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V Vanadium
Element Information, Facts, Properties, Trends, Uses, Comparison with other elements

23
V
Vanadium
Element 23 of Periodic table is Vanadium with atomic number 23, atomic weight 50.9415. Vanadium, symbol V, has a Body Centered Cubic structure and Silver color. Vanadium is a Transition Metal element. It is part of group 5 (vanadium family). Know everything about Vanadium Facts, Physical Properties, Chemical Properties, Electronic configuration, Atomic and Crystal Structure.
23 V - Vanadium | SchoolMyKids

Vanadium is a chemical element with symbol V and atomic number 23. It is a hard, silvery grey, ductile and malleable Transition Metal. The element is found only in chemically combined form in nature, but once isolated artificially, the formation of an oxide layer stabilizes the free metal somewhat against further oxidation.

It belongs to group 5 of the periodic table having trivial name .

Vanadium Facts

Read key information and facts about element Vanadium

NameVanadium
Atomic Number23
Atomic SymbolV
Atomic Weight50.9415
PhaseSolid
ColorSilver
Appearanceblue-silver-grey metal
ClassificationTransition Metal
Group in Periodic Table5
Group Namevanadium family
Period in Periodic Tableperiod 4
Block in Periodic Tabled -block
Electronic Configuration[Ar] 3d3 4s2
Electronic Shell Structure (Electrons per shell)2, 8, 11, 2
Melting Point2183 K
Boiling Point3680 K
CAS NumberCAS7440-62-2
Neighborhood Elements
123456789101112131415161718
1
1
H
Hydrogen
1.008

