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P Phosphorus
Element Information, Facts, Properties, Trends, Uses, Comparison with other elements

15
P
Phosphorus
Element 15 of Periodic table is Phosphorus with atomic number 15, atomic weight 30.973761. Phosphorus, symbol P, has a Simple Triclinic structure and Colorless color. Phosphorus is a Other Nonmetal element. It is part of group 15 (nitrogen family). Know everything about Phosphorus Facts, Physical Properties, Chemical Properties, Electronic configuration, Atomic and Crystal Structure.
15 P - Phosphorus | SchoolMyKids

Phosphorus is a chemical element with symbol P and atomic number 15. As an element, phosphorus exists in two major forms—white phosphorus and red phosphorus—but due to its high reactivity, phosphorus is never found as a free element on Earth. Instead phosphorus-containing minerals are almost always present in their maximally oxidised state, as inorganic phosphate rocks.

It belongs to group 15 of the periodic table having trivial name pentels, pnictogens*. It got its trivial name from pentels from Greek penta (five, V).

Phosphorus Facts

Read key information and facts about element Phosphorus

NamePhosphorus
Atomic Number15
Atomic SymbolP
Atomic Weight30.973761
PhaseSolid
ColorColorless
Appearancecolourless, waxy white, yellow, scarlet, red, violet, black
ClassificationOther Nonmetal
Group in Periodic Table15
Group Namenitrogen family
Period in Periodic Tableperiod 3
Block in Periodic Tablep -block
Electronic Configuration[Ne] 3s2 3p3
Electronic Shell Structure (Electrons per shell)2, 8, 5
Melting Point317.3 K
Boiling Point553.6 K
CAS NumberCAS7723-14-0
Neighborhood Elements
123456789101112131415161718
1
1
H
Hydrogen
1.008

Atomic #

Electronic Shell #

Symbol
Name
Atomic Weight
HGas
HgLiquid
CSolid
Metals
Metalloids
NonMetals
Alkali metals
Alkali earth metals
Lanthanoids
Transition metals
Post-transition metals
Other nonmetals
Halogens
Nobel gas
Actinoids
2
He
Helium
4.003
2
3
Li
Lithium
6.941
4
Be
Beryllium
9.012
5
B
Boron
10.811
6
C
Carbon
12.011
7
N
Nitrogen
14.007
8
O
Oxygen
15.999
9
F
Fluorine
18.998
10
Ne
Neon
20.180
3
11
Na
Sodium
22.990
12
Mg
Magnesium
24.305
13
Al
Aluminium
26.982
14
Si
Silicon
28.085
15
P
Phosphorus
30.974
16
S
Sulfur
32.065
17
Cl
Chlorine
35.453
18
Ar
Argon
39.948
4
19
K
Potassium
39.098
20
Ca
Calcium
40.078
21
Sc
Scandium
44.956
22
Ti
Titanium
47.867
23
V
Vanadium
50.941
24
Cr
Chromium
51.996
25
Mn
Manganese
54.938
26
Fe
Iron
55.845
27
Co
Cobalt
58.933
28
Ni
Nickel
58.693
29
Cu
Copper
63.546
30
Zn
Zinc
65.409
31
Ga
Gallium
69.723
32
Ge
Germanium
72.640
33
As
Arsenic
74.922
34
Se
Selenium
78.960
35
Br
Bromine
79.904
36
Kr
Krypton
83.798
5
37
Rb
Rubidium
85.468
38
Sr
Strontium
87.620
39
Y
Yttrium
88.906
40
Zr
Zirconium
91.224
41
Nb
Niobium
92.906
42
Mo
Molybdenum
95.940
43
Tc
Technetium
98
44
Ru
Ruthenium
101.070
45
Rh
Rhodium
102.906
46
Pd
Palladium
106.420
47
Ag
Silver
107.868
48
Cd
Cadmium
112.411
49
In
Indium
114.818
50
Sn
Tin
118.710
51
Sb
Antimony
121.760
52
Te
Tellurium
127.600
53
I
Iodine
126.904
54
Xe
Xenon
131.293
6
55
Cs
Cesium
132.905
56
Ba
Barium
137.327
57 - 71
La - Lu
Lanthanides
72
Hf
Hafnium
178.490
73
Ta
Tantalum
180.948
74
W
Tungsten
183.840
75
Re
Rhenium
186.207
76
Os
Osmium
190.230
77
Ir
Iridium
192.217
78
Pt
Platinum
195.078
79
Au
Gold
196.967
80
Hg
Mercury
200.590
81
Tl
Thallium
204.383
82
Pb
Lead
207.200
83
Bi
Bismuth
208.980
84
Po
Polonium
209
85
At
Astatine
210
86
Rn
Radon
222
7
87
Fr
Francium
223
88
Ra
Radium
226
89 - 103
Ac - Lr
Actinides
104
Rf
Rutherfordium
261
105
Db
Dubnium
262
106
Sg
Seaborgium
266
107
Bh
Bohrium
264
108
Hs
Hassium
277
109
Mt
Meitnerium
268
110
Ds
Darmstadtium
281
111
Rg
Roentgenium
272
112
Cn
Copernicium
285
113
Nh
Nihonium
284
114
Fl
Flerovium
289
115
Mc
Moscovium
288
116
Lv
Livermorium
292
117
Ts
Tennessine
294
118
Og
Oganesson
294
Lanthanides
57
La
Lanthanum
138.905
58
Ce
Cerium
140.116
59
Pr
Praseodymium
140.908
60
Nd
Neodymium
144.240
61
Pm
Promethium
145
62
Sm
Samarium
150.360
63
Eu
Europium
151.964
64
Gd
Gadolinium
157.250
65
Tb
Terbium
158.925
66
Dy
Dysprosium
162.500
67
Ho
Holmium
164.930
68
Er
Erbium
167.259
69
Tm
Thulium
168.934
70
Yb
Ytterbium
173.040
71
Lu
Lutetium
174.967
Actinides
89
Ac
Actinium
227
90
Th
Thorium
232.038
91
Pa
Protactinium
231.036
92
U
Uranium
238.029
93
Np
Neptunium
237
94
Pu
Plutonium
244
95
Am
Americium
243
96
Cm
Curium
247
97
Bk
Berkelium
247
98
Cf
Californium
251
99
Es
Einsteinium
252
100
Fm
Fermium
257
101
Md
Mendelevium
258
102
No
Nobelium
259
103
Lr
Lawrencium
262

