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Zr Zirconium
Element Information, Facts, Properties, Trends, Uses, Comparison with other elements

40
Zr
Zirconium
Element 40 of Periodic table is Zirconium with atomic number 40, atomic weight 91.224. Zirconium, symbol Zr, has a Simple Hexagonal structure and Silver color. Zirconium is a Transition Metal element. It is part of group 4 (titanium family). Know everything about Zirconium Facts, Physical Properties, Chemical Properties, Electronic configuration, Atomic and Crystal Structure.
40 Zr - Zirconium | SchoolMyKids

Zirconium is a chemical element with symbol Zr and atomic number 40. The name of zirconium is taken from the name of the mineral zircon, the most important source of zirconium. The word zircon comes from the Persian word zargun زرگون, meaning 'gold-colored'.

It belongs to group 4 of the periodic table having trivial name .

Zirconium Facts

Read key information and facts about element Zirconium

NameZirconium
Atomic Number40
Atomic SymbolZr
Atomic Weight91.224
PhaseSolid
ColorSilver
Appearancesilvery white
ClassificationTransition Metal
Group in Periodic Table4
Group Nametitanium family
Period in Periodic Tableperiod 5
Block in Periodic Tabled -block
Electronic Configuration[Kr] 4d2 5s2
Electronic Shell Structure (Electrons per shell)2, 8, 18, 10, 2
Melting Point2128 K
Boiling Point4682 K
CAS NumberCAS7440-67-7
Neighborhood Elements
123456789101112131415161718
1
1
H
Hydrogen
1.008

Atomic #

Electronic Shell #

Symbol
Name
Atomic Weight
HGas
HgLiquid
CSolid
Metals
Metalloids
NonMetals
Alkali metals
Alkali earth metals
Lanthanoids
Transition metals
Post-transition metals
Other nonmetals
Halogens
Nobel gas
Actinoids
2
He
Helium
4.003
2
3
Li
Lithium
6.941
4
Be
Beryllium
9.012
5
B
Boron
10.811
6
C
Carbon
12.011
7
N
Nitrogen
14.007
8
O
Oxygen
15.999
9
F
Fluorine
18.998
10
Ne
Neon
20.180
3
11
Na
Sodium
22.990
12
Mg
Magnesium
24.305
13
Al
Aluminium
26.982
14
Si
Silicon
28.085
15
P
Phosphorus
30.974
16
S
Sulfur
32.065
17
Cl
Chlorine
35.453
18
Ar
Argon
39.948
4
19
K
Potassium
39.098
20
Ca
Calcium
40.078
21
Sc
Scandium
44.956
22
Ti
Titanium
47.867
23
V
Vanadium
50.941
24
Cr
Chromium
51.996
25
Mn
Manganese
54.938
26
Fe
Iron
55.845
27
Co
Cobalt
58.933
28
Ni
Nickel
58.693
29
Cu
Copper
63.546
30
Zn
Zinc
65.409
31
Ga
Gallium
69.723
32
Ge
Germanium
72.640
33
As
Arsenic
74.922
34
Se
Selenium
78.960
35
Br
Bromine
79.904
36
Kr
Krypton
83.798
5
37
Rb
Rubidium
85.468
38
Sr
Strontium
87.620
39
Y
Yttrium
88.906
40
Zr
Zirconium
91.224
41
Nb
Niobium
92.906
42
Mo
Molybdenum
95.940
43
Tc
Technetium
98
44
Ru
Ruthenium
101.070
45
Rh
Rhodium
102.906
46
Pd
Palladium
106.420
47
Ag
Silver
107.868
48
Cd
Cadmium
112.411
49
In
Indium
114.818
50
Sn
Tin
118.710
51
Sb
Antimony
121.760
52
Te
Tellurium
127.600
53
I
Iodine
126.904
54
Xe
Xenon
131.293
6
55
Cs
Cesium
132.905
56
Ba
Barium
137.327
57 - 71
La - Lu
Lanthanides
72
Hf
Hafnium
178.490
73
Ta
Tantalum
180.948
74
W
Tungsten
183.840
75
Re
Rhenium
186.207
76
Os
Osmium
190.230
77
Ir
Iridium
192.217
78
Pt
Platinum
195.078
79
Au
Gold
196.967
80
Hg
Mercury
200.590
81
Tl
Thallium
204.383
82
Pb
Lead
207.200
83
Bi
Bismuth
208.980
84
Po
Polonium
209
85
At
Astatine
210
86
Rn
Radon
222
7
87
Fr
Francium
223
88
Ra
Radium
226
89 - 103
Ac - Lr
Actinides
104
Rf
Rutherfordium
261
105
Db
Dubnium
262
106
Sg
Seaborgium
266
107
Bh
Bohrium
264
108
Hs
Hassium
277
109
Mt
Meitnerium
268
110
Ds
Darmstadtium
281
111
Rg
Roentgenium
272
112
Cn
Copernicium
285
113
Nh
Nihonium
284
114
Fl
Flerovium
289
115
Mc
Moscovium
288
116
Lv
Livermorium
292
117
Ts
Tennessine
294
118
Og
Oganesson
294
Lanthanides
57
La
Lanthanum
138.905
58
Ce
Cerium
140.116
59
Pr
Praseodymium
140.908
60
Nd
Neodymium
144.240
61
Pm
Promethium
145
62
Sm
Samarium
150.360
63
Eu
Europium
151.964
64
Gd
Gadolinium
157.250
65
Tb
Terbium
158.925
66
Dy
Dysprosium
162.500
67
Ho
Holmium
164.930
68
Er
Erbium
167.259
69
Tm
Thulium
168.934
70
Yb
Ytterbium
173.040
71
Lu
Lutetium
174.967
Actinides
89
Ac
Actinium
227
90
Th
Thorium
232.038
91
Pa
Protactinium
231.036
92
U
Uranium
238.029
93
Np
Neptunium
237
94
Pu
Plutonium
244
95
Am
Americium
243
96
Cm
Curium
247
97
Bk
Berkelium
247
98
Cf
Californium
251
99
Es
Einsteinium
252
100
Fm
Fermium
257
101
Md
Mendelevium
258
102
No
Nobelium
259
103
Lr
Lawrencium
262