Atomic #

Electronic Shell #

Symbol
Name
Atomic Weight
HGas
HgLiquid
CSolid
Metals
Metalloids
NonMetals
Alkali metals
Alkali earth metals
Lanthanoids
Transition metals
Post-transition metals
Other nonmetals
Halogens
Nobel gas
Actinoids
2
He
Helium
4.003
2
3
Li
Lithium
6.941
4
Be
Beryllium
9.012
5
B
Boron
10.811
6
C
Carbon
12.011
7
N
Nitrogen
14.007
8
O
Oxygen
15.999
9
F
Fluorine
18.998
10
Ne
Neon
20.180
3
11
Na
Sodium
22.990
12
Mg
Magnesium
24.305
13
Al
Aluminium
26.982
14
Si
Silicon
28.085
15
P
Phosphorus
30.974
16
S
Sulfur
32.065
17
Cl
Chlorine
35.453
18
Ar
Argon
39.948
4
19
K
Potassium
39.098
20
Ca
Calcium
40.078
21
Sc
Scandium
44.956
22
Ti
Titanium
47.867
23
V
Vanadium
50.941
24
Cr
Chromium
51.996
25
Mn
Manganese
54.938
26
Fe
Iron
55.845
27
Co
Cobalt
58.933
28
Ni
Nickel
58.693
29
Cu
Copper
63.546
30
Zn
Zinc
65.409
31
Ga
Gallium
69.723
32
Ge
Germanium
72.640
33
As
Arsenic
74.922
34
Se
Selenium
78.960
35
Br
Bromine
79.904
36
Kr
Krypton
83.798
5
37
Rb
Rubidium
85.468
38
Sr
Strontium
87.620
39
Y
Yttrium
88.906
40
Zr
Zirconium
91.224
41
Nb
Niobium
92.906
42
Mo
Molybdenum
95.940
43
Tc
Technetium
98
44
Ru
Ruthenium
101.070
45
Rh
Rhodium
102.906
46
Pd
Palladium
106.420
47
Ag
Silver
107.868
48
Cd
Cadmium
112.411
49
In
Indium
114.818
50
Sn
Tin
118.710
51
Sb
Antimony
121.760
52
Te
Tellurium
127.600
53
I
Iodine
126.904
54
Xe
Xenon
131.293
6
55
Cs
Cesium
132.905
56
Ba
Barium
137.327
57 - 71
La - Lu
Lanthanides
72
Hf
Hafnium
178.490
73
Ta
Tantalum
180.948
74
W
Tungsten
183.840
75
Re
Rhenium
186.207
76
Os
Osmium
190.230
77
Ir
Iridium
192.217
78
Pt
Platinum
195.078
79
Au
Gold
196.967
80
Hg
Mercury
200.590
81
Tl
Thallium
204.383
82
Pb
Lead
207.200
83
Bi
Bismuth
208.980
84
Po
Polonium
209
85
At
Astatine
210
86
Rn
Radon
222
7
87
Fr
Francium
223
88
Ra
Radium
226
89 - 103
Ac - Lr
Actinides
104
Rf
Rutherfordium
261
105
Db
Dubnium
262
106
Sg
Seaborgium
266
107
Bh
Bohrium
264
108
Hs
Hassium
277
109
Mt
Meitnerium
268
110
Ds
Darmstadtium
281
111
Rg
Roentgenium
272
112
Cn
Copernicium
285
113
Nh
Nihonium
284
114
Fl
Flerovium
289
115
Mc
Moscovium
288
116
Lv
Livermorium
292
117
Ts
Tennessine
294
118
Og
Oganesson
294
Lanthanides
57
La
Lanthanum
138.905
58
Ce
Cerium
140.116
59
Pr
Praseodymium
140.908
60
Nd
Neodymium
144.240
61
Pm
Promethium
145
62
Sm
Samarium
150.360
63
Eu
Europium
151.964
64
Gd
Gadolinium
157.250
65
Tb
Terbium
158.925
66
Dy
Dysprosium
162.500
67
Ho
Holmium
164.930
68
Er
Erbium
167.259
69
Tm
Thulium
168.934
70
Yb
Ytterbium
173.040
71
Lu
Lutetium
174.967
Actinides
89
Ac
Actinium
227
90
Th
Thorium
232.038
91
Pa
Protactinium
231.036
92
U
Uranium
238.029
93
Np
Neptunium
237
94
Pu
Plutonium
244
95
Am
Americium
243
96
Cm
Curium
247
97
Bk
Berkelium
247
98
Cf
Californium
251
99
Es
Einsteinium
252
100
Fm
Fermium
257
101
Md
Mendelevium
258
102
No
Nobelium
259
103
Lr
Lawrencium
262

How to Locate Vanadium on Periodic Table

Periodic table is arranged by atomic number, number of protons in the nucleus which is same as number of electrons. The atomic number increases from left to right. Periodic table starts at top left ( Atomic number 1) and ends at bottom right (atomic number 118). Therefore you can directly look for atomic number 23 to find Vanadium on periodic table.

Another way to read periodic table and locate an element is by using group number (column) and period number (row). To locate Vanadium on periodic table look for cross section of group 5 and period 4 in the modern periodic table.

Vanadium History

The element Vanadium was discovered by M. del Río in year 1801 in Mexico and Sweden. Vanadium was first isolated by N.G.Sefström in 1830. Vanadium derived its name from Vanadis, an Old Norse name for the Scandinavian goddess Freyja.

Río found the metal in vanadinite but retracted the claim after Hippolyte Victor Collet-Descotilsdisputed it. Sefström isolated and named it, and later it was shown that Río had been right in the first place.

Vanadium Presence: Abundance in Nature and Around Us

The table below shows the abundance of Vanadium in Universe, Sun, Meteorites, Earth's Crust, Oceans and Human Body.

 ppb by weight (1ppb =10^-7 %)ppb by atoms (1ppb =10^-7 %)
Abundance in Universe100020
Abundance in Sun4009
Abundance in Meteorites6200023000
Abundance in Earth's Crust19000075000
Abundance in Oceans1.50.18
Abundance in Humans304

Crystal Structure of Vanadium

The solid state structure of Vanadium is Body Centered Cubic.