How to Locate Phosphorus on Periodic Table

Periodic table is arranged by atomic number, number of protons in the nucleus which is same as number of electrons. The atomic number increases from left to right. Periodic table starts at top left ( Atomic number 1) and ends at bottom right (atomic number 118). Therefore you can directly look for atomic number 15 to find Phosphorus on periodic table.

Another way to read periodic table and locate an element is by using group number (column) and period number (row). To locate Phosphorus on periodic table look for cross section of group 15 and period 3 in the modern periodic table.

Phosphorus History

The element Phosphorus was discovered by H. Brand in year 1669 in Germany. Phosphorus was first isolated by H. Brand in 1669. Phosphorus derived its name from the Greek word phoosphoros, 'carrying light'.

Prepared from urine, it was the first element to be chemically discovered.

Phosphorus Presence: Abundance in Nature and Around Us

The table below shows the abundance of Phosphorus in Universe, Sun, Meteorites, Earth's Crust, Oceans and Human Body.

 ppb by weight (1ppb =10^-7 %)ppb by atoms (1ppb =10^-7 %)
Abundance in Universe7000300
Abundance in Sun7000300
Abundance in Meteorites1100000700000
Abundance in Earth's Crust1000000700000
Abundance in Oceans7014
Abundance in Humans110000002200000

Crystal Structure of Phosphorus

The solid state structure of Phosphorus is Simple Triclinic.

The Crystal structure can be described in terms of its unit Cell. The unit Cells repeats itself in three dimensional space to form the structure.

Unit Cell Parameters

The unit cell is represented in terms of its lattice parameters, which are the lengths of the cell edges Lattice Constants (a, b and c)

abc
1145 pm550.3 pm1126.1 pm

and the angles between them Lattice Angles (alpha, beta and gamma).

alphabetagamma
1.25384 1.57725 1.24896

The positions of the atoms inside the unit cell are described by the set of atomic positions ( xi, yi, zi) measured from a reference lattice point.

