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Sc Scandium
Element Information, Facts, Properties, Trends, Uses, Comparison with other elements

21
Sc
Scandium
Element 21 of Periodic table is Scandium with atomic number 21, atomic weight 44.95591. Scandium, symbol Sc, has a Simple Hexagonal structure and Silver color. Scandium is a Transition Metal element. It is part of group 3 (scandium family). Know everything about Scandium Facts, Physical Properties, Chemical Properties, Electronic configuration, Atomic and Crystal Structure.
21 Sc - Scandium | SchoolMyKids

Scandium is a chemical element with symbol Sc and atomic number 21. A silvery-white metallic d-block element, it has historically been sometimes classified as a rare earth element, together with yttrium and the lanthanoids. It was discovered in 1879 by spectral analysis of the minerals euxenite and gadolinite from Scandinavia.

It belongs to group 3 of the periodic table having trivial name . Scandium family is a periodic table group consisting of rare earth elements plus actinides.

Scandium Facts

Read key information and facts about element Scandium

NameScandium
Atomic Number21
Atomic SymbolSc
Atomic Weight44.95591
PhaseSolid
ColorSilver
Appearancesilvery white
ClassificationTransition Metal
Group in Periodic Table3
Group Namescandium family
Period in Periodic Tableperiod 4
Block in Periodic Tabled -block
Electronic Configuration[Ar] 3d1 4s2
Electronic Shell Structure (Electrons per shell)2, 8, 9, 2
Melting Point1814 K
Boiling Point3103 K
CAS NumberCAS7440-20-2
Neighborhood Elements
123456789101112131415161718
1
1
H
Hydrogen
1.008

