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Ni Nickel
Element Information, Facts, Properties, Trends, Uses, Comparison with other elements

28
Ni
Nickel
Element 28 of Periodic table is Nickel with atomic number 28, atomic weight 58.6934. Nickel, symbol Ni, has a Face Centered Cubic structure and Gray color. Nickel is a Transition Metal element. It is part of group 10 (nickel family). Know everything about Nickel Facts, Physical Properties, Chemical Properties, Electronic configuration, Atomic and Crystal Structure.
28 Ni - Nickel | SchoolMyKids

Nickel is a chemical element with symbol Ni and atomic number 28. It is a silvery-white lustrous metal with a slight golden tinge. Nickel belongs to the transition metals and is hard and ductile.

It belongs to group 10 of the periodic table having trivial name .

Nickel Facts

Read key information and facts about element Nickel

NameNickel
Atomic Number28
Atomic SymbolNi
Atomic Weight58.6934
PhaseSolid
ColorGray
Appearancelustrous, metallic, and silver with a gold tinge
ClassificationTransition Metal
Group in Periodic Table10
Group Namenickel family
Period in Periodic Tableperiod 4
Block in Periodic Tabled -block
Electronic Configuration[Ar] 3d8 4s2
Electronic Shell Structure (Electrons per shell)2, 8, 16, 2
Melting Point1728 K
Boiling Point3186 K
CAS NumberCAS7440-02-0
Neighborhood Elements
123456789101112131415161718
1
1
H
Hydrogen
1.008

Atomic #

Electronic Shell #

Symbol
Name
Atomic Weight
HGas
HgLiquid
CSolid
Metals
Metalloids
NonMetals
Alkali metals
Alkali earth metals
Lanthanoids
Transition metals
Post-transition metals
Other nonmetals
Halogens
Nobel gas
Actinoids
2
He
Helium
4.003
2
3
Li
Lithium
6.941
4
Be
Beryllium
9.012
5
B
Boron
10.811
6
C
Carbon
12.011
7
N
Nitrogen
14.007
8
O
Oxygen
15.999
9
F
Fluorine
18.998
10
Ne
Neon
20.180
3
11
Na
Sodium
22.990
12
Mg
Magnesium
24.305
13
Al
Aluminium
26.982
14
Si
Silicon
28.085
15
P
Phosphorus
30.974
16
S
Sulfur
32.065
17
Cl
Chlorine
35.453
18
Ar
Argon
39.948
4
19
K
Potassium
39.098
20
Ca
Calcium
40.078
21
Sc
Scandium
44.956
22
Ti
Titanium
47.867
23
V
Vanadium
50.941
24
Cr
Chromium
51.996
25
Mn
Manganese
54.938
26
Fe
Iron
55.845
27
Co
Cobalt
58.933
28
Ni
Nickel
58.693
29
Cu
Copper
63.546
30
Zn
Zinc
65.409
31
Ga
Gallium
69.723
32
Ge
Germanium
72.640
33
As
Arsenic
74.922
34
Se
Selenium
78.960
35
Br
Bromine
79.904
36
Kr
Krypton
83.798
5
37
Rb
Rubidium
85.468
38
Sr
Strontium
87.620
39
Y
Yttrium
88.906
40
Zr
Zirconium
91.224
41
Nb
Niobium
92.906
42
Mo
Molybdenum
95.940
43
Tc
Technetium
98
44
Ru
Ruthenium
101.070
45
Rh
Rhodium
102.906
46
Pd
Palladium
106.420
47
Ag
Silver
107.868
48
Cd
Cadmium
112.411
49
In
Indium
114.818
50
Sn
Tin
118.710
51
Sb
Antimony
121.760
52
Te
Tellurium
127.600
53
I
Iodine
126.904
54
Xe
Xenon
131.293
6
55
Cs
Cesium
132.905
56
Ba
Barium
137.327
57 - 71
La - Lu
Lanthanides
72
Hf
Hafnium
178.490
73
Ta
Tantalum
180.948
74
W
Tungsten
183.840
75
Re
Rhenium
186.207
76
Os
Osmium
190.230
77
Ir
Iridium
192.217
78
Pt
Platinum
195.078
79
Au
Gold
196.967
80
Hg
Mercury
200.590
81
Tl
Thallium
204.383
82
Pb
Lead
207.200
83
Bi
Bismuth
208.980
84
Po
Polonium
209
85
At
Astatine
210
86
Rn
Radon
222
7
87
Fr
Francium
223
88
Ra
Radium
226
89 - 103
Ac - Lr
Actinides
104
Rf
Rutherfordium
261
105
Db
Dubnium
262
106
Sg
Seaborgium
266
107
Bh
Bohrium
264
108
Hs
Hassium
277
109
Mt
Meitnerium
268
110
Ds
Darmstadtium
281
111
Rg
Roentgenium
272
112
Cn
Copernicium
285
113
Nh
Nihonium
284
114
Fl
Flerovium
289
115
Mc
Moscovium
288
116
Lv
Livermorium
292
117
Ts
Tennessine
294
118
Og
Oganesson
294
Lanthanides
57
La
Lanthanum
138.905
58
Ce
Cerium
140.116
59
Pr
Praseodymium
140.908
60
Nd
Neodymium
144.240
61
Pm
Promethium
145
62
Sm
Samarium
150.360
63
Eu
Europium
151.964
64
Gd
Gadolinium
157.250
65
Tb
Terbium
158.925
66
Dy
Dysprosium
162.500
67
Ho
Holmium
164.930
68
Er
Erbium
167.259
69
Tm
Thulium
168.934
70
Yb
Ytterbium
173.040
71
Lu
Lutetium
174.967
Actinides
89
Ac
Actinium
227
90
Th
Thorium
232.038
91
Pa
Protactinium
231.036
92
U
Uranium
238.029
93
Np
Neptunium
237
94
Pu
Plutonium
244
95
Am
Americium
243
96
Cm
Curium
247
97
Bk
Berkelium
247
98
Cf
Californium
251
99
Es
Einsteinium
252
100
Fm
Fermium
257
101
Md
Mendelevium
258
102
No
Nobelium
259
103
Lr
Lawrencium
262

