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Be Beryllium
Element Information, Facts, Properties, Trends, Uses, Comparison with other elements

4
Be
Beryllium
Element 4 of Periodic table is Beryllium with atomic number 4, atomic weight 9.012182. Beryllium, symbol Be, has a Simple Hexagonal structure and SlateGray color. Beryllium is a Alkaline Earth Metal element. It is part of group 2 (beryllium family). Know everything about Beryllium Facts, Physical Properties, Chemical Properties, Electronic configuration, Atomic and Crystal Structure.
4 Be - Beryllium | SchoolMyKids

Beryllium is a chemical element with symbol Be and atomic number 4. It is created through stellar nucleosynthesis and is a relatively rare element in the universe. It is a divalent element which occurs naturally only in combination with other elements in minerals.

It belongs to group 2 of the periodic table having trivial name alkaline earth metals*.

Beryllium Facts

Read key information and facts about element Beryllium

NameBeryllium
Atomic Number4
Atomic SymbolBe
Atomic Weight9.012182
PhaseSolid
ColorSlateGray
Appearancewhite-gray metallic
ClassificationAlkaline Earth Metal
Group in Periodic Table2
Group Nameberyllium family
Period in Periodic Tableperiod 2
Block in Periodic Tables -block
Electronic Configuration[He] 2s2
Electronic Shell Structure (Electrons per shell)2, 2
Melting Point1560 K
Boiling Point2743 K
CAS NumberCAS7440-41-7
Neighborhood Elements
123456789101112131415161718
1
1
H
Hydrogen
1.008

Atomic #

Electronic Shell #

Symbol
Name
Atomic Weight
HGas
HgLiquid
CSolid
Metals
Metalloids
NonMetals
Alkali metals
Alkali earth metals
Lanthanoids
Transition metals
Post-transition metals
Other nonmetals
Halogens
Nobel gas
Actinoids
2
He
Helium
4.003
2
3
Li
Lithium
6.941
4
Be
Beryllium
9.012
5
B
Boron
10.811
6
C
Carbon
12.011
7
N
Nitrogen
14.007
8
O
Oxygen
15.999
9
F
Fluorine
18.998
10
Ne
Neon
20.180
3
11
Na
Sodium
22.990
12
Mg
Magnesium
24.305
13
Al
Aluminium
26.982
14
Si
Silicon
28.085
15
P
Phosphorus
30.974
16
S
Sulfur
32.065
17
Cl
Chlorine
35.453
18
Ar
Argon
39.948
4
19
K
Potassium
39.098
20
Ca
Calcium
40.078
21
Sc
Scandium
44.956
22
Ti
Titanium
47.867
23
V
Vanadium
50.941
24
Cr
Chromium
51.996
25
Mn
Manganese
54.938
26
Fe
Iron
55.845
27
Co
Cobalt
58.933
28
Ni
Nickel
58.693
29
Cu
Copper
63.546
30
Zn
Zinc
65.409
31
Ga
Gallium
69.723
32
Ge
Germanium
72.640
33
As
Arsenic
74.922
34
Se
Selenium
78.960
35
Br
Bromine
79.904
36
Kr
Krypton
83.798
5
37
Rb
Rubidium
85.468
38
Sr
Strontium
87.620
39
Y
Yttrium
88.906
40
Zr
Zirconium
91.224
41
Nb
Niobium
92.906
42
Mo
Molybdenum
95.940
43
Tc
Technetium
98
44
Ru
Ruthenium
101.070
45
Rh
Rhodium
102.906
46
Pd
Palladium
106.420
47
Ag
Silver
107.868
48
Cd
Cadmium
112.411
49
In
Indium
114.818
50
Sn
Tin
118.710
51
Sb
Antimony
121.760
52
Te
Tellurium
127.600
53
I
Iodine
126.904
54
Xe
Xenon
131.293
6
55
Cs
Cesium
132.905
56
Ba
Barium
137.327
57 - 71
La - Lu
Lanthanides
72
Hf
Hafnium
178.490
73
Ta
Tantalum
180.948
74
W
Tungsten
183.840
75
Re
Rhenium
186.207
76
Os
Osmium
190.230
77
Ir
Iridium
192.217
78
Pt
Platinum
195.078
79
Au
Gold
196.967
80
Hg
Mercury
200.590
81
Tl
Thallium
204.383
82
Pb
Lead
207.200
83
Bi
Bismuth
208.980
84
Po
Polonium
209
85
At
Astatine
210
86
Rn
Radon
222
7
87
Fr
Francium
223
88
Ra
Radium
226
89 - 103
Ac - Lr
Actinides
104
Rf
Rutherfordium
261
105
Db
Dubnium
262
106
Sg
Seaborgium
266
107
Bh
Bohrium
264
108
Hs
Hassium
277
109
Mt
Meitnerium
268
110
Ds
Darmstadtium
281
111
Rg
Roentgenium
272
112
Cn
Copernicium
285
113
Nh
Nihonium
284
114
Fl
Flerovium
289
115
Mc
Moscovium
288
116
Lv
Livermorium
292
117
Ts
Tennessine
294
118
Og
Oganesson
294
Lanthanides
57
La
Lanthanum
138.905
58
Ce
Cerium
140.116
59
Pr
Praseodymium
140.908
60
Nd
Neodymium
144.240
61
Pm
Promethium
145
62
Sm
Samarium
150.360
63
Eu
Europium
151.964
64
Gd
Gadolinium
157.250
65
Tb
Terbium
158.925
66
Dy
Dysprosium
162.500
67
Ho
Holmium
164.930
68
Er
Erbium
167.259
69
Tm
Thulium
168.934
70
Yb
Ytterbium
173.040
71
Lu
Lutetium
174.967
Actinides
89
Ac
Actinium
227
90
Th
Thorium
232.038
91
Pa
Protactinium
231.036
92
U
Uranium
238.029
93
Np
Neptunium
237
94
Pu
Plutonium
244
95
Am
Americium
243
96
Cm
Curium
247
97
Bk
Berkelium
247
98
Cf
Californium
251
99
Es
Einsteinium
252
100
Fm
Fermium
257
101
Md
Mendelevium
258
102
No
Nobelium
259
103
Lr
Lawrencium
262

