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Br Bromine
Element Information, Facts, Properties, Trends, Uses, Comparison with other elements

35
Br
Bromine
Element 35 of Periodic table is Bromine with atomic number 35, atomic weight 79.904. Bromine, symbol Br, has a Base Centered Orthorhombic structure and Red color. Bromine is a Halogens element. It is part of group 17 (fluorine family). Know everything about Bromine Facts, Physical Properties, Chemical Properties, Electronic configuration, Atomic and Crystal Structure.
35 Br - Bromine | SchoolMyKids

Bromine (from Ancient Greek:βρῶμος, brómos, meaning 'stench') is a chemical element with symbol Br, and atomic number 35. It is a halogen. The element was isolated independently by two chemists, Carl Jacob Löwig and Antoine Jerome Balard, in 1825–1826.

It belongs to group 17 of the periodic table having trivial name halogens.

Bromine Facts

Read key information and facts about element Bromine

NameBromine
Atomic Number35
Atomic SymbolBr
Atomic Weight79.904
PhaseLiquid
ColorRed
Appearance-
ClassificationHalogens
Group in Periodic Table17
Group Namefluorine family
Period in Periodic Tableperiod 4
Block in Periodic Tablep -block
Electronic Configuration[Ar] 3d10 4s2 4p5
Electronic Shell Structure (Electrons per shell)2, 8, 18, 7
Melting Point265.8 K
Boiling Point332 K
CAS NumberCAS7726-95-6
123456789101112131415161718
1
1
H
Hydrogen
1.008

Atomic #

Electronic Shell #

Symbol
Name
Atomic Weight
HGas
HgLiquid
CSolid
Metals
Metalloids
NonMetals
Alkali metals
Alkali earth metals
Lanthanoids
Transition metals
Post-transition metals
Other nonmetals
Halogens
Nobel gas
Actinoids
2
He
Helium
4.003
2
3
Li
Lithium
6.941
4
Be
Beryllium
9.012
5
B
Boron
10.811
6
C
Carbon
12.011
7
N
Nitrogen
14.007
8
O
Oxygen
15.999
9
F
Fluorine
18.998
10
Ne
Neon
20.180
3
11
Na
Sodium
22.990
12
Mg
Magnesium
24.305
13
Al
Aluminium
26.982
14
Si
Silicon
28.085
15
P
Phosphorus
30.974
16
S
Sulfur
32.065
17
Cl
Chlorine
35.453
18
Ar
Argon
39.948
4
19
K
Potassium
39.098
20
Ca
Calcium
40.078
21
Sc
Scandium
44.956
22
Ti
Titanium
47.867
23
V
Vanadium
50.941
24
Cr
Chromium
51.996
25
Mn
Manganese
54.938
26
Fe
Iron
55.845
27
Co
Cobalt
58.933
28
Ni
Nickel
58.693
29
Cu
Copper
63.546
30
Zn
Zinc
65.409
31
Ga
Gallium
69.723
32
Ge
Germanium
72.640
33
As
Arsenic
74.922
34
Se
Selenium
78.960
35
Br
Bromine
79.904
36
Kr
Krypton
83.798
5
37
Rb
Rubidium
85.468
38
Sr
Strontium
87.620
39
Y
Yttrium
88.906
40
Zr
Zirconium
91.224
41
Nb
Niobium
92.906
42
Mo
Molybdenum
95.940
43
Tc
Technetium
98
44
Ru
Ruthenium
101.070
45
Rh
Rhodium
102.906
46
Pd
Palladium
106.420
47
Ag
Silver
107.868
48
Cd
Cadmium
112.411
49
In
Indium
114.818
50
Sn
Tin
118.710
51
Sb
Antimony
121.760
52
Te
Tellurium
127.600
53
I
Iodine
126.904
54
Xe
Xenon
131.293
6
55
Cs
Cesium
132.905
56
Ba
Barium
137.327
57 - 71
La - Lu
Lanthanides
72
Hf
Hafnium
178.490
73
Ta
Tantalum
180.948
74
W
Tungsten
183.840
75
Re
Rhenium
186.207
76
Os
Osmium
190.230
77
Ir
Iridium
192.217
78
Pt
Platinum
195.078
79
Au
Gold
196.967
80
Hg
Mercury
200.590
81
Tl
Thallium
204.383
82
Pb
Lead
207.200
83
Bi
Bismuth
208.980
84
Po
Polonium
209
85
At
Astatine
210
86
Rn
Radon
222
7
87
Fr
Francium
223
88
Ra
Radium
226
89 - 103
Ac - Lr
Actinides
104
Rf
Rutherfordium
261
105
Db
Dubnium
262
106
Sg
Seaborgium
266
107
Bh
Bohrium
264
108
Hs
Hassium
277
109
Mt
Meitnerium
268
110
Ds
Darmstadtium
281
111
Rg
Roentgenium
272
112
Cn
Copernicium
285
113
Nh
Nihonium
284
114
Fl
Flerovium
289
115
Mc
Moscovium
288
116
Lv
Livermorium
292
117
Ts
Tennessine
294
118
Og
Oganesson
294
Lanthanides
57
La
Lanthanum
138.905
58
Ce
Cerium
140.116
59
Pr
Praseodymium
140.908
60
Nd
Neodymium
144.240
61
Pm
Promethium
145
62
Sm
Samarium
150.360
63
Eu
Europium
151.964
64
Gd
Gadolinium
157.250
65
Tb
Terbium
158.925
66
Dy
Dysprosium
162.500
67
Ho
Holmium
164.930
68
Er
Erbium
167.259
69
Tm
Thulium
168.934
70
Yb
Ytterbium
173.040
71
Lu
Lutetium
174.967
Actinides
89
Ac
Actinium
227
90
Th
Thorium
232.038
91
Pa
Protactinium
231.036
92
U
Uranium
238.029
93
Np
Neptunium
237
94
Pu
Plutonium
244
95
Am
Americium
243
96
Cm
Curium
247
97
Bk
Berkelium
247
98
Cf
Californium
251
99
Es
Einsteinium
252
100
Fm
Fermium
257
101
Md
Mendelevium
258
102
No
Nobelium
259
103
Lr
Lawrencium
262

