Scandium
Scandium has 25 isotopes, with between 36 and 60 nucleons. Scandium has 1 stable naturally occuring isotopes.
Isotopes of Scandium - Naturally occurring stable Isotopes: 45Sc.
|Isotope||Z||N||Isotope Mass||% Abundance||T half||Decay Mode|