How to Locate Nickel on Periodic Table

Periodic table is arranged by atomic number, number of protons in the nucleus which is same as number of electrons. The atomic number increases from left to right. Periodic table starts at top left ( Atomic number 1) and ends at bottom right (atomic number 118). Therefore you can directly look for atomic number 28 to find Nickel on periodic table.

Another way to read periodic table and locate an element is by using group number (column) and period number (row). To locate Nickel on periodic table look for cross section of group 10 and period 4 in the modern periodic table.

Nickel History

The element Nickel was discovered by F. Cronstedt in year 1751 in Sweden. Nickel was first isolated by F. Cronstedt in 1751. Nickel derived its name from Swedish kopparnickel, containing the German word Nickel, 'goblin'.

Found by attempting to extract copper from the mineral known as fake copper (now known asniccolite).

Nickel Presence: Abundance in Nature and Around Us

The table below shows the abundance of Nickel in Universe, Sun, Meteorites, Earth's Crust, Oceans and Human Body.

 ppb by weight (1ppb =10^-7 %)ppb by atoms (1ppb =10^-7 %)
Abundance in Universe600001000
Abundance in Sun800002000
Abundance in Meteorites130000004400000
Abundance in Earth's Crust9000032000
Abundance in Oceans20.21
Abundance in Humans10011

Crystal Structure of Nickel

The solid state structure of Nickel is Face Centered Cubic.

The Crystal structure can be described in terms of its unit Cell. The unit Cells repeats itself in three dimensional space to form the structure.