How to Locate Bromine on Periodic Table

Periodic table is arranged by atomic number, number of protons in the nucleus which is same as number of electrons. The atomic number increases from left to right. Periodic table starts at top left ( Atomic number 1) and ends at bottom right (atomic number 118). Therefore you can directly look for atomic number 35 to find Bromine on periodic table.

Another way to read periodic table and locate an element is by using group number (column) and period number (row). To locate Bromine on periodic table look for cross section of group 17 and period 4 in the modern periodic table.

Bromine History

The element Bromine was discovered by J. Balard and C. Löwig in year 1825 in France. Bromine was first isolated by J. Balard and C. Löwig in 1825. Bromine derived its name from the Greek bromos, meaning 'stench'.

They both discovered the element in the autumn of 1825. Balard published his results the next year, but Löwig did not publish until 1827.

Bromine Presence: Abundance in Nature and Around Us

The table below shows the abundance of Bromine in Universe, Sun, Meteorites, Earth's Crust, Oceans and Human Body.

 ppb by weight (1ppb =10^-7 %)ppb by atoms (1ppb =10^-7 %)
Abundance in Universe70.1
Abundance in Sun--
Abundance in Meteorites1200230
Abundance in Earth's Crust3000780
Abundance in Oceans673005210
Abundance in Humans2900230

Crystal Structure of Bromine

The solid state structure of Bromine is Base Centered Orthorhombic.

The Crystal structure can be described in terms of its unit Cell. The unit Cells repeats itself in three dimensional space to form the structure.

Unit Cell Parameters

The unit cell is represented in terms of its lattice parameters, which are the lengths of the cell edges Lattice Constants (a, b and c)

abc
672.65 pm464.51 pm870.23 pm

and the angles between them Lattice Angles (alpha, beta and gamma).

alphabetagamma
π/2 π/2 π/2

The positions of the atoms inside the unit cell are described by the set of atomic positions ( xi, yi, zi) measured from a reference lattice point.

The symmetry properties of the crystal are described by the concept of space groups. All possible symmetric arrangements of particles in three-dimensional space are described by the 230 space groups (219 distinct types, or 230 if chiral copies are considered distinct.

Space Group NameCmca 35 Br Bromine - Crystal Structure | SchoolMyKids
Oxidation StatesSpace Group Number64
Crystal StructureBase Centered Orthorhombic

Bromine Atomic and Orbital Properties

Bromine atoms have 35 electrons and the electronic shell structure is [2, 8, 18, 7] with Atomic Term Symbol (Quantum Numbers) 2P3/2.

Atomic Number35
Number of Electrons (with no charge)35
Number of Protons35
Mass Number80
Number of Neutrons45
Shell structure (Electrons per energy level)2, 8, 18, 7
Electron Configuration[Ar] 3d10 4s2 4p5
Valence Electrons4s2 4p5
Valence (Valency)5
Main Oxidation States-1, 1, 3, 5
Oxidation States-1, 1, 3, 4, 5, 7
Atomic Term Symbol (Quantum Numbers)2P3/2

Bohr Atomic Model of Bromine - Electrons per energy level

35 Br Bromine - Electron Shell Structure | SchoolMyKids
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Ground State Electronic Configuration of Bromine - neutral Bromine atom

Abbreviated electronic configuration of Bromine

The ground state abbreviated electronic configuration of Neutral Bromine atom is [Ar] 3d10 4s2 4p5. The portion of Bromine configuration that is equivalent to the noble gas of the preceding period, is abbreviated as [Ar]. For atoms with many electrons, this notation can become lengthy and so an abbreviated notation is used. This is important as it is the Valence electrons 4s2 4p5, electrons in the outermost shell that determine the chemical properties of the element.

