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Cu Copper
Element Information, Facts, Properties, Trends, Uses, Comparison with other elements

29
Cu
Copper
Element 29 of Periodic table is Copper with atomic number 29, atomic weight 63.546. Copper, symbol Cu, has a Face Centered Cubic structure and Copper color. Copper is a Transition Metal element. It is part of group 11 (copper family). Know everything about Copper Facts, Physical Properties, Chemical Properties, Electronic configuration, Atomic and Crystal Structure.
29 Cu - Copper | SchoolMyKids

Copper is a chemical element with symbol Cu (from Latin:cuprum) and atomic number 29. It is a soft, malleable and ductile metal with very high thermal and electrical conductivity. A freshly exposed surface of pure copper has a reddish-orange color.

It belongs to group 11 of the periodic table having trivial name coinage metals.

Copper Facts

Read key information and facts about element Copper

NameCopper
Atomic Number29
Atomic SymbolCu
Atomic Weight63.546
PhaseSolid
ColorCopper
Appearancered-orange metallic luster
ClassificationTransition Metal
Group in Periodic Table11
Group Namecopper family
Period in Periodic Tableperiod 4
Block in Periodic Tabled -block
Electronic Configuration[Ar] 3d10 4s1
Electronic Shell Structure (Electrons per shell)2, 8, 18, 1
Melting Point1357.77 K
Boiling Point3200 K
CAS NumberCAS7440-50-8
Neighborhood Elements
123456789101112131415161718
1
1
H
Hydrogen
1.008

Atomic #

Electronic Shell #

Symbol
Name
Atomic Weight
HGas
HgLiquid
CSolid
Metals
Metalloids
NonMetals
Alkali metals
Alkali earth metals
Lanthanoids
Transition metals
Post-transition metals
Other nonmetals
Halogens
Nobel gas
Actinoids
2
He
Helium
4.003
2
3
Li
Lithium
6.941
4
Be
Beryllium
9.012
5
B
Boron
10.811
6
C
Carbon
12.011
7
N
Nitrogen
14.007
8
O
Oxygen
15.999
9
F
Fluorine
18.998
10
Ne
Neon
20.180
3
11
Na
Sodium
22.990
12
Mg
Magnesium
24.305
13
Al
Aluminium
26.982
14
Si
Silicon
28.085
15
P
Phosphorus
30.974
16
S
Sulfur
32.065
17
Cl
Chlorine
35.453
18
Ar
Argon
39.948
4
19
K
Potassium
39.098
20
Ca
Calcium
40.078
21
Sc
Scandium
44.956
22
Ti
Titanium
47.867
23
V
Vanadium
50.941
24
Cr
Chromium
51.996
25
Mn
Manganese
54.938
26
Fe
Iron
55.845
27
Co
Cobalt
58.933
28
Ni
Nickel
58.693
29
Cu
Copper
63.546
30
Zn
Zinc
65.409
31
Ga
Gallium
69.723
32
Ge
Germanium
72.640
33
As
Arsenic
74.922
34
Se
Selenium
78.960
35
Br
Bromine
79.904
36
Kr
Krypton
83.798
5
37
Rb
Rubidium
85.468
38
Sr
Strontium
87.620
39
Y
Yttrium
88.906
40
Zr
Zirconium
91.224
41
Nb
Niobium
92.906
42
Mo
Molybdenum
95.940
43
Tc
Technetium
98
44
Ru
Ruthenium
101.070
45
Rh
Rhodium
102.906
46
Pd
Palladium
106.420
47
Ag
Silver
107.868
48
Cd
Cadmium
112.411
49
In
Indium
114.818
50
Sn
Tin
118.710
51
Sb
Antimony
121.760
52
Te
Tellurium
127.600
53
I
Iodine
126.904
54
Xe
Xenon
131.293
6
55
Cs
Cesium
132.905
56
Ba
Barium
137.327
57 - 71
La - Lu
Lanthanides
72
Hf
Hafnium
178.490
73
Ta
Tantalum
180.948
74
W
Tungsten
183.840
75
Re
Rhenium
186.207
76
Os
Osmium
190.230
77
Ir
Iridium
192.217
78
Pt
Platinum
195.078
79
Au
Gold
196.967
80
Hg
Mercury
200.590
81
Tl
Thallium
204.383
82
Pb
Lead
207.200
83
Bi
Bismuth
208.980
84
Po
Polonium
209
85
At
Astatine
210
86
Rn
Radon
222
7
87
Fr
Francium
223
88
Ra
Radium
226
89 - 103
Ac - Lr
Actinides
104
Rf
Rutherfordium
261
105
Db
Dubnium
262
106
Sg
Seaborgium
266
107
Bh
Bohrium
264
108
Hs
Hassium
277
109
Mt
Meitnerium
268
110
Ds
Darmstadtium
281
111
Rg
Roentgenium
272
112
Cn
Copernicium
285
113
Nh
Nihonium
284
114
Fl
Flerovium
289
115
Mc
Moscovium
288
116
Lv
Livermorium
292
117
Ts
Tennessine
294
118
Og
Oganesson
294
Lanthanides
57
La
Lanthanum
138.905
58
Ce
Cerium
140.116
59
Pr
Praseodymium
140.908
60
Nd
Neodymium
144.240
61
Pm
Promethium
145
62
Sm
Samarium
150.360
63
Eu
Europium
151.964
64
Gd
Gadolinium
157.250
65
Tb
Terbium
158.925
66
Dy
Dysprosium
162.500
67
Ho
Holmium
164.930
68
Er
Erbium
167.259
69
Tm
Thulium
168.934
70
Yb
Ytterbium
173.040
71
Lu
Lutetium
174.967
Actinides
89
Ac
Actinium
227
90
Th
Thorium
232.038
91
Pa
Protactinium
231.036
92
U
Uranium
238.029
93
Np
Neptunium
237
94
Pu
Plutonium
244
95
Am
Americium
243
96
Cm
Curium
247
97
Bk
Berkelium
247
98
Cf
Californium
251
99
Es
Einsteinium
252
100
Fm
Fermium
257
101
Md
Mendelevium
258
102
No
Nobelium
259
103
Lr
Lawrencium
262