How to Locate Beryllium on Periodic Table

Periodic table is arranged by atomic number, number of protons in the nucleus which is same as number of electrons. The atomic number increases from left to right. Periodic table starts at top left ( Atomic number 1) and ends at bottom right (atomic number 118). Therefore you can directly look for atomic number 4 to find Beryllium on periodic table.

Another way to read periodic table and locate an element is by using group number (column) and period number (row). To locate Beryllium on periodic table look for cross section of group 2 and period 2 in the modern periodic table.

Beryllium History

The element Beryllium was discovered by N. Vauquelin in year 1798 in France. Beryllium was first isolated by F. Wöhler and A. Bussy in 1828. Beryllium derived its name from beryl, a mineral.

Vauquelin discovered the oxide in beryl and emerald, and Klaproth suggested the present name around 1808.

Beryllium Presence: Abundance in Nature and Around Us

The table below shows the abundance of Beryllium in Universe, Sun, Meteorites, Earth's Crust, Oceans and Human Body.

 ppb by weight (1ppb =10^-7 %)ppb by atoms (1ppb =10^-7 %)
Abundance in Universe10.1
Abundance in Sun0.10.01
Abundance in Meteorites3070
Abundance in Earth's Crust19004300
Abundance in Oceans0.00060.00041
Abundance in Humans0.40.3

Crystal Structure of Beryllium

The solid state structure of Beryllium is Simple Hexagonal.

The Crystal structure can be described in terms of its unit Cell. The unit Cells repeats itself in three dimensional space to form the structure.

Unit Cell Parameters

The unit cell is represented in terms of its lattice parameters, which are the lengths of the cell edges Lattice Constants (a, b and c)

abc
228.58 pm228.58 pm358.43 pm

and the angles between them Lattice Angles (alpha, beta and gamma).

alphabetagamma
π/2 π/2 2 π/3

The positions of the atoms inside the unit cell are described by the set of atomic positions ( xi, yi, zi) measured from a reference lattice point.

The symmetry properties of the crystal are described by the concept of space groups. All possible symmetric arrangements of particles in three-dimensional space are described by the 230 space groups (219 distinct types, or 230 if chiral copies are considered distinct.

Space Group NameP63/mmc 4 Be Beryllium - Crystal Structure | SchoolMyKids
Oxidation StatesSpace Group Number194
Crystal StructureSimple Hexagonal

Beryllium Atomic and Orbital Properties

Beryllium atoms have 4 electrons and the electronic shell structure is [2, 2] with Atomic Term Symbol (Quantum Numbers) 1S0.

Atomic Number4
Number of Electrons (with no charge)4
Number of Protons4
Mass Number9
Number of Neutrons5
Shell structure (Electrons per energy level)2, 2
Electron Configuration[He] 2s2
Valence Electrons2s2
Valence (Valency)2
Main Oxidation States2
Oxidation States0, 1, 2
Atomic Term Symbol (Quantum Numbers)1S0

Bohr Atomic Model of Beryllium - Electrons per energy level

4 Be Beryllium - Electron Shell Structure | SchoolMyKids
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Ground State Electronic Configuration of Beryllium - neutral Beryllium atom

Abbreviated electronic configuration of Beryllium

The ground state abbreviated electronic configuration of Neutral Beryllium atom is [He] 2s2. The portion of Beryllium configuration that is equivalent to the noble gas of the preceding period, is abbreviated as [He]. For atoms with many electrons, this notation can become lengthy and so an abbreviated notation is used. This is important as it is the Valence electrons 2s2, electrons in the outermost shell that determine the chemical properties of the element.