Unit Cell Parameters

The unit cell is represented in terms of its lattice parameters, which are the lengths of the cell edges Lattice Constants (a, b and c)

abc
352.4 pm352.4 pm352.4 pm

and the angles between them Lattice Angles (alpha, beta and gamma).

alphabetagamma
π/2 π/2 π/2

The positions of the atoms inside the unit cell are described by the set of atomic positions ( xi, yi, zi) measured from a reference lattice point.

The symmetry properties of the crystal are described by the concept of space groups. All possible symmetric arrangements of particles in three-dimensional space are described by the 230 space groups (219 distinct types, or 230 if chiral copies are considered distinct.

Space Group NameFm_ 3m 28 Ni Nickel - Crystal Structure | SchoolMyKids
Oxidation StatesSpace Group Number225
Crystal StructureFace Centered Cubic

Nickel Atomic and Orbital Properties

Nickel atoms have 28 electrons and the electronic shell structure is [2, 8, 16, 2] with Atomic Term Symbol (Quantum Numbers) 3F4.

Atomic Number28
Number of Electrons (with no charge)28
Number of Protons28
Mass Number59
Number of Neutrons31
Shell structure (Electrons per energy level)2, 8, 16, 2
Electron Configuration[Ar] 3d8 4s2
Valence Electrons3d8 4s2
Valence (Valency)2
Main Oxidation States2
Oxidation States-2, -1, 0, 1, 2, 3, 4
Atomic Term Symbol (Quantum Numbers)3F4

Bohr Atomic Model of Nickel - Electrons per energy level

28 Ni Nickel - Electron Shell Structure | SchoolMyKids
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Ground State Electronic Configuration of Nickel - neutral Nickel atom

Abbreviated electronic configuration of Nickel

The ground state abbreviated electronic configuration of Neutral Nickel atom is [Ar] 3d8 4s2. The portion of Nickel configuration that is equivalent to the noble gas of the preceding period, is abbreviated as [Ar]. For atoms with many electrons, this notation can become lengthy and so an abbreviated notation is used. This is important as it is the Valence electrons 3d8 4s2, electrons in the outermost shell that determine the chemical properties of the element.

Unabbreviated electronic configuration of neutral Nickel

Complete ground state electronic configuration for the Nickel atom, Unabbreviated electronic configuration

1s2 2s2 2p6 3s2 3p6 3d8 4s2

Electrons are filled in atomic orbitals as per the order determined by the Aufbau principle, Pauli Exclusion Principle and Hund’s Rule.

  • As per the Aufbau principle the electrons will occupy the orbitals having lower energies before occupying higher energy orbitals. According to this principle, electrons are filled in the following order: 1s, 2s, 2p, 3s, 3p, 4s, 3d, 4p, 5s, 4d, 5p, 6s, 4f, 5d, 6p, 7s, 5f, 6d, 7p…
  • The Pauli exclusion principle states that a maximum of two electrons, each having opposite spins, can fit in an orbital.
  • Hund's rule states that every orbital in a given subshell is singly occupied by electrons before a second electron is filled in an orbital.
  • Electron configuration of Nickel
    Atomic Structure of Nickel

    Nickel atomic radius is 149 pm, while it's covalent radius is 121 pm.

    Atomic Radius Calculated

    149 pm (1.49 Å)

    Atomic Radius Empirical

    135 pm (1.35 Å)

    Atomic Volume6.5888 cm3/mol
    Covalent Radius121 pm (1.21 Å)
    Van der Waals Radius163 pm
    Neutron Cross Section37.2
    Neutron Mass Absorption 0.0026

    Atomic Spectrum of Nickel

    Atomic Spectrum of Nickel | SchoolMyKids

    Nickel Chemical Properties: Nickel Ionization Energies and electron affinity

    The electron affinity of Nickel is 112 kJ/mol.