The Crystal structure can be described in terms of its unit Cell. The unit Cells repeats itself in three dimensional space to form the structure.

Unit Cell Parameters

The unit cell is represented in terms of its lattice parameters, which are the lengths of the cell edges Lattice Constants (a, b and c)

abc
303 pm303 pm303 pm

and the angles between them Lattice Angles (alpha, beta and gamma).

alphabetagamma
π/2 π/2 π/2

The positions of the atoms inside the unit cell are described by the set of atomic positions ( xi, yi, zi) measured from a reference lattice point.

The symmetry properties of the crystal are described by the concept of space groups. All possible symmetric arrangements of particles in three-dimensional space are described by the 230 space groups (219 distinct types, or 230 if chiral copies are considered distinct.

Space Group NameIm_ 3m 23 V Vanadium - Crystal Structure | SchoolMyKids
Oxidation StatesSpace Group Number229
Crystal StructureBody Centered Cubic

Vanadium Atomic and Orbital Properties

Vanadium atoms have 23 electrons and the electronic shell structure is [2, 8, 11, 2] with Atomic Term Symbol (Quantum Numbers) 4F3/2.

Atomic Number23
Number of Electrons (with no charge)23
Number of Protons23
Mass Number51
Number of Neutrons28
Shell structure (Electrons per energy level)2, 8, 11, 2
Electron Configuration[Ar] 3d3 4s2
Valence Electrons3d3 4s2
Valence (Valency)5
Main Oxidation States2, 3, 4, 5
Oxidation States-3, -1, 0, 1, 2, 3, 4, 5
Atomic Term Symbol (Quantum Numbers)4F3/2

Bohr Atomic Model of Vanadium - Electrons per energy level

23 V Vanadium - Electron Shell Structure | SchoolMyKids
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Ground State Electronic Configuration of Vanadium - neutral Vanadium atom

Abbreviated electronic configuration of Vanadium

The ground state abbreviated electronic configuration of Neutral Vanadium atom is [Ar] 3d3 4s2. The portion of Vanadium configuration that is equivalent to the noble gas of the preceding period, is abbreviated as [Ar]. For atoms with many electrons, this notation can become lengthy and so an abbreviated notation is used. This is important as it is the Valence electrons 3d3 4s2, electrons in the outermost shell that determine the chemical properties of the element.

Unabbreviated electronic configuration of neutral Vanadium

Complete ground state electronic configuration for the Vanadium atom, Unabbreviated electronic configuration

1s2 2s2 2p6 3s2 3p6 3d3 4s2

Electrons are filled in atomic orbitals as per the order determined by the Aufbau principle, Pauli Exclusion Principle and Hund’s Rule.

  • As per the Aufbau principle the electrons will occupy the orbitals having lower energies before occupying higher energy orbitals. According to this principle, electrons are filled in the following order: 1s, 2s, 2p, 3s, 3p, 4s, 3d, 4p, 5s, 4d, 5p, 6s, 4f, 5d, 6p, 7s, 5f, 6d, 7p…
  • The Pauli exclusion principle states that a maximum of two electrons, each having opposite spins, can fit in an orbital.
  • Hund's rule states that every orbital in a given subshell is singly occupied by electrons before a second electron is filled in an orbital.
  • Electron configuration of Vanadium
    Atomic Structure of Vanadium

    Vanadium atomic radius is 171 pm, while it's covalent radius is 125 pm.

    Atomic Radius Calculated

    171 pm (1.71 Å)

    Atomic Radius Empirical

    135 pm (1.35 Å)

    Atomic Volume8.3374 cm3/mol
    Covalent Radius125 pm (1.25 Å)
    Van der Waals Radius-
    Neutron Cross Section5.06
    Neutron Mass Absorption 0.0033

    Atomic Spectrum of Vanadium

    Atomic Spectrum of Vanadium | SchoolMyKids

    Vanadium Chemical Properties: Vanadium Ionization Energies and electron affinity

    The electron affinity of Vanadium is 50.6 kJ/mol.