How to Locate Copper on Periodic Table

Periodic table is arranged by atomic number, number of protons in the nucleus which is same as number of electrons. The atomic number increases from left to right. Periodic table starts at top left ( Atomic number 1) and ends at bottom right (atomic number 118). Therefore you can directly look for atomic number 29 to find Copper on periodic table.

Another way to read periodic table and locate an element is by using group number (column) and period number (row). To locate Copper on periodic table look for cross section of group 11 and period 4 in the modern periodic table.

Copper History

The element Copper was discovered by Middle East in year 9000 BCE . Copper was first isolated by Anatolia in 6000 BCE. Copper derived its name from English word (Latin cuprum).

Copper was probably the first metal mined and crafted by humans. It was originally obtained as a native metal and later from the smelting of ores. Earliest estimates of the discovery of copper suggest around 9000 BCE in the Middle East. It was one of the most important materials to humans throughout the Chalcolithic and Bronze Ages. Copper beads dating from 6000 BCE have been found in Çatal Höyük , Anatolia.

Copper Presence: Abundance in Nature and Around Us

The table below shows the abundance of Copper in Universe, Sun, Meteorites, Earth's Crust, Oceans and Human Body.

 ppb by weight (1ppb =10^-7 %)ppb by atoms (1ppb =10^-7 %)
Abundance in Universe601
Abundance in Sun70010
Abundance in Meteorites11000031000
Abundance in Earth's Crust6800022000
Abundance in Oceans30.29
Abundance in Humans100099

Crystal Structure of Copper

The solid state structure of Copper is Face Centered Cubic.

The Crystal structure can be described in terms of its unit Cell. The unit Cells repeats itself in three dimensional space to form the structure.

