Element Information, Facts, Properties, Trends, Uses, Comparison with other elements
Vanadium is a chemical element with symbol V and atomic number 23. It is a hard, silvery grey, ductile and malleable Transition Metal. The element is found only in chemically combined form in nature, but once isolated artificially, the formation of an oxide layer stabilizes the free metal somewhat against further oxidation.
It belongs to group 5 of the periodic table having trivial name .
Read key information and facts about element Vanadium
|Group in Periodic Table||5|
|Group Name||vanadium family|
|Period in Periodic Table||period 4|
|Block in Periodic Table||d -block|
|Electronic Configuration||[Ar] 3d3 4s2|
|Electronic Shell Structure (Electrons per shell)||2, 8, 11, 2|
|Melting Point||2183 K|
|Boiling Point||3680 K|
How to Locate Vanadium on Periodic Table
Periodic table is arranged by atomic number, number of protons in the nucleus which is same as number of electrons. The atomic number increases from left to right. Periodic table starts at top left ( Atomic number 1) and ends at bottom right (atomic number 118). Therefore you can directly look for atomic number 23 to find Vanadium on periodic table.
Another way to read periodic table and locate an element is by using group number (column) and period number (row). To locate Vanadium on periodic table look for cross section of group 5 and period 4 in the modern periodic table.
The element Vanadium was discovered by M. del Río in year 1801 in Mexico and Sweden. Vanadium was first isolated by N.G.Sefström in 1830. Vanadium derived its name from Vanadis, an Old Norse name for the Scandinavian goddess Freyja.
Río found the metal in vanadinite but retracted the claim after Hippolyte Victor Collet-Descotilsdisputed it. Sefström isolated and named it, and later it was shown that Río had been right in the first place.
Vanadium Presence: Abundance in Nature and Around Us
The table below shows the abundance of Vanadium in Universe, Sun, Meteorites, Earth's Crust, Oceans and Human Body.
|ppb by weight (1ppb =10^-7 %)||ppb by atoms (1ppb =10^-7 %)|
|Abundance in Universe||1000||20|
|Abundance in Sun||400||9|
|Abundance in Meteorites||62000||23000|
|Abundance in Earth's Crust||190000||75000|
|Abundance in Oceans||1.5||0.18|
|Abundance in Humans||30||4|
Crystal Structure of Vanadium
The solid state structure of Vanadium is Body Centered Cubic.
The Crystal structure can be described in terms of its unit Cell. The unit Cells repeats itself in three dimensional space to form the structure.
Unit Cell Parameters
The unit cell is represented in terms of its lattice parameters, which are the lengths of the cell edges Lattice Constants (a, b and c)
|303 pm||303 pm||303 pm|
and the angles between them Lattice Angles (alpha, beta and gamma).
The positions of the atoms inside the unit cell are described by the set of atomic positions ( xi, yi, zi) measured from a reference lattice point.
The symmetry properties of the crystal are described by the concept of space groups. All possible symmetric arrangements of particles in three-dimensional space are described by the 230 space groups (219 distinct types, or 230 if chiral copies are considered distinct.
|Space Group Name||Im_ 3m|
|Oxidation States||Space Group Number||229|
|Crystal Structure||Body Centered Cubic|
Vanadium Atomic and Orbital Properties
Vanadium atoms have 23 electrons and the electronic shell structure is [2, 8, 11, 2] with Atomic Term Symbol (Quantum Numbers) 4F3/2.