Atomic #

Electronic Shell #

Symbol
Name
Atomic Weight
HGas
HgLiquid
CSolid
Metals
Metalloids
NonMetals
Alkali metals
Alkali earth metals
Lanthanoids
Transition metals
Post-transition metals
Other nonmetals
Halogens
Nobel gas
Actinoids
2
He
Helium
4.003
2
3
Li
Lithium
6.941
4
Be
Beryllium
9.012
5
B
Boron
10.811
6
C
Carbon
12.011
7
N
Nitrogen
14.007
8
O
Oxygen
15.999
9
F
Fluorine
18.998
10
Ne
Neon
20.180
3
11
Na
Sodium
22.990
12
Mg
Magnesium
24.305
13
Al
Aluminium
26.982
14
Si
Silicon
28.085
15
P
Phosphorus
30.974
16
S
Sulfur
32.065
17
Cl
Chlorine
35.453
18
Ar
Argon
39.948
4
19
K
Potassium
39.098
20
Ca
Calcium
40.078
21
Sc
Scandium
44.956
22
Ti
Titanium
47.867
23
V
Vanadium
50.941
24
Cr
Chromium
51.996
25
Mn
Manganese
54.938
26
Fe
Iron
55.845
27
Co
Cobalt
58.933
28
Ni
Nickel
58.693
29
Cu
Copper
63.546
30
Zn
Zinc
65.409
31
Ga
Gallium
69.723
32
Ge
Germanium
72.640
33
As
Arsenic
74.922
34
Se
Selenium
78.960
35
Br
Bromine
79.904
36
Kr
Krypton
83.798
5
37
Rb
Rubidium
85.468
38
Sr
Strontium
87.620
39
Y
Yttrium
88.906
40
Zr
Zirconium
91.224
41
Nb
Niobium
92.906
42
Mo
Molybdenum
95.940
43
Tc
Technetium
98
44
Ru
Ruthenium
101.070
45
Rh
Rhodium
102.906
46
Pd
Palladium
106.420
47
Ag
Silver
107.868
48
Cd
Cadmium
112.411
49
In
Indium
114.818
50
Sn
Tin
118.710
51
Sb
Antimony
121.760
52
Te
Tellurium
127.600
53
I
Iodine
126.904
54
Xe
Xenon
131.293
6
55
Cs
Cesium
132.905
56
Ba
Barium
137.327
57 - 71
La - Lu
Lanthanides
72
Hf
Hafnium
178.490
73
Ta
Tantalum
180.948
74
W
Tungsten
183.840
75
Re
Rhenium
186.207
76
Os
Osmium
190.230
77
Ir
Iridium
192.217
78
Pt
Platinum
195.078
79
Au
Gold
196.967
80
Hg
Mercury
200.590
81
Tl
Thallium
204.383
82
Pb
Lead
207.200
83
Bi
Bismuth
208.980
84
Po
Polonium
209
85
At
Astatine
210
86
Rn
Radon
222
7
87
Fr
Francium
223
88
Ra
Radium
226
89 - 103
Ac - Lr
Actinides
104
Rf
Rutherfordium
261
105
Db
Dubnium
262
106
Sg
Seaborgium
266
107
Bh
Bohrium
264
108
Hs
Hassium
277
109
Mt
Meitnerium
268
110
Ds
Darmstadtium
281
111
Rg
Roentgenium
272
112
Cn
Copernicium
285
113
Nh
Nihonium
284
114
Fl
Flerovium
289
115
Mc
Moscovium
288
116
Lv
Livermorium
292
117
Ts
Tennessine
294
118
Og
Oganesson
294
Lanthanides
57
La
Lanthanum
138.905
58
Ce
Cerium
140.116
59
Pr
Praseodymium
140.908
60
Nd
Neodymium
144.240
61
Pm
Promethium
145
62
Sm
Samarium
150.360
63
Eu
Europium
151.964
64
Gd
Gadolinium
157.250
65
Tb
Terbium
158.925
66
Dy
Dysprosium
162.500
67
Ho
Holmium
164.930
68
Er
Erbium
167.259
69
Tm
Thulium
168.934
70
Yb
Ytterbium
173.040
71
Lu
Lutetium
174.967
Actinides
89
Ac
Actinium
227
90
Th
Thorium
232.038
91
Pa
Protactinium
231.036
92
U
Uranium
238.029
93
Np
Neptunium
237
94
Pu
Plutonium
244
95
Am
Americium
243
96
Cm
Curium
247
97
Bk
Berkelium
247
98
Cf
Californium
251
99
Es
Einsteinium
252
100
Fm
Fermium
257
101
Md
Mendelevium
258
102
No
Nobelium
259
103
Lr
Lawrencium
262

How to Locate Scandium on Periodic Table

Periodic table is arranged by atomic number, number of protons in the nucleus which is same as number of electrons. The atomic number increases from left to right. Periodic table starts at top left ( Atomic number 1) and ends at bottom right (atomic number 118). Therefore you can directly look for atomic number 21 to find Scandium on periodic table.

Another way to read periodic table and locate an element is by using group number (column) and period number (row). To locate Scandium on periodic table look for cross section of group 3 and period 4 in the modern periodic table.

Scandium History

The element Scandium was discovered by F. Nilson in year 1879 in Sweden. Scandium was first isolated by F. Nilson in 1879. Scandium derived its name from Scandia, the Latin name for Scandinavia.

Nilson split Marignac's ytterbia into pure ytterbia and a new element that matched Mendeleev's 1871 predicted eka-boron.

Scandium Presence: Abundance in Nature and Around Us

The table below shows the abundance of Scandium in Universe, Sun, Meteorites, Earth's Crust, Oceans and Human Body.

 ppb by weight (1ppb =10^-7 %)ppb by atoms (1ppb =10^-7 %)
Abundance in Universe301
Abundance in Sun401
Abundance in Meteorites65002900
Abundance in Earth's Crust2600012000
Abundance in Oceans0.00150.00021
Abundance in Humans--

Crystal Structure of Scandium

The solid state structure of Scandium is Simple Hexagonal.

