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Sb Antimony
Element Information, Facts, Properties, Trends, Uses, Comparison with other elements

51
Sb
Antimony
Element 51 of Periodic table is Antimony with atomic number 51, atomic weight 121.76. Antimony, symbol Sb, has a Simple Trigonal structure and Silver color. Antimony is a Metalloid element. It is part of group 15 (nitrogen family). Know everything about Antimony Facts, Physical Properties, Chemical Properties, Electronic configuration, Atomic and Crystal Structure.
51 Sb - Antimony | SchoolMyKids

Antimony is a chemical element with symbol Sb (from Latin:stibium) and atomic number 51. A lustrous gray Metalloid, it is found in nature mainly as the sulfide mineral stibnite (Sb2S3). Antimony compounds have been known since ancient times and were used for cosmetics; metallic antimony was also known, but it was erroneously identified as lead upon its discovery.

It belongs to group 15 of the periodic table having trivial name pentels, pnictogens*. It got its trivial name from pentels from Greek penta (five, V).

Antimony Facts

Read key information and facts about element Antimony

NameAntimony
Atomic Number51
Atomic SymbolSb
Atomic Weight121.76
PhaseSolid
ColorSilver
Appearancesilvery lustrous gray
ClassificationMetalloid
Group in Periodic Table15
Group Namenitrogen family
Period in Periodic Tableperiod 5
Block in Periodic Tablep -block
Electronic Configuration[Kr] 4d10 5s2 5p3
Electronic Shell Structure (Electrons per shell)2, 8, 18, 18, 5
Melting Point903.78 K
Boiling Point1860 K
CAS NumberCAS7440-36-0
123456789101112131415161718
1
1
H
Hydrogen
1.008