|Number of Electrons (with no charge)||23|
|Number of Protons||23|
|Number of Neutrons||28|
|Shell structure (Electrons per energy level)||2, 8, 11, 2|
|Electron Configuration||[Ar] 3d3 4s2|
|Valence Electrons||3d3 4s2|
|Main Oxidation States||2, 3, 4, 5|
|Oxidation States||-3, -1, 0, 1, 2, 3, 4, 5|
|Atomic Term Symbol (Quantum Numbers)||4F3/2|
Bohr Atomic Model of Vanadium - Electrons per energy level
Ground State Electronic Configuration of Vanadium - neutral Vanadium atom
Abbreviated electronic configuration of Vanadium
The ground state abbreviated electronic configuration of Neutral Vanadium atom is [Ar] 3d3 4s2. The portion of Vanadium configuration that is equivalent to the noble gas of the preceding period, is abbreviated as [Ar]. For atoms with many electrons, this notation can become lengthy and so an abbreviated notation is used. This is important as it is the Valence electrons 3d3 4s2, electrons in the outermost shell that determine the chemical properties of the element.
Unabbreviated electronic configuration of neutral Vanadium
Complete ground state electronic configuration for the Vanadium atom, Unabbreviated electronic configuration
1s2 2s2 2p6 3s2 3p6 3d3 4s2
Electrons are filled in atomic orbitals as per the order determined by the Aufbau principle, Pauli Exclusion Principle and Hund’s Rule.
Atomic Structure of Vanadium
Vanadium atomic radius is 171 pm, while it's covalent radius is 125 pm.
|Atomic Radius Calculated|
171 pm (1.71 Å)
|Atomic Radius Empirical|
135 pm (1.35 Å)
|Atomic Volume||8.3374 cm3/mol|
|Covalent Radius||125 pm (1.25 Å)|
|Van der Waals Radius||-|
|Neutron Cross Section||5.06|
|Neutron Mass Absorption||0.0033|
Atomic Spectrum of Vanadium
Vanadium Chemical Properties: Vanadium Ionization Energies and electron affinity
The electron affinity of Vanadium is 50.6 kJ/mol.
Ionization Energy of Vanadium
Refer to table below for Ionization energies of Vanadium
|Ionization energy number||Enthalpy - kJ/mol|
Vanadium Physical Properties
Refer to below table for Vanadium Physical Properties
|Density||6.11 g/cm3(when liquid at m.p density is $5.5 g/cm3)|
|Molar Volume||8.3374 cm3/mol|
|Shear Modulus||47 GPa|
|Bulk Modulus||160 GPa|
Hardness of Vanadium - Tests to Measure of Hardness of Element
|Mohs Hardness||7 MPa|
|Vickers Hardness||628 MPa|
|Brinell Hardness||628 MPa|
Vanadium Electrical Properties
Vanadium is Conductor of electricity. Refer to table below for the Electrical properties ofVanadium
|Electrical Conductivity||5000000 S/m|
|Resistivity||2e-7 m Ω|
Vanadium Heat and Conduction Properties
|Thermal Conductivity||31 W/(m K)|
|Thermal Expansion||0.0000084 /K|
Vanadium Magnetic Properties
|Mass Magnetic Susceptibility||6.28e-8 m3/kg|
|Molar Magnetic Susceptibility||3.199e-9 m3/mol|
|Volume Magnetic Susceptibility||0.0003837|
Optical Properties of Vanadium
Acoustic Properties of Vanadium
|Speed of Sound||4560 m/s|
Vanadium Thermal Properties - Enthalpies and thermodynamics
Refer to table below for Thermal properties of Vanadium
|Melting Point||2183 K (1909.85°C, 3469.7299999999996 °F)|
|Boiling Point||3680 K (3406.85°C, 6164.33 °F)|
Enthalpies of Vanadium
|Heat of Fusion||22.8 kJ/mol|
|Heat of Vaporization||453 kJ/mol|
|Heat of Combustion||-|
Vanadium Isotopes - Nuclear Properties of Vanadium
Vanadium has 26 isotopes, with between 40 and 65 nucleons. Vanadium has 1 stable naturally occuring isotopes.
Isotopes of Vanadium - Naturally occurring stable Isotopes: 51V.
|Isotope||Z||N||Isotope Mass||% Abundance||T half||Decay Mode|