Unit Cell Parameters

The unit cell is represented in terms of its lattice parameters, which are the lengths of the cell edges Lattice Constants (a, b and c)

abc
361.49 pm361.49 pm361.49 pm

and the angles between them Lattice Angles (alpha, beta and gamma).

alphabetagamma
π/2 π/2 π/2

The positions of the atoms inside the unit cell are described by the set of atomic positions ( xi, yi, zi) measured from a reference lattice point.

The symmetry properties of the crystal are described by the concept of space groups. All possible symmetric arrangements of particles in three-dimensional space are described by the 230 space groups (219 distinct types, or 230 if chiral copies are considered distinct.

Space Group NameFm_ 3m 29 Cu Copper - Crystal Structure | SchoolMyKids
Oxidation StatesSpace Group Number225
Crystal StructureFace Centered Cubic

Copper Atomic and Orbital Properties

Copper atoms have 29 electrons and the electronic shell structure is [2, 8, 18, 1] with Atomic Term Symbol (Quantum Numbers) 2S1/2.

Atomic Number29
Number of Electrons (with no charge)29
Number of Protons29
Mass Number64
Number of Neutrons35
Shell structure (Electrons per energy level)2, 8, 18, 1
Electron Configuration[Ar] 3d10 4s1
Valence Electrons3d10 4s1
Valence (Valency)2
Main Oxidation States1, 2
Oxidation States-2, 0, 1, 2, 3, 4
Atomic Term Symbol (Quantum Numbers)2S1/2

Bohr Atomic Model of Copper - Electrons per energy level

29 Cu Copper - Electron Shell Structure | SchoolMyKids
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Ground State Electronic Configuration of Copper - neutral Copper atom

Abbreviated electronic configuration of Copper

The ground state abbreviated electronic configuration of Neutral Copper atom is [Ar] 3d10 4s1. The portion of Copper configuration that is equivalent to the noble gas of the preceding period, is abbreviated as [Ar]. For atoms with many electrons, this notation can become lengthy and so an abbreviated notation is used. This is important as it is the Valence electrons 3d10 4s1, electrons in the outermost shell that determine the chemical properties of the element.

Unabbreviated electronic configuration of neutral Copper

Complete ground state electronic configuration for the Copper atom, Unabbreviated electronic configuration

1s2 2s2 2p6 3s2 3p6 3d10 4s1

Electrons are filled in atomic orbitals as per the order determined by the Aufbau principle, Pauli Exclusion Principle and Hund’s Rule.

  • As per the Aufbau principle the electrons will occupy the orbitals having lower energies before occupying higher energy orbitals. According to this principle, electrons are filled in the following order: 1s, 2s, 2p, 3s, 3p, 4s, 3d, 4p, 5s, 4d, 5p, 6s, 4f, 5d, 6p, 7s, 5f, 6d, 7p…
  • The Pauli exclusion principle states that a maximum of two electrons, each having opposite spins, can fit in an orbital.
  • Hund's rule states that every orbital in a given subshell is singly occupied by electrons before a second electron is filled in an orbital.
  • Electron configuration of Copper
    Atomic Structure of Copper

    Copper atomic radius is 145 pm, while it's covalent radius is 138 pm.

    Atomic Radius Calculated

    145 pm (1.45 Å)

    Atomic Radius Empirical

    135 pm (1.35 Å)

    Atomic Volume7.124 cm3/mol
    Covalent Radius138 pm (1.38 Å)
    Van der Waals Radius140 pm
    Neutron Cross Section3.78
    Neutron Mass Absorption 0.0021

    Atomic Spectrum of Copper

    Atomic Spectrum of Copper | SchoolMyKids

    Copper Chemical Properties: Copper Ionization Energies and electron affinity

    The electron affinity of Copper is 118.4 kJ/mol.