Atomic #

Electronic Shell #

Symbol
Name
Atomic Weight
HGas
HgLiquid
CSolid
Metals
Metalloids
NonMetals
Alkali metals
Alkali earth metals
Lanthanoids
Transition metals
Post-transition metals
Other nonmetals
Halogens
Nobel gas
Actinoids
2
He
Helium
4.003
2
3
Li
Lithium
6.941
4
Be
Beryllium
9.012
5
B
Boron
10.811
6
C
Carbon
12.011
7
N
Nitrogen
14.007
8
O
Oxygen
15.999
9
F
Fluorine
18.998
10
Ne
Neon
20.180
3
11
Na
Sodium
22.990
12
Mg
Magnesium
24.305
13
Al
Aluminium
26.982
14
Si
Silicon
28.085
15
P
Phosphorus
30.974
16
S
Sulfur
32.065
17
Cl
Chlorine
35.453
18
Ar
Argon
39.948
4
19
K
Potassium
39.098
20
Ca
Calcium
40.078
21
Sc
Scandium
44.956
22
Ti
Titanium
47.867
23
V
Vanadium
50.941
24
Cr
Chromium
51.996
25
Mn
Manganese
54.938
26
Fe
Iron
55.845
27
Co
Cobalt
58.933
28
Ni
Nickel
58.693
29
Cu
Copper
63.546
30
Zn
Zinc
65.409
31
Ga
Gallium
69.723
32
Ge
Germanium
72.640
33
As
Arsenic
74.922
34
Se
Selenium
78.960
35
Br
Bromine
79.904
36
Kr
Krypton
83.798
5
37
Rb
Rubidium
85.468
38
Sr
Strontium
87.620
39
Y
Yttrium
88.906
40
Zr
Zirconium
91.224
41
Nb
Niobium
92.906
42
Mo
Molybdenum
95.940
43
Tc
Technetium
98
44
Ru
Ruthenium
101.070
45
Rh
Rhodium
102.906
46
Pd
Palladium
106.420
47
Ag
Silver
107.868
48
Cd
Cadmium
112.411
49
In
Indium
114.818
50
Sn
Tin
118.710
51
Sb
Antimony
121.760
52
Te
Tellurium
127.600
53
I
Iodine
126.904
54
Xe
Xenon
131.293
6
55
Cs
Cesium
132.905
56
Ba
Barium
137.327
57 - 71
La - Lu
Lanthanides
72
Hf
Hafnium
178.490
73
Ta
Tantalum
180.948
74
W
Tungsten
183.840
75
Re
Rhenium
186.207
76
Os
Osmium
190.230
77
Ir
Iridium
192.217
78
Pt
Platinum
195.078
79
Au
Gold
196.967
80
Hg
Mercury
200.590
81
Tl
Thallium
204.383
82
Pb
Lead
207.200
83
Bi
Bismuth
208.980
84
Po
Polonium
209
85
At
Astatine
210
86
Rn
Radon
222
7
87
Fr
Francium
223
88
Ra
Radium
226
89 - 103
Ac - Lr
Actinides
104
Rf
Rutherfordium
261
105
Db
Dubnium
262
106
Sg
Seaborgium
266
107
Bh
Bohrium
264
108
Hs
Hassium
277
109
Mt
Meitnerium
268
110
Ds
Darmstadtium
281
111
Rg
Roentgenium
272
112
Cn
Copernicium
285
113
Nh
Nihonium
284
114
Fl
Flerovium
289
115
Mc
Moscovium
288
116
Lv
Livermorium
292
117
Ts
Tennessine
294
118
Og
Oganesson
294
Lanthanides
57
La
Lanthanum
138.905
58
Ce
Cerium
140.116
59
Pr
Praseodymium
140.908
60
Nd
Neodymium
144.240
61
Pm
Promethium
145
62
Sm
Samarium
150.360
63
Eu
Europium
151.964
64
Gd
Gadolinium
157.250
65
Tb
Terbium
158.925
66
Dy
Dysprosium
162.500
67
Ho
Holmium
164.930
68
Er
Erbium
167.259
69
Tm
Thulium
168.934
70
Yb
Ytterbium
173.040
71
Lu
Lutetium
174.967
Actinides
89
Ac
Actinium
227
90
Th
Thorium
232.038
91
Pa
Protactinium
231.036
92
U
Uranium
238.029
93
Np
Neptunium
237
94
Pu
Plutonium
244
95
Am
Americium
243
96
Cm
Curium
247
97
Bk
Berkelium
247
98
Cf
Californium
251
99
Es
Einsteinium
252
100
Fm
Fermium
257
101
Md
Mendelevium
258
102
No
Nobelium
259
103
Lr
Lawrencium
262

How to Locate Antimony on Periodic Table

Periodic table is arranged by atomic number, number of protons in the nucleus which is same as number of electrons. The atomic number increases from left to right. Periodic table starts at top left ( Atomic number 1) and ends at bottom right (atomic number 118). Therefore you can directly look for atomic number 51 to find Antimony on periodic table.

Another way to read periodic table and locate an element is by using group number (column) and period number (row). To locate Antimony on periodic table look for cross section of group 15 and period 5 in the modern periodic table.

Antimony History

The element Antimony was discovered by Arabic alchemist in year ca. 800 AD in one. Antimony was first isolated by in . Antimony derived its name from the Greek anti, 'against', and monos, 'alone' (stibium in Latin).

First isolated by Jabir ibn Hayyan , an Arabian alchemist. Basilius Valentinus was the first European to isolate the element.

Antimony Presence: Abundance in Nature and Around Us

The table below shows the abundance of Antimony in Universe, Sun, Meteorites, Earth's Crust, Oceans and Human Body.

 ppb by weight (1ppb =10^-7 %)ppb by atoms (1ppb =10^-7 %)
Abundance in Universe0.40.004
Abundance in Sun10.01
Abundance in Meteorites12020
Abundance in Earth's Crust20030
Abundance in Oceans0.20.010
Abundance in Humans--

Crystal Structure of Antimony

The solid state structure of Antimony is Simple Trigonal.