    Valence5
    Electronegativity1.63
    ElectronAffinity50.6 kJ/mol

    Ionization Energy of Vanadium

    Refer to table below for Ionization energies of Vanadium

    Ionization energy numberEnthalpy - kJ/mol
    1st650.9
    2nd1414
    3rd2830
    4th4507
    5th6298.7
    6th12363
    7th14530
    8th16730
    9th19860
    10th22240
    11th24670
    12th29730
    13th32446
    14th86450
    15th94170
    16th102300
    17th112700
    18th121600
    19th130700
    20th143400
    21st151440
    22nd661050
    23rd699144

    Vanadium Physical Properties

    Refer to below table for Vanadium Physical Properties

    Density6.11 g/cm3(when liquid at m.p density is $5.5 g/cm3)
    Molar Volume8.3374 cm3/mol

    Elastic Properties

    Young Modulus128
    Shear Modulus47 GPa
    Bulk Modulus 160 GPa
    Poisson Ratio0.37

    Hardness of Vanadium - Tests to Measure of Hardness of Element

    Mohs Hardness7 MPa
    Vickers Hardness628 MPa
    Brinell Hardness628 MPa

    Vanadium Electrical Properties

    Vanadium is Conductor of electricity. Refer to table below for the Electrical properties ofVanadium

    Electrical Conductivity5000000 S/m
    Resistivity2e-7 m Ω
    Superconducting Point5.4

    Vanadium Heat and Conduction Properties

    Thermal Conductivity31 W/(m K)
    Thermal Expansion0.0000084 /K

    Vanadium Magnetic Properties

    Magnetic TypeParamagnetic
    Curie Point-
    Mass Magnetic Susceptibility6.28e-8 m3/kg
    Molar Magnetic Susceptibility3.199e-9 m3/mol
    Volume Magnetic Susceptibility0.0003837

    Optical Properties of Vanadium

    Refractive Index-

    Acoustic Properties of Vanadium

    Speed of Sound4560 m/s

    Vanadium Thermal Properties - Enthalpies and thermodynamics

    Refer to table below for Thermal properties of Vanadium

    Melting Point2183 K (1909.85°C, 3469.7299999999996 °F)
    Boiling Point3680 K (3406.85°C, 6164.33 °F)
    Critical Temperature-
    Superconducting Point5.4

    Enthalpies of Vanadium

    Heat of Fusion22.8 kJ/mol
    Heat of Vaporization453 kJ/mol
    Heat of Combustion-

    Vanadium Isotopes - Nuclear Properties of Vanadium

    Vanadium has 26 isotopes, with between 40 and 65 nucleons. Vanadium has 1 stable naturally occuring isotopes.

    Isotopes of Vanadium - Naturally occurring stable Isotopes: 51V.

    IsotopeZNIsotope Mass% AbundanceT halfDecay Mode
    40V231740Synthetic
    41V231841Synthetic
    42V231942Synthetic
    43V232043Synthetic
    44V232144Synthetic
    45V232245Synthetic
    46V232346Synthetic
    47V232447Synthetic
    48V232548Synthetic
    49V232649Synthetic
    50V2327500.25%StableN/A
    51V23285199.75%Stable
    52V232952Synthetic
    53V233053Synthetic
    54V233154Synthetic
    55V233255Synthetic
    56V233356Synthetic
    57V233457Synthetic
    58V233558Synthetic
    59V233659Synthetic
    60V233760Synthetic
    61V233861Synthetic
    62V233962Synthetic
    63V234063Synthetic
    64V234164Synthetic
    65V234265Synthetic

    Regulatory and Health - Health and Safety Parameters and Guidelines

    Database Search

    List of unique identifiers to search the element in various chemical registry databases

    DatabaseIdentifier number
    CAS Number - Chemical Abstracts Service (CAS)CAS7440-62-2
    RTECS Number-
    CID Number CID23990
    Gmelin Number-
    NSC Number-