How to Locate Zirconium on Periodic Table

Periodic table is arranged by atomic number, number of protons in the nucleus which is same as number of electrons. The atomic number increases from left to right. Periodic table starts at top left ( Atomic number 1) and ends at bottom right (atomic number 118). Therefore you can directly look for atomic number 40 to find Zirconium on periodic table.

Another way to read periodic table and locate an element is by using group number (column) and period number (row). To locate Zirconium on periodic table look for cross section of group 4 and period 5 in the modern periodic table.

Zirconium History

The element Zirconium was discovered by H. Klaproth in year 1789 in Germany. Zirconium was first isolated by J. Berzelius in 1824. Zirconium derived its name from Persian Zargun, 'gold-colored'; German Zirkoon, 'jargoon'.

Klaproth identified a new element inzirconia.

Zirconium Presence: Abundance in Nature and Around Us

The table below shows the abundance of Zirconium in Universe, Sun, Meteorites, Earth's Crust, Oceans and Human Body.

 ppb by weight (1ppb =10^-7 %)ppb by atoms (1ppb =10^-7 %)
Abundance in Universe500.7
Abundance in Sun400.5
Abundance in Meteorites67001600
Abundance in Earth's Crust13000030000
Abundance in Oceans0.0260.0018
Abundance in Humans503

Crystal Structure of Zirconium

The solid state structure of Zirconium is Simple Hexagonal.

The Crystal structure can be described in terms of its unit Cell. The unit Cells repeats itself in three dimensional space to form the structure.