The Crystal structure can be described in terms of its unit Cell. The unit Cells repeats itself in three dimensional space to form the structure.

Unit Cell Parameters

The unit cell is represented in terms of its lattice parameters, which are the lengths of the cell edges Lattice Constants (a, b and c)

abc
430.7 pm430.7 pm1127.3 pm

and the angles between them Lattice Angles (alpha, beta and gamma).

alphabetagamma
π/2 π/2 2 π/3

The positions of the atoms inside the unit cell are described by the set of atomic positions ( xi, yi, zi) measured from a reference lattice point.

The symmetry properties of the crystal are described by the concept of space groups. All possible symmetric arrangements of particles in three-dimensional space are described by the 230 space groups (219 distinct types, or 230 if chiral copies are considered distinct.

Space Group NameR_ 3m 51 Sb Antimony - Crystal Structure | SchoolMyKids
Oxidation StatesSpace Group Number166
Crystal StructureSimple Trigonal

Antimony Atomic and Orbital Properties

Antimony atoms have 51 electrons and the electronic shell structure is [2, 8, 18, 18, 5] with Atomic Term Symbol (Quantum Numbers) 4S3/2.

Atomic Number51
Number of Electrons (with no charge)51
Number of Protons51
Mass Number122
Number of Neutrons71
Shell structure (Electrons per energy level)2, 8, 18, 18, 5
Electron Configuration[Kr] 4d10 5s2 5p3
Valence Electrons5s2 5p3
Valence (Valency)5
Main Oxidation States-3, 3, 5
Oxidation States-3, -2, -1, 0, 1, 2, 3, 4, 5
Atomic Term Symbol (Quantum Numbers)4S3/2

Bohr Atomic Model of Antimony - Electrons per energy level

51 Sb Antimony - Electron Shell Structure | SchoolMyKids
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Ground State Electronic Configuration of Antimony - neutral Antimony atom

Abbreviated electronic configuration of Antimony

The ground state abbreviated electronic configuration of Neutral Antimony atom is [Kr] 4d10 5s2 5p3. The portion of Antimony configuration that is equivalent to the noble gas of the preceding period, is abbreviated as [Kr]. For atoms with many electrons, this notation can become lengthy and so an abbreviated notation is used. This is important as it is the Valence electrons 5s2 5p3, electrons in the outermost shell that determine the chemical properties of the element.

Unabbreviated electronic configuration of neutral Antimony

Complete ground state electronic configuration for the Antimony atom, Unabbreviated electronic configuration

1s2 2s2 2p6 3s2 3p6 3d10 4s2 4p6 4d10 5s2 5p3

Electrons are filled in atomic orbitals as per the order determined by the Aufbau principle, Pauli Exclusion Principle and Hund’s Rule.

  • As per the Aufbau principle the electrons will occupy the orbitals having lower energies before occupying higher energy orbitals. According to this principle, electrons are filled in the following order: 1s, 2s, 2p, 3s, 3p, 4s, 3d, 4p, 5s, 4d, 5p, 6s, 4f, 5d, 6p, 7s, 5f, 6d, 7p…
  • The Pauli exclusion principle states that a maximum of two electrons, each having opposite spins, can fit in an orbital.
  • Hund's rule states that every orbital in a given subshell is singly occupied by electrons before a second electron is filled in an orbital.
  • Electron configuration of Antimony
    Atomic Structure of Antimony

    Antimony atomic radius is 133 pm, while it's covalent radius is 138 pm.

    Atomic Radius Calculated

    133 pm (1.33 Å)

    Atomic Radius Empirical

    145 pm (1.45 Å)

    Atomic Volume18.181 cm3/mol
    Covalent Radius138 pm (1.38 Å)
    Van der Waals Radius206 pm
    Neutron Cross Section5.4
    Neutron Mass Absorption 0.0016

    Atomic Spectrum of Antimony

    Atomic Spectrum of Antimony | SchoolMyKids

    Antimony Chemical Properties: Antimony Ionization Energies and electron affinity

    The electron affinity of Antimony is 103.2 kJ/mol.