Unabbreviated electronic configuration of neutral Beryllium

Complete ground state electronic configuration for the Beryllium atom, Unabbreviated electronic configuration

1s2 2s2

Electrons are filled in atomic orbitals as per the order determined by the Aufbau principle, Pauli Exclusion Principle and Hund’s Rule.

  • As per the Aufbau principle the electrons will occupy the orbitals having lower energies before occupying higher energy orbitals. According to this principle, electrons are filled in the following order: 1s, 2s, 2p, 3s, 3p, 4s, 3d, 4p, 5s, 4d, 5p, 6s, 4f, 5d, 6p, 7s, 5f, 6d, 7p…
  • The Pauli exclusion principle states that a maximum of two electrons, each having opposite spins, can fit in an orbital.
  • Hund's rule states that every orbital in a given subshell is singly occupied by electrons before a second electron is filled in an orbital.
  • Electron configuration of Beryllium
    Atomic Structure of Beryllium

    Beryllium atomic radius is 112 pm, while it's covalent radius is 90 pm.

    Atomic Radius Calculated

    112 pm (1.12 Å)

    Atomic Radius Empirical

    105 pm (1.05 Å)

    Atomic Volume4.8767 cm3/mol
    Covalent Radius90 pm (0.9 Å)
    Van der Waals Radius153 pm
    Neutron Cross Section0.0092
    Neutron Mass Absorption 0.00003

    Atomic Spectrum of Beryllium

    Atomic Spectrum of Beryllium | SchoolMyKids

    Beryllium Chemical Properties: Beryllium Ionization Energies and electron affinity

    The electron affinity of Beryllium is 0 kJ/mol.

    Valence2
    Electronegativity1.57
    ElectronAffinity0 kJ/mol

    Ionization Energy of Beryllium

    Refer to table below for Ionization energies of Beryllium

    Ionization energy numberEnthalpy - kJ/mol
    1st899.5
    2nd1757.1
    3rd14848.7
    4th21006.6

    Beryllium Physical Properties

    Refer to below table for Beryllium Physical Properties

    Density1.848 g/cm3(when liquid at m.p density is $1.69 g/cm3)
    Molar Volume4.8767 cm3/mol

    Elastic Properties

    Young Modulus287
    Shear Modulus132 GPa
    Bulk Modulus 130 GPa
    Poisson Ratio0.032

    Hardness of Beryllium - Tests to Measure of Hardness of Element

    Mohs Hardness5.5 MPa
    Vickers Hardness1670 MPa
    Brinell Hardness600 MPa

    Beryllium Electrical Properties

    Beryllium is Conductor of electricity. Refer to table below for the Electrical properties ofBeryllium

    Electrical Conductivity25000000 S/m
    Resistivity4e-8 m Ω
    Superconducting Point0.026

    Beryllium Heat and Conduction Properties

    Thermal Conductivity190 W/(m K)
    Thermal Expansion0.0000113 /K

    Beryllium Magnetic Properties

    Magnetic TypeDiamagnetic
    Curie Point-
    Mass Magnetic Susceptibility-1.26e-8 m3/kg
    Molar Magnetic Susceptibility-1.136e-10 m3/mol
    Volume Magnetic Susceptibility-0.00002328

    Optical Properties of Beryllium

    Refractive Index-

    Acoustic Properties of Beryllium

    Speed of Sound13000 m/s

    Beryllium Thermal Properties - Enthalpies and thermodynamics

    Refer to table below for Thermal properties of Beryllium

    Melting Point1560 K (1286.85°C, 2348.33 °F)
    Boiling Point2743 K (2469.85°C, 4477.73 °F)
    Critical Temperature-
    Superconducting Point0.026

    Enthalpies of Beryllium

    Heat of Fusion7.95 kJ/mol
    Heat of Vaporization297 kJ/mol
    Heat of Combustion-

    Beryllium Isotopes - Nuclear Properties of Beryllium

    Beryllium has 12 isotopes, with between 5 and 16 nucleons. Beryllium has 1 stable naturally occuring isotopes.

    Isotopes of Beryllium - Naturally occurring stable Isotopes: 9Be.

    IsotopeZNIsotope Mass% AbundanceT halfDecay Mode
    5Be415Synthetic
    6Be426Synthetic
    7Be437Synthetic
    8Be448Synthetic
    9Be459100%Stable
    10Be4610Synthetic
    11Be4711Synthetic
    12Be4812Synthetic
    13Be4913Synthetic
    14Be41014Synthetic
    15Be41115Synthetic
    16Be41216Synthetic

    Regulatory and Health - Health and Safety Parameters and Guidelines

    Database Search

    List of unique identifiers to search the element in various chemical registry databases

    DatabaseIdentifier number
    CAS Number - Chemical Abstracts Service (CAS)CAS7440-41-7
    RTECS NumberRTECSDS1750000
    CID Number CID5460467
    Gmelin Number-
    NSC Number-