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Ce Cerium
Element Information, Facts, Properties, Trends, Uses, Comparison with other elements

58
Ce
Cerium
Element 58 of Periodic table is Cerium with atomic number 58, atomic weight 140.116. Cerium, symbol Ce, has a Simple Hexagonal structure and Silver color. Cerium is a Lanthanide element. It is part of group null (). Know everything about Cerium Facts, Physical Properties, Chemical Properties, Electronic configuration, Atomic and Crystal Structure.
58 Ce - Cerium | SchoolMyKids

Cerium is a chemical element with symbol Ce and atomic number 58. It is a soft, silvery, ductile metal which easily oxidizes in air. Cerium was named after the dwarf planet Ceres (itself named after the Roman goddess of agriculture).

It belongs to group of the periodic table having trivial name .

Cerium Facts

Read key information and facts about element Cerium

NameCerium
Atomic Number58
Atomic SymbolCe
Atomic Weight140.116
PhaseSolid
ColorSilver
Appearancesilvery white
ClassificationLanthanide
Group in Periodic Table-
Group Name
Period in Periodic Tableperiod 6
Block in Periodic Tablef -block
Electronic Configuration[Xe] 4f1 5d1 6s2
Electronic Shell Structure (Electrons per shell)2, 8, 18, 19, 9, 2
Melting Point1071 K
Boiling Point3633 K
CAS NumberCAS7440-45-1
Neighborhood Elements
123456789101112131415161718
1
1
H
Hydrogen
1.008

Atomic #

Electronic Shell #

Symbol
Name
Atomic Weight
HGas
HgLiquid
CSolid
Metals
Metalloids
NonMetals
Alkali metals
Alkali earth metals
Lanthanoids
Transition metals
Post-transition metals
Other nonmetals
Halogens
Nobel gas
Actinoids
2
He
Helium
4.003
2
3
Li
Lithium
6.941
4
Be
Beryllium
9.012
5
B
Boron
10.811
6
C
Carbon
12.011
7
N
Nitrogen
14.007
8
O
Oxygen
15.999
9
F
Fluorine
18.998
10
Ne
Neon
20.180
3
11
Na
Sodium
22.990
12
Mg
Magnesium
24.305
13
Al
Aluminium
26.982
14
Si
Silicon
28.085
15
P
Phosphorus
30.974
16
S
Sulfur
32.065
17
Cl
Chlorine
35.453
18
Ar
Argon
39.948
4
19
K
Potassium
39.098
20
Ca
Calcium
40.078
21
Sc
Scandium
44.956
22
Ti
Titanium
47.867
23
V
Vanadium
50.941
24
Cr
Chromium
51.996
25
Mn
Manganese
54.938
26
Fe
Iron
55.845
27
Co
Cobalt
58.933
28
Ni
Nickel
58.693
29
Cu
Copper
63.546
30
Zn
Zinc
65.409
31
Ga
Gallium
69.723
32
Ge
Germanium
72.640
33
As
Arsenic
74.922
34
Se
Selenium
78.960
35
Br
Bromine
79.904
36
Kr
Krypton
83.798
5
37
Rb
Rubidium
85.468
38
Sr
Strontium
87.620
39
Y
Yttrium
88.906
40
Zr
Zirconium
91.224
41
Nb
Niobium
92.906
42
Mo
Molybdenum
95.940
43
Tc
Technetium
98
44
Ru
Ruthenium
101.070
45
Rh
Rhodium
102.906
46
Pd
Palladium
106.420
47
Ag
Silver
107.868
48
Cd
Cadmium
112.411
49
In
Indium
114.818
50
Sn
Tin
118.710
51
Sb
Antimony
121.760
52
Te
Tellurium
127.600
53
I
Iodine
126.904
54
Xe
Xenon
131.293
6
55
Cs
Cesium
132.905
56
Ba
Barium
137.327
57 - 71
La - Lu
Lanthanides
72
Hf
Hafnium
178.490
73
Ta
Tantalum
180.948
74
W
Tungsten
183.840
75
Re
Rhenium
186.207
76
Os
Osmium
190.230
77
Ir
Iridium
192.217
78
Pt
Platinum
195.078
79
Au
Gold
196.967
80
Hg
Mercury
200.590
81
Tl
Thallium
204.383
82
Pb
Lead
207.200
83
Bi
Bismuth
208.980
84
Po
Polonium
209
85
At
Astatine
210
86
Rn
Radon
222
7
87
Fr
Francium
223
88
Ra
Radium
226
89 - 103
Ac - Lr
Actinides
104
Rf
Rutherfordium
261
105
Db
Dubnium
262
106
Sg
Seaborgium
266
107
Bh
Bohrium
264
108
Hs
Hassium
277
109
Mt
Meitnerium
268
110
Ds
Darmstadtium
281
111
Rg
Roentgenium
272
112
Cn
Copernicium
285
113
Nh
Nihonium
284
114
Fl
Flerovium
289
115
Mc
Moscovium
288
116
Lv
Livermorium
292
117
Ts
Tennessine
294
118
Og
Oganesson
294
Lanthanides
57
La
Lanthanum
138.905
58
Ce
Cerium
140.116
59
Pr
Praseodymium
140.908
60
Nd
Neodymium
144.240
61
Pm
Promethium
145
62
Sm
Samarium
150.360
63
Eu
Europium
151.964
64
Gd
Gadolinium
157.250
65
Tb
Terbium
158.925
66
Dy
Dysprosium
162.500
67
Ho
Holmium
164.930
68
Er
Erbium
167.259
69
Tm
Thulium
168.934
70
Yb
Ytterbium
173.040
71
Lu
Lutetium
174.967
Actinides
89
Ac
Actinium
227
90
Th
Thorium
232.038
91
Pa
Protactinium
231.036
92
U
Uranium
238.029
93
Np
Neptunium
237
94
Pu
Plutonium
244
95
Am
Americium
243
96
Cm
Curium
247
97
Bk
Berkelium
247
98
Cf
Californium
251
99
Es
Einsteinium
252
100
Fm
Fermium
257
101
Md
Mendelevium
258
102
No
Nobelium
259
103
Lr
Lawrencium
262