    Valence5
    Electronegativity2.05
    ElectronAffinity103.2 kJ/mol

    Ionization Energy of Antimony

    Refer to table below for Ionization energies of Antimony

    Ionization energy numberEnthalpy - kJ/mol
    1st834
    2nd1594.9
    3rd2440
    4th4260
    5th5400
    6th10400

    Antimony Physical Properties

    Refer to below table for Antimony Physical Properties

    Density6.697 g/cm3(when liquid at m.p density is $6.53 g/cm3)
    Molar Volume18.181 cm3/mol

    Elastic Properties

    Young Modulus55
    Shear Modulus20 GPa
    Bulk Modulus 42 GPa
    Poisson Ratio-

    Hardness of Antimony - Tests to Measure of Hardness of Element

    Mohs Hardness3 MPa
    Vickers Hardness-
    Brinell Hardness294 MPa

    Antimony Electrical Properties

    Antimony is Conductor of electricity. Refer to table below for the Electrical properties ofAntimony

    Electrical Conductivity2500000 S/m
    Resistivity4e-7 m Ω
    Superconducting Point-

    Antimony Heat and Conduction Properties

    Thermal Conductivity24 W/(m K)
    Thermal Expansion0.000011 /K

    Antimony Magnetic Properties

    Magnetic TypeDiamagnetic
    Curie Point-
    Mass Magnetic Susceptibility-1.09e-8 m3/kg
    Molar Magnetic Susceptibility-1.327e-9 m3/mol
    Volume Magnetic Susceptibility-0.000073

    Optical Properties of Antimony

    Refractive Index-

    Acoustic Properties of Antimony

    Speed of Sound3420 m/s

    Antimony Thermal Properties - Enthalpies and thermodynamics

    Refer to table below for Thermal properties of Antimony

    Melting Point903.78 K (630.63°C, 1167.134 °F)
    Boiling Point1860 K (1586.85°C, 2888.33 °F)
    Critical Temperature-
    Superconducting Point-

    Enthalpies of Antimony

    Heat of Fusion19.7 kJ/mol
    Heat of Vaporization68 kJ/mol
    Heat of Combustion-

    Antimony Isotopes - Nuclear Properties of Antimony

    Antimony has 37 isotopes, with between 103 and 139 nucleons. Antimony has 2 stable naturally occuring isotopes.

    Isotopes of Antimony - Naturally occurring stable Isotopes: 121Sb, 123Sb.

    IsotopeZNIsotope Mass% AbundanceT halfDecay Mode
    103Sb5152103Synthetic
    104Sb5153104Synthetic
    105Sb5154105Synthetic
    106Sb5155106Synthetic
    107Sb5156107Synthetic
    108Sb5157108Synthetic
    109Sb5158109Synthetic
    110Sb5159110Synthetic
    111Sb5160111Synthetic
    112Sb5161112Synthetic
    113Sb5162113Synthetic
    114Sb5163114Synthetic
    115Sb5164115Synthetic
    116Sb5165116Synthetic
    117Sb5166117Synthetic
    118Sb5167118Synthetic
    119Sb5168119Synthetic
    120Sb5169120Synthetic
    121Sb517012157.21%StableN/A
    122Sb5171122SyntheticStable
    123Sb517212342.79%StableN/A
    124Sb5173124Synthetic
    125Sb5174125Synthetic
    126Sb5175126Synthetic
    127Sb5176127Synthetic
    128Sb5177128Synthetic
    129Sb5178129Synthetic
    130Sb5179130Synthetic
    131Sb5180131Synthetic
    132Sb5181132Synthetic
    133Sb5182133Synthetic
    134Sb5183134Synthetic
    135Sb5184135Synthetic
    136Sb5185136Synthetic
    137Sb5186137Synthetic
    138Sb5187138Synthetic
    139Sb5188139Synthetic