Element Information, Facts, Properties, Trends, Uses, Comparison with other elements
Antimony is a chemical element with symbol Sb (from Latin:stibium) and atomic number 51. A lustrous gray Metalloid, it is found in nature mainly as the sulfide mineral stibnite (Sb2S3). Antimony compounds have been known since ancient times and were used for cosmetics; metallic antimony was also known, but it was erroneously identified as lead upon its discovery.
It belongs to group 15 of the periodic table having trivial name pentels, pnictogens*. It got its trivial name from pentels from Greek penta (five, V).
Read key information and facts about element Antimony
|Appearance||silvery lustrous gray|
|Group in Periodic Table||15|
|Group Name||nitrogen family|
|Period in Periodic Table||period 5|
|Block in Periodic Table||p -block|
|Electronic Configuration||[Kr] 4d10 5s2 5p3|
|Electronic Shell Structure (Electrons per shell)||2, 8, 18, 18, 5|
|Melting Point||903.78 K|
|Boiling Point||1860 K|
How to Locate Antimony on Periodic Table
Periodic table is arranged by atomic number, number of protons in the nucleus which is same as number of electrons. The atomic number increases from left to right. Periodic table starts at top left ( Atomic number 1) and ends at bottom right (atomic number 118). Therefore you can directly look for atomic number 51 to find Antimony on periodic table.
Another way to read periodic table and locate an element is by using group number (column) and period number (row). To locate Antimony on periodic table look for cross section of group 15 and period 5 in the modern periodic table.
The element Antimony was discovered by Arabic alchemist in year ca. 800 AD in one. Antimony was first isolated by in . Antimony derived its name from the Greek anti, 'against', and monos, 'alone' (stibium in Latin).
First isolated by Jabir ibn Hayyan , an Arabian alchemist. Basilius Valentinus was the first European to isolate the element.
Antimony Presence: Abundance in Nature and Around Us
The table below shows the abundance of Antimony in Universe, Sun, Meteorites, Earth's Crust, Oceans and Human Body.
|ppb by weight (1ppb =10^-7 %)||ppb by atoms (1ppb =10^-7 %)|
|Abundance in Universe||0.4||0.004|
|Abundance in Sun||1||0.01|
|Abundance in Meteorites||120||20|
|Abundance in Earth's Crust||200||30|
|Abundance in Oceans||0.2||0.010|
|Abundance in Humans||-||-|
Crystal Structure of Antimony
The solid state structure of Antimony is Simple Trigonal.
The Crystal structure can be described in terms of its unit Cell. The unit Cells repeats itself in three dimensional space to form the structure.
Unit Cell Parameters
The unit cell is represented in terms of its lattice parameters, which are the lengths of the cell edges Lattice Constants (a, b and c)
|430.7 pm||430.7 pm||1127.3 pm|
and the angles between them Lattice Angles (alpha, beta and gamma).
The positions of the atoms inside the unit cell are described by the set of atomic positions ( xi, yi, zi) measured from a reference lattice point.
The symmetry properties of the crystal are described by the concept of space groups. All possible symmetric arrangements of particles in three-dimensional space are described by the 230 space groups (219 distinct types, or 230 if chiral copies are considered distinct.
|Space Group Name||R_ 3m|
|Oxidation States||Space Group Number||166|
|Crystal Structure||Simple Trigonal|
Antimony Atomic and Orbital Properties
Antimony atoms have 51 electrons and the electronic shell structure is [2, 8, 18, 18, 5] with Atomic Term Symbol (Quantum Numbers) 4S3/2.