How to Locate Cerium on Periodic Table

Periodic table is arranged by atomic number, number of protons in the nucleus which is same as number of electrons. The atomic number increases from left to right. Periodic table starts at top left ( Atomic number 1) and ends at bottom right (atomic number 118). Therefore you can directly look for atomic number 58 to find Cerium on periodic table.

Another way to read periodic table and locate an element is by using group number (column) and period number (row). To locate Cerium on periodic table look for cross section of group - and period 6 in the modern periodic table.

Cerium History

The element Cerium was discovered by H. Klaproth, J. Berzelius, and W. Hisinger in year 1803 in Germany and Sweden. Cerium was first isolated by G. Mosander in 1838. Cerium derived its name .

Berzelius and Hisinger discovered the element in ceria and named it after the newly discovered asteroid (then considered a planet), Ceres. Klaproth discovered it simultaneously and independently in some tantalum samples. Mosander proved later that the samples of all three researchers had at least another element in them,lanthanum.

Cerium Presence: Abundance in Nature and Around Us

The table below shows the abundance of Cerium in Universe, Sun, Meteorites, Earth's Crust, Oceans and Human Body.

 ppb by weight (1ppb =10^-7 %)ppb by atoms (1ppb =10^-7 %)
Abundance in Universe100.09
Abundance in Sun40.03
Abundance in Meteorites760110
Abundance in Earth's Crust600008900
Abundance in Oceans0.00120.000053
Abundance in Humans--

Crystal Structure of Cerium

The solid state structure of Cerium is Simple Hexagonal.

The Crystal structure can be described in terms of its unit Cell. The unit Cells repeats itself in three dimensional space to form the structure.