    Valence2
    Electronegativity1.91
    ElectronAffinity112 kJ/mol

    Ionization Energy of Nickel

    Refer to table below for Ionization energies of Nickel

    Ionization energy numberEnthalpy - kJ/mol
    1st737.1
    2nd1753
    3rd3395
    4th5300
    5th7339
    6th10400
    7th12800
    8th15600
    9th18600
    10th21670
    11th30970
    12th34000
    13th37100
    14th41500
    15th44800
    16th48100
    17th55101
    18th58570
    19th148700
    20th159000
    21st169400
    22nd182700
    23rd194000
    24th205600
    25th221400
    26th231490
    27th992718
    28th1039668

    Nickel Physical Properties

    Refer to below table for Nickel Physical Properties

    Density8.908 g/cm3(when liquid at m.p density is $7.81 g/cm3)
    Molar Volume6.5888 cm3/mol

    Elastic Properties

    Young Modulus200
    Shear Modulus76 GPa
    Bulk Modulus 180 GPa
    Poisson Ratio0.31

    Hardness of Nickel - Tests to Measure of Hardness of Element

    Mohs Hardness4 MPa
    Vickers Hardness638 MPa
    Brinell Hardness700 MPa

    Nickel Electrical Properties

    Nickel is Conductor of electricity. Refer to table below for the Electrical properties ofNickel

    Electrical Conductivity14000000 S/m
    Resistivity7e-8 m Ω
    Superconducting Point-

    Nickel Heat and Conduction Properties

    Thermal Conductivity91 W/(m K)
    Thermal Expansion0.0000134 /K

    Nickel Magnetic Properties

    Magnetic TypeFerromagnetic
    Curie Point631 K
    Mass Magnetic Susceptibility-
    Molar Magnetic Susceptibility-
    Volume Magnetic Susceptibility-

    Optical Properties of Nickel

    Refractive Index-

    Acoustic Properties of Nickel

    Speed of Sound4970 m/s

    Nickel Thermal Properties - Enthalpies and thermodynamics

    Refer to table below for Thermal properties of Nickel

    Melting Point1728 K (1454.85°C, 2650.73 °F)
    Boiling Point3186 K (2912.85°C, 5275.129999999999 °F)
    Critical Temperature-
    Superconducting Point-

    Enthalpies of Nickel

    Heat of Fusion17.2 kJ/mol
    Heat of Vaporization378 kJ/mol
    Heat of Combustion-

    Nickel Isotopes - Nuclear Properties of Nickel

    Nickel has 31 isotopes, with between 48 and 78 nucleons. Nickel has 5 stable naturally occuring isotopes.

    Isotopes of Nickel - Naturally occurring stable Isotopes: 58Ni, 60Ni, 61Ni, 62Ni, 64Ni.

    IsotopeZNIsotope Mass% AbundanceT halfDecay Mode
    48Ni282048Synthetic
    49Ni282149Synthetic
    50Ni282250Synthetic
    51Ni282351Synthetic
    52Ni282452Synthetic
    53Ni282553Synthetic
    54Ni282654Synthetic
    55Ni282755Synthetic
    56Ni282856Synthetic
    57Ni282957Synthetic
    58Ni28305868.0769%StableN/A
    59Ni283159SyntheticStable
    60Ni28326026.2231%StableN/A
    61Ni2833611.1399%StableN/A
    62Ni2834623.6345%StableN/A
    63Ni283563Synthetic
    64Ni2836640.9256%StableN/A
    65Ni283765Synthetic
    66Ni283866Synthetic
    67Ni283967Synthetic
    68Ni284068Synthetic
    69Ni284169Synthetic
    70Ni284270Synthetic
    71Ni284371Synthetic
    72Ni284472Synthetic
    73Ni284573Synthetic
    74Ni284674Synthetic
    75Ni284775Synthetic
    76Ni284876Synthetic
    77Ni284977Synthetic
    78Ni285078Synthetic

    Regulatory and Health - Health and Safety Parameters and Guidelines

    Database Search

    List of unique identifiers to search the element in various chemical registry databases

    DatabaseIdentifier number
    CAS Number - Chemical Abstracts Service (CAS)CAS7440-02-0
    RTECS NumberRTECSQR5950000
    CID Number CID935
    Gmelin Number-
    NSC Number-