The Crystal structure can be described in terms of its unit Cell. The unit Cells repeats itself in three dimensional space to form the structure.

Unit Cell Parameters

The unit cell is represented in terms of its lattice parameters, which are the lengths of the cell edges Lattice Constants (a, b and c)

abc
330.9 pm330.9 pm527.33 pm

and the angles between them Lattice Angles (alpha, beta and gamma).

alphabetagamma
π/2 π/2 2 π/3

The positions of the atoms inside the unit cell are described by the set of atomic positions ( xi, yi, zi) measured from a reference lattice point.

The symmetry properties of the crystal are described by the concept of space groups. All possible symmetric arrangements of particles in three-dimensional space are described by the 230 space groups (219 distinct types, or 230 if chiral copies are considered distinct.

Space Group NameP63/mmc 21 Sc Scandium - Crystal Structure | SchoolMyKids
Oxidation StatesSpace Group Number194
Crystal StructureSimple Hexagonal

Scandium Atomic and Orbital Properties

Scandium atoms have 21 electrons and the electronic shell structure is [2, 8, 9, 2] with Atomic Term Symbol (Quantum Numbers) 2D3/2.

Atomic Number21
Number of Electrons (with no charge)21
Number of Protons21
Mass Number45
Number of Neutrons24
Shell structure (Electrons per energy level)2, 8, 9, 2
Electron Configuration[Ar] 3d1 4s2
Valence Electrons3d1 4s2
Valence (Valency)3
Main Oxidation States3
Oxidation States0, 1, 2, 3
Atomic Term Symbol (Quantum Numbers)2D3/2

Bohr Atomic Model of Scandium - Electrons per energy level

21 Sc Scandium - Electron Shell Structure | SchoolMyKids
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Ground State Electronic Configuration of Scandium - neutral Scandium atom

Abbreviated electronic configuration of Scandium

The ground state abbreviated electronic configuration of Neutral Scandium atom is [Ar] 3d1 4s2. The portion of Scandium configuration that is equivalent to the noble gas of the preceding period, is abbreviated as [Ar]. For atoms with many electrons, this notation can become lengthy and so an abbreviated notation is used. This is important as it is the Valence electrons 3d1 4s2, electrons in the outermost shell that determine the chemical properties of the element.

Unabbreviated electronic configuration of neutral Scandium

Complete ground state electronic configuration for the Scandium atom, Unabbreviated electronic configuration

1s2 2s2 2p6 3s2 3p6 3d1 4s2

Electrons are filled in atomic orbitals as per the order determined by the Aufbau principle, Pauli Exclusion Principle and Hund’s Rule.

  • As per the Aufbau principle the electrons will occupy the orbitals having lower energies before occupying higher energy orbitals. According to this principle, electrons are filled in the following order: 1s, 2s, 2p, 3s, 3p, 4s, 3d, 4p, 5s, 4d, 5p, 6s, 4f, 5d, 6p, 7s, 5f, 6d, 7p…
  • The Pauli exclusion principle states that a maximum of two electrons, each having opposite spins, can fit in an orbital.
  • Hund's rule states that every orbital in a given subshell is singly occupied by electrons before a second electron is filled in an orbital.
  • Electron configuration of Scandium
    Atomic Structure of Scandium

    Scandium atomic radius is 184 pm, while it's covalent radius is 144 pm.

    Atomic Radius Calculated

    184 pm (1.84 Å)

    Atomic Radius Empirical

    160 pm (1.6 Å)

    Atomic Volume15.061 cm3/mol
    Covalent Radius144 pm (1.44 Å)
    Van der Waals Radius211 pm
    Neutron Cross Section27.2
    Neutron Mass Absorption 0.025

    Atomic Spectrum of Scandium

    Atomic Spectrum of Scandium | SchoolMyKids

    Scandium Chemical Properties: Scandium Ionization Energies and electron affinity

    The electron affinity of Scandium is 18.1 kJ/mol.