Unit Cell Parameters

The unit cell is represented in terms of its lattice parameters, which are the lengths of the cell edges Lattice Constants (a, b and c)

abc
323.2 pm323.2 pm514.7 pm

and the angles between them Lattice Angles (alpha, beta and gamma).

alphabetagamma
π/2 π/2 2 π/3

The positions of the atoms inside the unit cell are described by the set of atomic positions ( xi, yi, zi) measured from a reference lattice point.

The symmetry properties of the crystal are described by the concept of space groups. All possible symmetric arrangements of particles in three-dimensional space are described by the 230 space groups (219 distinct types, or 230 if chiral copies are considered distinct.

Space Group NameP63/mmc 40 Zr Zirconium - Crystal Structure | SchoolMyKids
Oxidation StatesSpace Group Number194
Crystal StructureSimple Hexagonal

Zirconium Atomic and Orbital Properties

Zirconium atoms have 40 electrons and the electronic shell structure is [2, 8, 18, 10, 2] with Atomic Term Symbol (Quantum Numbers) 3F2.

Atomic Number40
Number of Electrons (with no charge)40
Number of Protons40
Mass Number91
Number of Neutrons51
Shell structure (Electrons per energy level)2, 8, 18, 10, 2
Electron Configuration[Kr] 4d2 5s2
Valence Electrons4d2 5s2
Valence (Valency)4
Main Oxidation States4
Oxidation States-2, 0, 1, 2, 3, 4
Atomic Term Symbol (Quantum Numbers)3F2

Bohr Atomic Model of Zirconium - Electrons per energy level

40 Zr Zirconium - Electron Shell Structure | SchoolMyKids
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Ground State Electronic Configuration of Zirconium - neutral Zirconium atom

Abbreviated electronic configuration of Zirconium

The ground state abbreviated electronic configuration of Neutral Zirconium atom is [Kr] 4d2 5s2. The portion of Zirconium configuration that is equivalent to the noble gas of the preceding period, is abbreviated as [Kr]. For atoms with many electrons, this notation can become lengthy and so an abbreviated notation is used. This is important as it is the Valence electrons 4d2 5s2, electrons in the outermost shell that determine the chemical properties of the element.

Unabbreviated electronic configuration of neutral Zirconium

Complete ground state electronic configuration for the Zirconium atom, Unabbreviated electronic configuration

1s2 2s2 2p6 3s2 3p6 3d10 4s2 4p6 4d2 5s2

Electrons are filled in atomic orbitals as per the order determined by the Aufbau principle, Pauli Exclusion Principle and Hund’s Rule.

  • As per the Aufbau principle the electrons will occupy the orbitals having lower energies before occupying higher energy orbitals. According to this principle, electrons are filled in the following order: 1s, 2s, 2p, 3s, 3p, 4s, 3d, 4p, 5s, 4d, 5p, 6s, 4f, 5d, 6p, 7s, 5f, 6d, 7p…
  • The Pauli exclusion principle states that a maximum of two electrons, each having opposite spins, can fit in an orbital.
  • Hund's rule states that every orbital in a given subshell is singly occupied by electrons before a second electron is filled in an orbital.
  • Electron configuration of Zirconium
    Atomic Structure of Zirconium

    Zirconium atomic radius is 206 pm, while it's covalent radius is 148 pm.

    Atomic Radius Calculated

    206 pm (2.06 Å)

    Atomic Radius Empirical

    155 pm (1.55 Å)

    Atomic Volume14.011 cm3/mol
    Covalent Radius148 pm (1.48 Å)
    Van der Waals Radius-
    Neutron Cross Section0.184
    Neutron Mass Absorption 0.00066

    Atomic Spectrum of Zirconium

    Atomic Spectrum of Zirconium | SchoolMyKids

    Zirconium Chemical Properties: Zirconium Ionization Energies and electron affinity

    The electron affinity of Zirconium is 41.1 kJ/mol.