    Valence2
    Electronegativity1.9
    ElectronAffinity118.4 kJ/mol

    Ionization Energy of Copper

    Refer to table below for Ionization energies of Copper

    Ionization energy numberEnthalpy - kJ/mol
    1st745.5
    2nd1957.9
    3rd3555
    4th5536
    5th7700
    6th9900
    7th13400
    8th16000
    9th19200
    10th22400
    11th25600
    12th35600
    13th38700
    14th42000
    15th46700
    16th50200
    17th53700
    18th61100
    19th64702
    20th163700
    21st174100
    22nd184900
    23rd198800
    24th210500
    25th222700
    26th239100
    27th249660
    28th1067358
    29th1116105

    Copper Physical Properties

    Refer to below table for Copper Physical Properties

    Density8.92 g/cm3(when liquid at m.p density is $8.02 g/cm3)
    Molar Volume7.124 cm3/mol

    Elastic Properties

    Young Modulus130
    Shear Modulus48 GPa
    Bulk Modulus 140 GPa
    Poisson Ratio0.34

    Hardness of Copper - Tests to Measure of Hardness of Element

    Mohs Hardness3 MPa
    Vickers Hardness369 MPa
    Brinell Hardness874 MPa

    Copper Electrical Properties

    Copper is Conductor of electricity. Refer to table below for the Electrical properties ofCopper

    Electrical Conductivity59000000 S/m
    Resistivity1.7e-8 m Ω
    Superconducting Point-

    Copper Heat and Conduction Properties

    Thermal Conductivity400 W/(m K)
    Thermal Expansion0.0000165 /K

    Copper Magnetic Properties

    Magnetic TypeDiamagnetic
    Curie Point-
    Mass Magnetic Susceptibility-1.08e-9 m3/kg
    Molar Magnetic Susceptibility-6.86e-11 m3/mol
    Volume Magnetic Susceptibility-0.00000963

    Optical Properties of Copper

    Refractive Index-

    Acoustic Properties of Copper

    Speed of Sound3570 m/s

    Copper Thermal Properties - Enthalpies and thermodynamics

    Refer to table below for Thermal properties of Copper

    Melting Point1357.77 K (1084.62°C, 1984.3159999999996 °F)
    Boiling Point3200 K (2926.85°C, 5300.33 °F)
    Critical Temperature-
    Superconducting Point-

    Enthalpies of Copper

    Heat of Fusion13.1 kJ/mol
    Heat of Vaporization300 kJ/mol
    Heat of Combustion-

    Copper Isotopes - Nuclear Properties of Copper

    Copper has 29 isotopes, with between 52 and 80 nucleons. Copper has 2 stable naturally occuring isotopes.

    Isotopes of Copper - Naturally occurring stable Isotopes: 63Cu, 65Cu.

    IsotopeZNIsotope Mass% AbundanceT halfDecay Mode
    52Cu292352Synthetic
    53Cu292453Synthetic
    54Cu292554Synthetic
    55Cu292655Synthetic
    56Cu292756Synthetic
    57Cu292857Synthetic
    58Cu292958Synthetic
    59Cu293059Synthetic
    60Cu293160Synthetic
    61Cu293261Synthetic
    62Cu293362Synthetic
    63Cu29346369.17%StableN/A
    64Cu293564SyntheticStable
    65Cu29366530.83%StableN/A
    66Cu293766Synthetic
    67Cu293867Synthetic
    68Cu293968Synthetic
    69Cu294069Synthetic
    70Cu294170Synthetic
    71Cu294271Synthetic
    72Cu294372Synthetic
    73Cu294473Synthetic
    74Cu294574Synthetic
    75Cu294675Synthetic
    76Cu294776Synthetic
    77Cu294877Synthetic
    78Cu294978Synthetic
    79Cu295079Synthetic
    80Cu295180Synthetic

    Regulatory and Health - Health and Safety Parameters and Guidelines

    Database Search

    List of unique identifiers to search the element in various chemical registry databases

    DatabaseIdentifier number
    CAS Number - Chemical Abstracts Service (CAS)CAS7440-50-8
    RTECS NumberRTECSGL5325000
    CID Number CID23978
    Gmelin Number-
    NSC Number-