Nitrogen is a chemical element with symbol N and atomic number 7. It is the lightest pnictogen and at room temperature, it is a transparent, odorless diatomic gas. Nitrogen is a common element in the universe, estimated at about seventh in total abundance in the Milky Way and the Solar System.
It belongs to group 15 of the periodic table having trivial name pentels, pnictogens*.
Read key information and facts about element Nitrogen
|Phase||Gas (Diatomic Gas )|
|Appearance||colorless gas, liquid or solid|
|Group in Periodic Table||15|
|Group Name||nitrogen family|
|Period in Periodic Table||period 2|
|Block in Periodic Table||p -block|
|Electronic Configuration||[He] 2s2 2p3|
|Electronic Shell Structure (Electrons per shell)||2, 5|
|Melting Point||63.05 K|
|Boiling Point||77.36 K|
How to Locate Nitrogen on Periodic Table
Periodic table is arranged by atomic number, number of protons in the nucleus which is same as number of electrons. The atomic number increases from left to right. Periodic table starts at top left ( Atomic number 1) and ends at bottom right (atomic number 118). Therefore you can directly look for atomic number 7 to find Nitrogen on periodic table.
Another way to read periodic table and locate an element is by using group number (column) and period number (row). To locate Nitrogen on periodic table look for cross section of group 15 and period 2 in the modern periodic table.
The element Nitrogen was discovered by D. Rutherford in year 1772 in United Kingdom. Nitrogen was first isolated by D. Rutherford in 1772. Nitrogen derived its name from the Greek word nitron and '-gen' meaning 'niter-forming'.
He discovered Nitrogen while he was studying at theUniversity of Edinburgh. He showed that the air in which animals had breathed, even after removal of the exhaled carbon dioxide, was no longer able to burn a candle. Carl Wilhelm Scheele, Henry Cavendish, and Joseph Priestley also studied the element at about the same time, and Lavoisier named it in 1775-1776.
Nitrogen Presence: Abundance in Nature and Around Us
The table below shows the abundance of Nitrogen in Universe, Sun, Meteorites, Earth's Crust, Oceans and Human Body.
|ppb by weight (1ppb =10^-7 %)||ppb by atoms (1ppb =10^-7 %)|
|Abundance in Universe||1000000||90000|
|Abundance in Sun||1000000||90000|
|Abundance in Meteorites||1400000||1400000|
|Abundance in Earth's Crust||20000||29000|
|Abundance in Oceans||500||220|
|Abundance in Humans||26000000||12000000|
Crystal Structure of Nitrogen
The solid state structure of Nitrogen is Simple Hexagonal.
The Crystal structure can be described in terms of its unit Cell. The unit Cells repeats itself in three dimensional space to form the structure.
Unit Cell Parameters
The unit cell is represented in terms of its lattice parameters, which are the lengths of the cell edges Lattice Constants (a, b and c)
|386.1 pm||386.1 pm||626.5 pm|
and the angles between them Lattice Angles (alpha, beta and gamma).
The positions of the atoms inside the unit cell are described by the set of atomic positions ( xi, yi, zi) measured from a reference lattice point.
The symmetry properties of the crystal are described by the concept of space groups. All possible symmetric arrangements of particles in three-dimensional space are described by the 230 space groups (219 distinct types, or 230 if chiral copies are considered distinct.
|Space Group Name||P63/mmc|
|Space Group Number||194|
|Crystal Structure||Simple Hexagonal|
|Number of atoms per unit cell|
The number of atoms per unit cell in a simple cubic, face-centered cubic and body-centred cubic are 1,4,2 respectively.
Nitrogen Atomic and Orbital Properties
Nitrogen atoms have 7 electrons and the electronic shell structure is [2, 5] with Atomic Term Symbol (Quantum Numbers) 4S3/2.
|Number of Electrons (with no charge)||7|
|Number of Protons||7|
|Number of Neutrons||7|
|Shell structure (Electrons per energy level)||2, 5|
|Electron Configuration||[He] 2s2 2p3|
|Valence Electrons||2s2 2p3|
|Main Oxidation States||-3, 3, 5|
|Oxidation States||-3, -2, -1, 0, 1, 2, 3, 4, 5|
|Atomic Term Symbol (Quantum Numbers)||4S3/2|
Bohr Atomic Model of Nitrogen - Electrons per energy level
Ground State Electronic Configuration of Nitrogen - neutral Nitrogen atom
Abbreviated electronic configuration of Nitrogen
The ground state abbreviated electronic configuration of Neutral Nitrogen atom is [He] 2s2 2p3. The portion of Nitrogen configuration that is equivalent to the noble gas of the preceding period, is abbreviated as [He]. For atoms with many electrons, this notation can become lengthy and so an abbreviated notation is used. This is important as it is the Valence electrons 2s2 2p3, electrons in the outermost shell that determine the chemical properties of the element.