    Valence4
    Electronegativity1.33
    ElectronAffinity41.1 kJ/mol

    Ionization Energy of Zirconium

    Refer to table below for Ionization energies of Zirconium

    Ionization energy numberEnthalpy - kJ/mol
    1st640.1
    2nd1270
    3rd2218
    4th3313
    5th7752
    6th9500

    Zirconium Physical Properties

    Refer to below table for Zirconium Physical Properties

    Density6.511 g/cm3(when liquid at m.p density is $5.8 g/cm3)
    Molar Volume14.011 cm3/mol

    Elastic Properties

    Young Modulus68
    Shear Modulus33 GPa
    Bulk Modulus -
    Poisson Ratio0.34

    Hardness of Zirconium - Tests to Measure of Hardness of Element

    Mohs Hardness5 MPa
    Vickers Hardness903 MPa
    Brinell Hardness650 MPa

    Zirconium Electrical Properties

    Zirconium is Conductor of electricity. Refer to table below for the Electrical properties ofZirconium

    Electrical Conductivity2400000 S/m
    Resistivity4.2e-7 m Ω
    Superconducting Point0.61

    Zirconium Heat and Conduction Properties

    Thermal Conductivity23 W/(m K)
    Thermal Expansion0.0000057 /K

    Zirconium Magnetic Properties

    Magnetic TypeParamagnetic
    Curie Point-
    Mass Magnetic Susceptibility1.68e-8 m3/kg
    Molar Magnetic Susceptibility1.53e-9 m3/mol
    Volume Magnetic Susceptibility0.000109

    Optical Properties of Zirconium

    Refractive Index-

    Acoustic Properties of Zirconium

    Speed of Sound3800 m/s

    Zirconium Thermal Properties - Enthalpies and thermodynamics

    Refer to table below for Thermal properties of Zirconium

    Melting Point2128 K (1854.85°C, 3370.7299999999996 °F)
    Boiling Point4682 K (4408.85°C, 7967.93 °F)
    Critical Temperature-
    Superconducting Point0.61

    Enthalpies of Zirconium

    Heat of Fusion21 kJ/mol
    Heat of Vaporization580 kJ/mol
    Heat of Combustion-

    Zirconium Isotopes - Nuclear Properties of Zirconium

    Zirconium has 33 isotopes, with between 78 and 110 nucleons. Zirconium has 4 stable naturally occuring isotopes.

    Isotopes of Zirconium - Naturally occurring stable Isotopes: 90Zr, 91Zr, 92Zr, 94Zr.

    IsotopeZNIsotope Mass% AbundanceT halfDecay Mode
    78Zr403878Synthetic
    79Zr403979Synthetic
    80Zr404080Synthetic
    81Zr404181Synthetic
    82Zr404282Synthetic
    83Zr404383Synthetic
    84Zr404484Synthetic
    85Zr404585Synthetic
    86Zr404686Synthetic
    87Zr404787Synthetic
    88Zr404888Synthetic
    89Zr404989Synthetic
    90Zr40509051.45%StableN/A
    91Zr40519111.22%Stable
    92Zr40529217.15%StableN/A
    93Zr405393Synthetic
    94Zr40549417.38%StableN/A
    95Zr405595Synthetic
    96Zr4056962.8%StableN/A
    97Zr405797Synthetic
    98Zr405898Synthetic
    99Zr405999Synthetic
    100Zr4060100Synthetic
    101Zr4061101Synthetic
    102Zr4062102Synthetic
    103Zr4063103Synthetic
    104Zr4064104Synthetic
    105Zr4065105Synthetic
    106Zr4066106Synthetic
    107Zr4067107Synthetic
    108Zr4068108Synthetic
    109Zr4069109Synthetic
    110Zr4070110Synthetic

    Regulatory and Health - Health and Safety Parameters and Guidelines

    Database Search

    List of unique identifiers to search the element in various chemical registry databases

    DatabaseIdentifier number
    CAS Number - Chemical Abstracts Service (CAS)CAS7440-67-7
    RTECS Number-
    CID Number CID23995
    Gmelin Number-
    NSC Number-