Unit Cell Parameters

The unit cell is represented in terms of its lattice parameters, which are the lengths of the cell edges Lattice Constants (a, b and c)

abc
362 pm362 pm599 pm

and the angles between them Lattice Angles (alpha, beta and gamma).

alphabetagamma
π/2 π/2 2 π/3

The positions of the atoms inside the unit cell are described by the set of atomic positions ( xi, yi, zi) measured from a reference lattice point.

The symmetry properties of the crystal are described by the concept of space groups. All possible symmetric arrangements of particles in three-dimensional space are described by the 230 space groups (219 distinct types, or 230 if chiral copies are considered distinct.

Space Group NameP63/mmc 58 Ce Cerium - Crystal Structure | SchoolMyKids
Oxidation StatesSpace Group Number194
Crystal StructureSimple Hexagonal

Cerium Atomic and Orbital Properties

Cerium atoms have 58 electrons and the electronic shell structure is [2, 8, 18, 19, 9, 2] with Atomic Term Symbol (Quantum Numbers) 1G4.

Atomic Number58
Number of Electrons (with no charge)58
Number of Protons58
Mass Number140
Number of Neutrons82
Shell structure (Electrons per energy level)2, 8, 18, 19, 9, 2
Electron Configuration[Xe] 4f1 5d1 6s2
Valence Electrons4f1 5d1 6s2
Valence (Valency)4
Main Oxidation States3, 4
Oxidation States2, 3, 4
Atomic Term Symbol (Quantum Numbers)1G4

Bohr Atomic Model of Cerium - Electrons per energy level

58 Ce Cerium - Electron Shell Structure | SchoolMyKids
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Ground State Electronic Configuration of Cerium - neutral Cerium atom

Abbreviated electronic configuration of Cerium

The ground state abbreviated electronic configuration of Neutral Cerium atom is [Xe] 4f1 5d1 6s2. The portion of Cerium configuration that is equivalent to the noble gas of the preceding period, is abbreviated as [Xe]. For atoms with many electrons, this notation can become lengthy and so an abbreviated notation is used. This is important as it is the Valence electrons 4f1 5d1 6s2, electrons in the outermost shell that determine the chemical properties of the element.

Unabbreviated electronic configuration of neutral Cerium

Complete ground state electronic configuration for the Cerium atom, Unabbreviated electronic configuration

1s2 2s2 2p6 3s2 3p6 3d10 4s2 4p6 4d10 5s2 5p6 4f1 5d1 6s2

Electrons are filled in atomic orbitals as per the order determined by the Aufbau principle, Pauli Exclusion Principle and Hund’s Rule.

  • As per the Aufbau principle the electrons will occupy the orbitals having lower energies before occupying higher energy orbitals. According to this principle, electrons are filled in the following order: 1s, 2s, 2p, 3s, 3p, 4s, 3d, 4p, 5s, 4d, 5p, 6s, 4f, 5d, 6p, 7s, 5f, 6d, 7p…
  • The Pauli exclusion principle states that a maximum of two electrons, each having opposite spins, can fit in an orbital.
  • Hund's rule states that every orbital in a given subshell is singly occupied by electrons before a second electron is filled in an orbital.
  • Electron configuration of Cerium
    Atomic Structure of Cerium

    Cerium atomic radius is 185 pm, while it's covalent radius is - .

    Atomic Radius Calculated

    185 pm (1.85 Å)

    Atomic Radius Empirical

    185 pm (1.85 Å)

    Atomic Volume20.947 cm3/mol
    Covalent Radius-
    Van der Waals Radius-
    Neutron Cross Section0.6
    Neutron Mass Absorption 0.00021

    Atomic Spectrum of Cerium

    Atomic Spectrum of Cerium | SchoolMyKids

    Cerium Chemical Properties: Cerium Ionization Energies and electron affinity

    The electron affinity of Cerium is 50 kJ/mol.