|Number of Electrons (with no charge)||51|
|Number of Protons||51|
|Number of Neutrons||71|
|Shell structure (Electrons per energy level)||2, 8, 18, 18, 5|
|Electron Configuration||[Kr] 4d10 5s2 5p3|
|Valence Electrons||5s2 5p3|
|Main Oxidation States||-3, 3, 5|
|Oxidation States||-3, -2, -1, 0, 1, 2, 3, 4, 5|
|Atomic Term Symbol (Quantum Numbers)||4S3/2|
Bohr Atomic Model of Antimony - Electrons per energy level
Ground State Electronic Configuration of Antimony - neutral Antimony atom
Abbreviated electronic configuration of Antimony
The ground state abbreviated electronic configuration of Neutral Antimony atom is [Kr] 4d10 5s2 5p3. The portion of Antimony configuration that is equivalent to the noble gas of the preceding period, is abbreviated as [Kr]. For atoms with many electrons, this notation can become lengthy and so an abbreviated notation is used. This is important as it is the Valence electrons 5s2 5p3, electrons in the outermost shell that determine the chemical properties of the element.
Unabbreviated electronic configuration of neutral Antimony
Complete ground state electronic configuration for the Antimony atom, Unabbreviated electronic configuration
1s2 2s2 2p6 3s2 3p6 3d10 4s2 4p6 4d10 5s2 5p3
Electrons are filled in atomic orbitals as per the order determined by the Aufbau principle, Pauli Exclusion Principle and Hund’s Rule.
Atomic Structure of Antimony
Antimony atomic radius is 133 pm, while it's covalent radius is 138 pm.
|Atomic Radius Calculated|
133 pm (1.33 Å)
|Atomic Radius Empirical|
145 pm (1.45 Å)
|Atomic Volume||18.181 cm3/mol|
|Covalent Radius||138 pm (1.38 Å)|
|Van der Waals Radius||206 pm|
|Neutron Cross Section||5.4|
|Neutron Mass Absorption||0.0016|
Atomic Spectrum of Antimony
Antimony Chemical Properties: Antimony Ionization Energies and electron affinity
The electron affinity of Antimony is 103.2 kJ/mol.
Ionization Energy of Antimony
Refer to table below for Ionization energies of Antimony
|Ionization energy number||Enthalpy - kJ/mol|
Antimony Physical Properties
Refer to below table for Antimony Physical Properties
|Density||6.697 g/cm3(when liquid at m.p density is $6.53 g/cm3)|
|Molar Volume||18.181 cm3/mol|
|Shear Modulus||20 GPa|
|Bulk Modulus||42 GPa|
Hardness of Antimony - Tests to Measure of Hardness of Element
|Mohs Hardness||3 MPa|
|Brinell Hardness||294 MPa|
Antimony Electrical Properties
Antimony is Conductor of electricity. Refer to table below for the Electrical properties ofAntimony
|Electrical Conductivity||2500000 S/m|
|Resistivity||4e-7 m Ω|
Antimony Heat and Conduction Properties
|Thermal Conductivity||24 W/(m K)|
|Thermal Expansion||0.000011 /K|
Antimony Magnetic Properties
|Mass Magnetic Susceptibility||-1.09e-8 m3/kg|
|Molar Magnetic Susceptibility||-1.327e-9 m3/mol|
|Volume Magnetic Susceptibility||-0.000073|
Optical Properties of Antimony
Acoustic Properties of Antimony
|Speed of Sound||3420 m/s|
Antimony Thermal Properties - Enthalpies and thermodynamics
Refer to table below for Thermal properties of Antimony
|Melting Point||903.78 K (630.63°C, 1167.134 °F)|
|Boiling Point||1860 K (1586.85°C, 2888.33 °F)|
Enthalpies of Antimony
|Heat of Fusion||19.7 kJ/mol|
|Heat of Vaporization||68 kJ/mol|
|Heat of Combustion||-|
Antimony Isotopes - Nuclear Properties of Antimony
Antimony has 37 isotopes, with between 103 and 139 nucleons. Antimony has 2 stable naturally occuring isotopes.
Isotopes of Antimony - Naturally occurring stable Isotopes: 121Sb, 123Sb.
|Isotope||Z||N||Isotope Mass||% Abundance||T half||Decay Mode|