Element Information, Facts, Properties, Trends, Uses, Comparison with other elements
Beryllium is a chemical element with symbol Be and atomic number 4. It is created through stellar nucleosynthesis and is a relatively rare element in the universe. It is a divalent element which occurs naturally only in combination with other elements in minerals.
It belongs to group 2 of the periodic table having trivial name alkaline earth metals*.
Read key information and facts about element Beryllium
|Classification||Alkaline Earth Metal|
|Group in Periodic Table||2|
|Group Name||beryllium family|
|Period in Periodic Table||period 2|
|Block in Periodic Table||s -block|
|Electronic Configuration||[He] 2s2|
|Electronic Shell Structure (Electrons per shell)||2, 2|
|Melting Point||1560 K|
|Boiling Point||2743 K|
How to Locate Beryllium on Periodic Table
Periodic table is arranged by atomic number, number of protons in the nucleus which is same as number of electrons. The atomic number increases from left to right. Periodic table starts at top left ( Atomic number 1) and ends at bottom right (atomic number 118). Therefore you can directly look for atomic number 4 to find Beryllium on periodic table.
Another way to read periodic table and locate an element is by using group number (column) and period number (row). To locate Beryllium on periodic table look for cross section of group 2 and period 2 in the modern periodic table.
The element Beryllium was discovered by N. Vauquelin in year 1798 in France. Beryllium was first isolated by F. Wöhler and A. Bussy in 1828. Beryllium derived its name from beryl, a mineral.
Vauquelin discovered the oxide in beryl and emerald, and Klaproth suggested the present name around 1808.
Beryllium Presence: Abundance in Nature and Around Us
The table below shows the abundance of Beryllium in Universe, Sun, Meteorites, Earth's Crust, Oceans and Human Body.
|ppb by weight (1ppb =10^-7 %)||ppb by atoms (1ppb =10^-7 %)|
|Abundance in Universe||1||0.1|
|Abundance in Sun||0.1||0.01|
|Abundance in Meteorites||30||70|
|Abundance in Earth's Crust||1900||4300|
|Abundance in Oceans||0.0006||0.00041|
|Abundance in Humans||0.4||0.3|
Crystal Structure of Beryllium
The solid state structure of Beryllium is Simple Hexagonal.
The Crystal structure can be described in terms of its unit Cell. The unit Cells repeats itself in three dimensional space to form the structure.
Unit Cell Parameters
The unit cell is represented in terms of its lattice parameters, which are the lengths of the cell edges Lattice Constants (a, b and c)
|228.58 pm||228.58 pm||358.43 pm|
and the angles between them Lattice Angles (alpha, beta and gamma).
The positions of the atoms inside the unit cell are described by the set of atomic positions ( xi, yi, zi) measured from a reference lattice point.
The symmetry properties of the crystal are described by the concept of space groups. All possible symmetric arrangements of particles in three-dimensional space are described by the 230 space groups (219 distinct types, or 230 if chiral copies are considered distinct.
|Space Group Name||P63/mmc|
|Oxidation States||Space Group Number||194|
|Crystal Structure||Simple Hexagonal|
Beryllium Atomic and Orbital Properties
Beryllium atoms have 4 electrons and the electronic shell structure is [2, 2] with Atomic Term Symbol (Quantum Numbers) 1S0.
|Number of Electrons (with no charge)||4|
|Number of Protons||4|
|Number of Neutrons||5|
|Shell structure (Electrons per energy level)||2, 2|
|Electron Configuration||[He] 2s2|
|Main Oxidation States||2|
|Oxidation States||0, 1, 2|
|Atomic Term Symbol (Quantum Numbers)||1S0|
Bohr Atomic Model of Beryllium - Electrons per energy level
Ground State Electronic Configuration of Beryllium - neutral Beryllium atom
Abbreviated electronic configuration of Beryllium
The ground state abbreviated electronic configuration of Neutral Beryllium atom is [He] 2s2. The portion of Beryllium configuration that is equivalent to the noble gas of the preceding period, is abbreviated as [He]. For atoms with many electrons, this notation can become lengthy and so an abbreviated notation is used. This is important as it is the Valence electrons 2s2, electrons in the outermost shell that determine the chemical properties of the element.
Unabbreviated electronic configuration of neutral Beryllium
Complete ground state electronic configuration for the Beryllium atom, Unabbreviated electronic configuration
Electrons are filled in atomic orbitals as per the order determined by the Aufbau principle, Pauli Exclusion Principle and Hund’s Rule.
Atomic Structure of Beryllium
Beryllium atomic radius is 112 pm, while it's covalent radius is 90 pm.
|Atomic Radius Calculated|
112 pm (1.12 Å)
|Atomic Radius Empirical|
105 pm (1.05 Å)
|Atomic Volume||4.8767 cm3/mol|
|Covalent Radius||90 pm (0.9 Å)|
|Van der Waals Radius||153 pm|
|Neutron Cross Section||0.0092|
|Neutron Mass Absorption||0.00003|
Atomic Spectrum of Beryllium
Beryllium Chemical Properties: Beryllium Ionization Energies and electron affinity
The electron affinity of Beryllium is 0 kJ/mol.
Ionization Energy of Beryllium
Refer to table below for Ionization energies of Beryllium
|Ionization energy number||Enthalpy - kJ/mol|
Beryllium Physical Properties
Refer to below table for Beryllium Physical Properties
|Density||1.848 g/cm3(when liquid at m.p density is $1.69 g/cm3)|
|Molar Volume||4.8767 cm3/mol|
|Shear Modulus||132 GPa|
|Bulk Modulus||130 GPa|
Hardness of Beryllium - Tests to Measure of Hardness of Element
|Mohs Hardness||5.5 MPa|
|Vickers Hardness||1670 MPa|
|Brinell Hardness||600 MPa|
Beryllium Electrical Properties
Beryllium is Conductor of electricity. Refer to table below for the Electrical properties ofBeryllium
|Electrical Conductivity||25000000 S/m|
|Resistivity||4e-8 m Ω|
Beryllium Heat and Conduction Properties
|Thermal Conductivity||190 W/(m K)|
|Thermal Expansion||0.0000113 /K|
Beryllium Magnetic Properties
|Mass Magnetic Susceptibility||-1.26e-8 m3/kg|
|Molar Magnetic Susceptibility||-1.136e-10 m3/mol|
|Volume Magnetic Susceptibility||-0.00002328|
Optical Properties of Beryllium
Acoustic Properties of Beryllium
|Speed of Sound||13000 m/s|
Beryllium Thermal Properties - Enthalpies and thermodynamics
Refer to table below for Thermal properties of Beryllium
|Melting Point||1560 K (1286.85°C, 2348.33 °F)|
|Boiling Point||2743 K (2469.85°C, 4477.73 °F)|
Enthalpies of Beryllium
|Heat of Fusion||7.95 kJ/mol|
|Heat of Vaporization||297 kJ/mol|
|Heat of Combustion||-|
Beryllium Isotopes - Nuclear Properties of Beryllium
Beryllium has 12 isotopes, with between 5 and 16 nucleons. Beryllium has 1 stable naturally occuring isotopes.
Isotopes of Beryllium - Naturally occurring stable Isotopes: 9Be.
|Isotope||Z||N||Isotope Mass||% Abundance||T half||Decay Mode|