Unabbreviated electronic configuration of neutral Nitrogen
Complete ground state electronic configuration for the Nitrogen atom, Unabbreviated electronic configuration
1s2 2s2 2p3
Electrons are filled in atomic orbitals as per the order determined by the Aufbau principle, Pauli Exclusion Principle and Hund’s Rule.
Atomic Structure of Nitrogen
Nitrogen atomic radius is 56 pm, while it's covalent radius is 75 pm.
|Atomic Radius Calculated|
56 pm (0.56 Å)
|Atomic Radius Empirical|
65 pm (0.65 Å)
|Atomic Volume||22.4131 cm3/mol|
|Covalent Radius||75 pm (0.75 Å)|
|Van der Waals Radius||155 pm|
|Neutron Cross Section||1.91|
|Neutron Mass Absorption||0.0048|
Atomic Spectrum of Nitrogen
Nitrogen Chemical Properties: Nitrogen Ionization Energies and electron affinity
The electron affinity of Nitrogen is 7 kJ/mol.
Ionization Energy of Nitrogen
Refer to table below for Ionization energies of Nitrogen
|Ionization energy number||Enthalpy - kJ/mol|
Nitrogen Physical Properties
Refer to below table for Nitrogen Physical Properties
|Molar Volume||22.4131 cm3/mol|
Hardness of Nitrogen - Tests to Measure of Hardness of Element
Nitrogen Electrical Properties
Nitrogen is Conductor of electricity. Refer to table below for the Electrical properties ofNitrogen
Nitrogen Heat and Conduction Properties
|Thermal Conductivity||0.02583 W/(m K)|
Nitrogen Magnetic Properties
|Mass Magnetic Susceptibility||-5.4e-9 m3/kg|
|Molar Magnetic Susceptibility||-1.5e-10 m3/mol|
|Volume Magnetic Susceptibility||-6.8e-9|
Optical Properties of Nitrogen
Acoustic Properties of Nitrogen
|Speed of Sound||333.6 m/s|
Nitrogen Thermal Properties - Enthalpies and thermodynamics
Refer to table below for Thermal properties of Nitrogen
|Melting Point||63.05 K (-210.10°C, -346.17999999999995 °F)|
|Boiling Point||77.36 K (-195.79°C, -320.4219999999999 °F)|
|Critical Temperature||126.21 K|
Enthalpies of Nitrogen
|Heat of Fusion||0.36 kJ/mol|
|Heat of Vaporization||2.79 kJ/mol|
|Heat of Combustion||-|
Nitrogen Isotopes - Nuclear Properties of Nitrogen
Nitrogen has 16 isotopes, with between 10 and 25 nucleons. Nitrogen has 2 stable naturally occuring isotopes.
Isotopes of Nitrogen - Naturally occurring stable Isotopes: 14N, 15N.
|Isotope||Z||N||Isotope Mass||% Abundance||T half||Decay Mode|
Compare Nitrogen with other elements
Compare Nitrogen with all Group 15 elements
Compare Nitrogen with all Period 2 elements
Compare Nitrogen with all Other Nonmetal elements
What is the electronic configuration of Nitrogen?
The electronic configuration of Nitrogen is 1s2 2s2 2p3.
What is the abbreviated electronic configuration of Nitrogen?
The abbreviated electronic configuration of Nitrogen is [He] 2s2 2p3. To form abbreviated notation of electronic configuration, the completely filled subshells are replaced by the noble gas of the preceding period in square brackets.
What is the symbol of Nitrogen?
Symbol of Nitrogen is N. Nitrogen is a chemical element with symbol N and atomic number 7.
What is the position of Nitrogen in the Periodic Table?
Nitrogen is a chemical element with the symbol N and atomic number 7. Nitrogen is the 7 element on the periodic table. It is located in group 15 and period 2 in the modern periodic table.
What is the atomic number of Nitrogen?
The atomic number of Nitrogen is 7.
What is the color of Nitrogen?
Nitrogen is Colorless.
Who discovered Nitrogen?
The element Nitrogen was discovered by D. Rutherford in year 1772 in United Kingdom. Nitrogen was first isolated by D. Rutherford in 1772.
How many valence electrons does a Nitrogen atom have?
Nitrogen has 3 valence electrons. Nitrogen has 7 electrons out of which 3 valence electrons are present in the 2s2 2p3 outer orbitals of atom.
What is the melting Point of Nitrogen?
Melting Point of Nitrogen is 63.05 K.
What is the boiling Point of Nitrogen?
Boiling Point of Nitrogen is 77.36 K.
What is the melting Point of Nitrogen in Kelvin?
Melting Point of Nitrogen in Kelvin is 63.05 K.
What is the boiling Point of Nitrogen in Kelvin?
Boiling Point of Nitrogen in Kelvin is 77.36 K.
What is the electronic configuration of Nitrogen 7?
The electronic configuration of Nitrogen will be 1s2 2s2 2p3.
How do you write the electron configuration for Nitrogen?
The electronic configuration of Nitrogen will be 1s2 2s2 2p3.