    Valence4
    Electronegativity1.12
    ElectronAffinity50 kJ/mol

    Ionization Energy of Cerium

    Refer to table below for Ionization energies of Cerium

    Ionization energy numberEnthalpy - kJ/mol
    1st534.4
    2nd1050
    3rd1949
    4th3547
    5th6325
    6th7490

    Cerium Physical Properties

    Refer to below table for Cerium Physical Properties

    Density6.689 g/cm3(when liquid at m.p density is $6.55 g/cm3)
    Molar Volume20.947 cm3/mol

    Elastic Properties

    Young Modulus34
    Shear Modulus14 GPa
    Bulk Modulus 22 GPa
    Poisson Ratio0.24

    Hardness of Cerium - Tests to Measure of Hardness of Element

    Mohs Hardness2.5 MPa
    Vickers Hardness270 MPa
    Brinell Hardness412 MPa

    Cerium Electrical Properties

    Cerium is Conductor of electricity. Refer to table below for the Electrical properties ofCerium

    Electrical Conductivity1400000 S/m
    Resistivity7.4e-7 m Ω
    Superconducting Point0.022

    Cerium Heat and Conduction Properties

    Thermal Conductivity11 W/(m K)
    Thermal Expansion0.0000063 /K

    Cerium Magnetic Properties

    Magnetic TypeParamagnetic
    Curie Point-
    Mass Magnetic Susceptibility2.2e-7 m3/kg
    Molar Magnetic Susceptibility3.0826e-8 m3/mol
    Volume Magnetic Susceptibility0.0014716

    Optical Properties of Cerium

    Refractive Index-

    Acoustic Properties of Cerium

    Speed of Sound2100 m/s

    Cerium Thermal Properties - Enthalpies and thermodynamics

    Refer to table below for Thermal properties of Cerium

    Melting Point1071 K (797.85°C, 1468.13 °F)
    Boiling Point3633 K (3359.85°C, 6079.73 °F)
    Critical Temperature-
    Superconducting Point0.022

    Enthalpies of Cerium

    Heat of Fusion5.5 kJ/mol
    Heat of Vaporization350 kJ/mol
    Heat of Combustion-

    Cerium Isotopes - Nuclear Properties of Cerium

    Cerium has 39 isotopes, with between 119 and 157 nucleons. Cerium has 4 stable naturally occuring isotopes.

    Isotopes of Cerium - Naturally occurring stable Isotopes: 136Ce, 138Ce, 140Ce, 142Ce.

    IsotopeZNIsotope Mass% AbundanceT halfDecay Mode
    119Ce5861119Synthetic
    120Ce5862120Synthetic
    121Ce5863121Synthetic
    122Ce5864122Synthetic
    123Ce5865123Synthetic
    124Ce5866124Synthetic
    125Ce5867125Synthetic
    126Ce5868126Synthetic
    127Ce5869127Synthetic
    128Ce5870128Synthetic
    129Ce5871129Synthetic
    130Ce5872130Synthetic
    131Ce5873131Synthetic
    132Ce5874132Synthetic
    133Ce5875133Synthetic
    134Ce5876134Synthetic
    135Ce5877135Synthetic
    136Ce58781360.185%StableN/A
    137Ce5879137Synthetic
    138Ce58801380.251%StableN/A
    139Ce5881139Synthetic
    140Ce588214088.45%Stable
    141Ce5883141Synthetic
    142Ce588414211.114%StableN/A
    143Ce5885143Synthetic
    144Ce5886144Synthetic
    145Ce5887145Synthetic
    146Ce5888146Synthetic
    147Ce5889147Synthetic
    148Ce5890148Synthetic
    149Ce5891149Synthetic
    150Ce5892150Synthetic
    151Ce5893151Synthetic
    152Ce5894152Synthetic
    153Ce5895153Synthetic
    154Ce5896154Synthetic
    155Ce5897155Synthetic
    156Ce5898156Synthetic
    157Ce5899157Synthetic

    Regulatory and Health - Health and Safety Parameters and Guidelines

    Database Search

    List of unique identifiers to search the element in various chemical registry databases

    DatabaseIdentifier number
    CAS Number - Chemical Abstracts Service (CAS)CAS7440-45-1
    RTECS Number-
    CID Number CID23974
    Gmelin Number-
    NSC Number-