Unabbreviated electronic configuration of neutral Bromine

Complete ground state electronic configuration for the Bromine atom, Unabbreviated electronic configuration

1s2 2s2 2p6 3s2 3p6 3d10 4s2 4p5

Electrons are filled in atomic orbitals as per the order determined by the Aufbau principle, Pauli Exclusion Principle and Hund’s Rule.

  • As per the Aufbau principle the electrons will occupy the orbitals having lower energies before occupying higher energy orbitals. According to this principle, electrons are filled in the following order: 1s, 2s, 2p, 3s, 3p, 4s, 3d, 4p, 5s, 4d, 5p, 6s, 4f, 5d, 6p, 7s, 5f, 6d, 7p…
  • The Pauli exclusion principle states that a maximum of two electrons, each having opposite spins, can fit in an orbital.
  • Hund's rule states that every orbital in a given subshell is singly occupied by electrons before a second electron is filled in an orbital.
  • Electron configuration of Bromine
    Atomic Structure of Bromine

    Bromine atomic radius is 94 pm, while it's covalent radius is 114 pm.

    Atomic Radius Calculated

    94 pm (0.94 Å)

    Atomic Radius Empirical

    115 pm (1.15 Å)

    Atomic Volume19.78 cm3/mol
    Covalent Radius114 pm (1.14 Å)
    Van der Waals Radius185 pm
    Neutron Cross Section6.8
    Neutron Mass Absorption 0.002

    Atomic Spectrum of Bromine

    Atomic Spectrum of Bromine | SchoolMyKids

    Bromine Chemical Properties: Bromine Ionization Energies and electron affinity

    The electron affinity of Bromine is 324.6 kJ/mol.

    Valence5
    Electronegativity2.96
    ElectronAffinity324.6 kJ/mol

    Ionization Energy of Bromine

    Refer to table below for Ionization energies of Bromine

    Ionization energy numberEnthalpy - kJ/mol
    1st1139.9
    2nd2103
    3rd3470
    4th4560
    5th5760
    6th8550
    7th9940
    8th18600

    Bromine Physical Properties

    Refer to below table for Bromine Physical Properties

    Density3.12 g/cm3(when liquid at m.p density is $3.12 g/cm3)
    Molar Volume19.78 cm3/mol

    Elastic Properties

    Young Modulus-
    Shear Modulus-
    Bulk Modulus 1.9 GPa
    Poisson Ratio-

    Hardness of Bromine - Tests to Measure of Hardness of Element

    Mohs Hardness-
    Vickers Hardness-
    Brinell Hardness-

    Bromine Electrical Properties

    Bromine is Conductor of electricity. Refer to table below for the Electrical properties ofBromine

    Electrical Conductivity1e-10 S/m
    Resistivity10000000000 m Ω
    Superconducting Point-

    Bromine Heat and Conduction Properties

    Thermal Conductivity0.12 W/(m K)
    Thermal Expansion-

    Bromine Magnetic Properties

    Magnetic TypeDiamagnetic
    Curie Point-
    Mass Magnetic Susceptibility-4.9e-9 m3/kg
    Molar Magnetic Susceptibility-7.83e-10 m3/mol
    Volume Magnetic Susceptibility-0.0000153

    Optical Properties of Bromine

    Refractive Index1.001132

    Acoustic Properties of Bromine

    Speed of Sound-

    Bromine Thermal Properties - Enthalpies and thermodynamics

    Refer to table below for Thermal properties of Bromine

    Melting Point265.8 K (-7.35°C, 18.77000000000006 °F)
    Boiling Point332 K (58.85°C, 137.93000000000004 °F)
    Critical Temperature588 K
    Superconducting Point-

    Enthalpies of Bromine

    Heat of Fusion5.8 kJ/mol
    Heat of Vaporization14.8 kJ/mol
    Heat of Combustion-

    Bromine Isotopes - Nuclear Properties of Bromine

    Bromine has 31 isotopes, with between 67 and 97 nucleons. Bromine has 2 stable naturally occuring isotopes.

    Isotopes of Bromine - Naturally occurring stable Isotopes: 79Br, 81Br.

    IsotopeZNIsotope Mass% AbundanceT halfDecay Mode
    67Br353267Synthetic
    68Br353368Synthetic
    69Br353469Synthetic
    70Br353570Synthetic
    71Br353671Synthetic
    72Br353772Synthetic
    73Br353873Synthetic
    74Br353974Synthetic
    75Br354075Synthetic
    76Br354176Synthetic
    77Br354277Synthetic
    78Br354378Synthetic
    79Br35447950.69%StableN/A
    80Br354580SyntheticStable
    81Br35468149.31%StableN/A
    82Br354782Synthetic
    83Br354883Synthetic
    84Br354984Synthetic
    85Br355085Synthetic
    86Br355186Synthetic
    87Br355287Synthetic
    88Br355388Synthetic
    89Br355489Synthetic
    90Br355590Synthetic
    91Br355691Synthetic
    92Br355792Synthetic
    93Br355893Synthetic
    94Br355994Synthetic
    95Br356095Synthetic
    96Br356196Synthetic
    97Br356297Synthetic