Nickel is a chemical element with symbol Ni and atomic number 28. It is a silvery-white lustrous metal with a slight golden tinge. Nickel belongs to the transition metals and is hard and ductile.
It belongs to group 10 of the periodic table having trivial name .
Read key information and facts about element Nickel
|Appearance||lustrous, metallic, and silver with a gold tinge|
|Group in Periodic Table||10|
|Group Name||nickel family|
|Period in Periodic Table||period 4|
|Block in Periodic Table||d -block|
|Electronic Configuration||[Ar] 3d8 4s2|
|Electronic Shell Structure (Electrons per shell)||2, 8, 16, 2|
|Melting Point||1728 K|
|Boiling Point||3186 K|
How to Locate Nickel on Periodic Table
Periodic table is arranged by atomic number, number of protons in the nucleus which is same as number of electrons. The atomic number increases from left to right. Periodic table starts at top left ( Atomic number 1) and ends at bottom right (atomic number 118). Therefore you can directly look for atomic number 28 to find Nickel on periodic table.
Another way to read periodic table and locate an element is by using group number (column) and period number (row). To locate Nickel on periodic table look for cross section of group 10 and period 4 in the modern periodic table.
The element Nickel was discovered by F. Cronstedt in year 1751 in Sweden. Nickel was first isolated by F. Cronstedt in 1751. Nickel derived its name from Swedish kopparnickel, containing the German word Nickel, 'goblin'.
Found by attempting to extract copper from the mineral known as fake copper (now known asniccolite).
Nickel Presence: Abundance in Nature and Around Us
The table below shows the abundance of Nickel in Universe, Sun, Meteorites, Earth's Crust, Oceans and Human Body.
|ppb by weight (1ppb =10^-7 %)||ppb by atoms (1ppb =10^-7 %)|
|Abundance in Universe||60000||1000|
|Abundance in Sun||80000||2000|
|Abundance in Meteorites||13000000||4400000|
|Abundance in Earth's Crust||90000||32000|
|Abundance in Oceans||2||0.21|
|Abundance in Humans||100||11|
Crystal Structure of Nickel
The solid state structure of Nickel is Face Centered Cubic.
The Crystal structure can be described in terms of its unit Cell. The unit Cells repeats itself in three dimensional space to form the structure.
Unit Cell Parameters
The unit cell is represented in terms of its lattice parameters, which are the lengths of the cell edges Lattice Constants (a, b and c)
|352.4 pm||352.4 pm||352.4 pm|
and the angles between them Lattice Angles (alpha, beta and gamma).
The positions of the atoms inside the unit cell are described by the set of atomic positions ( xi, yi, zi) measured from a reference lattice point.
The symmetry properties of the crystal are described by the concept of space groups. All possible symmetric arrangements of particles in three-dimensional space are described by the 230 space groups (219 distinct types, or 230 if chiral copies are considered distinct.
|Space Group Name||Fm_ 3m|
|Space Group Number||225|
|Crystal Structure||Face Centered Cubic|
|Number of atoms per unit cell||4|
The number of atoms per unit cell in a simple cubic, face-centered cubic and body-centred cubic are 1,4,2 respectively.
Nickel Atomic and Orbital Properties
Nickel atoms have 28 electrons and the electronic shell structure is [2, 8, 16, 2] with Atomic Term Symbol (Quantum Numbers) 3F4.
|Number of Electrons (with no charge)||28|
|Number of Protons||28|
|Number of Neutrons||31|
|Shell structure (Electrons per energy level)||2, 8, 16, 2|
|Electron Configuration||[Ar] 3d8 4s2|
|Valence Electrons||3d8 4s2|
|Main Oxidation States||2|
|Oxidation States||-2, -1, 0, 1, 2, 3, 4|
|Atomic Term Symbol (Quantum Numbers)||3F4|
Bohr Atomic Model of Nickel - Electrons per energy level
Ground State Electronic Configuration of Nickel - neutral Nickel atom
Abbreviated electronic configuration of Nickel
The ground state abbreviated electronic configuration of Neutral Nickel atom is [Ar] 3d8 4s2. The portion of Nickel configuration that is equivalent to the noble gas of the preceding period, is abbreviated as [Ar]. For atoms with many electrons, this notation can become lengthy and so an abbreviated notation is used. This is important as it is the Valence electrons 3d8 4s2, electrons in the outermost shell that determine the chemical properties of the element.
Unabbreviated electronic configuration of neutral Nickel
Complete ground state electronic configuration for the Nickel atom, Unabbreviated electronic configuration
1s2 2s2 2p6 3s2 3p6 3d8 4s2
Electrons are filled in atomic orbitals as per the order determined by the Aufbau principle, Pauli Exclusion Principle and Hund’s Rule.