    Valence3
    Electronegativity1.36
    ElectronAffinity18.1 kJ/mol

    Ionization Energy of Scandium

    Refer to table below for Ionization energies of Scandium

    Ionization energy numberEnthalpy - kJ/mol
    1st633.1
    2nd1235
    3rd2388.6
    4th7090.6
    5th8843
    6th10679
    7th13310
    8th15250
    9th17370
    10th21726
    11th24102
    12th66320
    13th73010
    14th80160
    15th89490
    16th97400
    17th105600
    18th117000
    19th124270
    20th547530
    21st582163

    Scandium Physical Properties

    Refer to below table for Scandium Physical Properties

    Density2.985 g/cm3(when liquid at m.p density is $2.8 g/cm3)
    Molar Volume15.061 cm3/mol

    Elastic Properties

    Young Modulus74
    Shear Modulus29 GPa
    Bulk Modulus 57 GPa
    Poisson Ratio0.28

    Hardness of Scandium - Tests to Measure of Hardness of Element

    Mohs Hardness-
    Vickers Hardness-
    Brinell Hardness750 MPa

    Scandium Electrical Properties

    Scandium is Conductor of electricity. Refer to table below for the Electrical properties ofScandium

    Electrical Conductivity1800000 S/m
    Resistivity5.5e-7 m Ω
    Superconducting Point0.05

    Scandium Heat and Conduction Properties

    Thermal Conductivity16 W/(m K)
    Thermal Expansion0.0000102 /K

    Scandium Magnetic Properties

    Magnetic TypeParamagnetic
    Curie Point-
    Mass Magnetic Susceptibility8.8e-8 m3/kg
    Molar Magnetic Susceptibility3.956e-9 m3/mol
    Volume Magnetic Susceptibility0.0002627

    Optical Properties of Scandium

    Refractive Index-

    Acoustic Properties of Scandium

    Speed of Sound-

    Scandium Thermal Properties - Enthalpies and thermodynamics

    Refer to table below for Thermal properties of Scandium

    Melting Point1814 K (1540.85°C, 2805.5299999999997 °F)
    Boiling Point3103 K (2829.85°C, 5125.73 °F)
    Critical Temperature-
    Superconducting Point0.05

    Enthalpies of Scandium

    Heat of Fusion16 kJ/mol
    Heat of Vaporization318 kJ/mol
    Heat of Combustion-

    Scandium Isotopes - Nuclear Properties of Scandium

    Scandium has 25 isotopes, with between 36 and 60 nucleons. Scandium has 1 stable naturally occuring isotopes.

    Isotopes of Scandium - Naturally occurring stable Isotopes: 45Sc.

    IsotopeZNIsotope Mass% AbundanceT halfDecay Mode
    36Sc211536Synthetic
    37Sc211637Synthetic
    38Sc211738Synthetic
    39Sc211839Synthetic
    40Sc211940Synthetic
    41Sc212041Synthetic
    42Sc212142Synthetic
    43Sc212243Synthetic
    44Sc212344Synthetic
    45Sc212445100%Stable
    46Sc212546Synthetic
    47Sc212647Synthetic
    48Sc212748Synthetic
    49Sc212849Synthetic
    50Sc212950Synthetic
    51Sc213051Synthetic
    52Sc213152Synthetic
    53Sc213253Synthetic
    54Sc213354Synthetic
    55Sc213455Synthetic
    56Sc213556Synthetic
    57Sc213657Synthetic
    58Sc213758Synthetic
    59Sc213859Synthetic
    60Sc213960Synthetic

    Regulatory and Health - Health and Safety Parameters and Guidelines

    Database Search

    List of unique identifiers to search the element in various chemical registry databases

    DatabaseIdentifier number
    CAS Number - Chemical Abstracts Service (CAS)CAS7440-20-2
    RTECS Number-
    CID Number CID23952
    Gmelin Number-
    NSC Number-