Atomic Structure of Nickel
Nickel atomic radius is 149 pm, while it's covalent radius is 121 pm.
|Atomic Radius Calculated|
149 pm (1.49 Å)
|Atomic Radius Empirical|
135 pm (1.35 Å)
|Atomic Volume||6.5888 cm3/mol|
|Covalent Radius||121 pm (1.21 Å)|
|Van der Waals Radius||163 pm|
|Neutron Cross Section||37.2|
|Neutron Mass Absorption||0.0026|
Atomic Spectrum of Nickel
Nickel Chemical Properties: Nickel Ionization Energies and electron affinity
The electron affinity of Nickel is 112 kJ/mol.
Ionization Energy of Nickel
Refer to table below for Ionization energies of Nickel
|Ionization energy number||Enthalpy - kJ/mol|
Nickel Physical Properties
Refer to below table for Nickel Physical Properties
|Density||8.908 g/cm3(when liquid at m.p density is $7.81 g/cm3)|
|Molar Volume||6.5888 cm3/mol|
|Shear Modulus||76 GPa|
|Bulk Modulus||180 GPa|
Hardness of Nickel - Tests to Measure of Hardness of Element
|Mohs Hardness||4 MPa|
|Vickers Hardness||638 MPa|
|Brinell Hardness||700 MPa|
Nickel Electrical Properties
Nickel is Conductor of electricity. Refer to table below for the Electrical properties ofNickel
|Electrical Conductivity||14000000 S/m|
|Resistivity||7e-8 m Ω|
Nickel Heat and Conduction Properties
|Thermal Conductivity||91 W/(m K)|
|Thermal Expansion||0.0000134 /K|
Nickel Magnetic Properties
|Curie Point||631 K|
|Mass Magnetic Susceptibility||-|
|Molar Magnetic Susceptibility||-|
|Volume Magnetic Susceptibility||-|
Optical Properties of Nickel
Acoustic Properties of Nickel
|Speed of Sound||4970 m/s|
Nickel Thermal Properties - Enthalpies and thermodynamics
Refer to table below for Thermal properties of Nickel
|Melting Point||1728 K (1454.85°C, 2650.73 °F)|
|Boiling Point||3186 K (2912.85°C, 5275.129999999999 °F)|
Enthalpies of Nickel
|Heat of Fusion||17.2 kJ/mol|
|Heat of Vaporization||378 kJ/mol|
|Heat of Combustion||-|
Nickel Isotopes - Nuclear Properties of Nickel
Nickel has 31 isotopes, with between 48 and 78 nucleons. Nickel has 5 stable naturally occuring isotopes.
Isotopes of Nickel - Naturally occurring stable Isotopes: 58Ni, 60Ni, 61Ni, 62Ni, 64Ni.
|Isotope||Z||N||Isotope Mass||% Abundance||T half||Decay Mode|
Compare Nickel with other elements
Compare Nickel with all Group 10 elements
Compare Nickel with all Period 4 elements
Compare Nickel with all Transition Metal elements
What is the electronic configuration of Nickel?
The electronic configuration of Nickel is 1s2 2s2 2p6 3s2 3p6 3d8 4s2.
What is the abbreviated electronic configuration of Nickel?
The abbreviated electronic configuration of Nickel is [Ar] 3d8 4s2. To form abbreviated notation of electronic configuration, the completely filled subshells are replaced by the noble gas of the preceding period in square brackets.
What is the symbol of Nickel?
Symbol of Nickel is Ni. Nickel is a chemical element with symbol Ni and atomic number 28.
What is the position of Nickel in the Periodic Table?
Nickel is a chemical element with the symbol Ni and atomic number 28. Nickel is the 28 element on the periodic table. It is located in group 10 and period 4 in the modern periodic table.
What is the atomic number of Nickel?
The atomic number of Nickel is 28.
What is the color of Nickel?
Nickel is of Gray color.
Who discovered Nickel?
The element Nickel was discovered by F. Cronstedt in year 1751 in Sweden. Nickel was first isolated by F. Cronstedt in 1751.
How many valence electrons does a Nickel atom have?
Nickel has 2 valence electrons. Nickel has 28 electrons out of which 2 valence electrons are present in the 3d8 4s2 outer orbitals of atom.
What is the melting Point of Nickel?
Melting Point of Nickel is 1728 K.
What is the boiling Point of Nickel?
Boiling Point of Nickel is 3186 K.
What is the melting Point of Nickel in Kelvin?
Melting Point of Nickel in Kelvin is 1728 K.
What is the boiling Point of Nickel in Kelvin?
Boiling Point of Nickel in Kelvin is 3186 K.
What is the electronic configuration of Nickel 28?
The electronic configuration of Nickel will be 1s2 2s2 2p6 3s2 3p6 3d8 4s2.
How do you write the electron configuration for Nickel?
The electronic configuration of Nickel will be 1s2 2s2 2p6 3s2 3p6 3d8 4s2.