The symmetry properties of the crystal are described by the concept of space groups. All possible symmetric arrangements of particles in three-dimensional space are described by the 230 space groups (219 distinct types, or 230 if chiral copies are considered distinct.

Space Group NameP-1 15 P Phosphorus - Crystal Structure | SchoolMyKids
Oxidation StatesSpace Group Number2
Crystal StructureSimple Triclinic

Phosphorus Atomic and Orbital Properties

Phosphorus atoms have 15 electrons and the electronic shell structure is [2, 8, 5] with Atomic Term Symbol (Quantum Numbers) 4S3/2.

Atomic Number15
Number of Electrons (with no charge)15
Number of Protons15
Mass Number31
Number of Neutrons16
Shell structure (Electrons per energy level)2, 8, 5
Electron Configuration[Ne] 3s2 3p3
Valence Electrons3s2 3p3
Valence (Valency)5
Main Oxidation States-3, 3, 5
Oxidation States-3, -2, -1, 0, 1, 2, 3, 4, 5
Atomic Term Symbol (Quantum Numbers)4S3/2

Bohr Atomic Model of Phosphorus - Electrons per energy level

15 P Phosphorus - Electron Shell Structure | SchoolMyKids
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Ground State Electronic Configuration of Phosphorus - neutral Phosphorus atom

Abbreviated electronic configuration of Phosphorus

The ground state abbreviated electronic configuration of Neutral Phosphorus atom is [Ne] 3s2 3p3. The portion of Phosphorus configuration that is equivalent to the noble gas of the preceding period, is abbreviated as [Ne]. For atoms with many electrons, this notation can become lengthy and so an abbreviated notation is used. This is important as it is the Valence electrons 3s2 3p3, electrons in the outermost shell that determine the chemical properties of the element.

Unabbreviated electronic configuration of neutral Phosphorus

Complete ground state electronic configuration for the Phosphorus atom, Unabbreviated electronic configuration

1s2 2s2 2p6 3s2 3p3

Electrons are filled in atomic orbitals as per the order determined by the Aufbau principle, Pauli Exclusion Principle and Hund’s Rule.

  • As per the Aufbau principle the electrons will occupy the orbitals having lower energies before occupying higher energy orbitals. According to this principle, electrons are filled in the following order: 1s, 2s, 2p, 3s, 3p, 4s, 3d, 4p, 5s, 4d, 5p, 6s, 4f, 5d, 6p, 7s, 5f, 6d, 7p…
  • The Pauli exclusion principle states that a maximum of two electrons, each having opposite spins, can fit in an orbital.
  • Hund's rule states that every orbital in a given subshell is singly occupied by electrons before a second electron is filled in an orbital.
  • Electron configuration of Phosphorus
    Atomic Structure of Phosphorus

    Phosphorus atomic radius is 98 pm, while it's covalent radius is 106 pm.

    Atomic Radius Calculated

    98 pm (0.98 Å)

    Atomic Radius Empirical

    100 pm (1 Å)

    Atomic Volume16.991 cm3/mol
    Covalent Radius106 pm (1.06 Å)
    Van der Waals Radius180 pm
    Neutron Cross Section0.18
    Neutron Mass Absorption 0.0002

    Atomic Spectrum of Phosphorus

    Atomic Spectrum of Phosphorus | SchoolMyKids

    Phosphorus Chemical Properties: Phosphorus Ionization Energies and electron affinity

    The electron affinity of Phosphorus is 72 kJ/mol.

    Valence5
    Electronegativity2.19
    ElectronAffinity72 kJ/mol

    Ionization Energy of Phosphorus

    Refer to table below for Ionization energies of Phosphorus

    Ionization energy numberEnthalpy - kJ/mol
    1st1011.8
    2nd1907
    3rd2914.1
    4th4963.6
    5th6273.9
    6th21267
    7th25431
    8th29872
    9th35905
    10th40950
    11th46261
    12th54110
    13th59024
    14th271791
    15th296195

    Phosphorus Physical Properties

    Refer to below table for Phosphorus Physical Properties

    Density1.823 g/cm3
    Molar Volume16.991 cm3/mol

    Elastic Properties

    Young Modulus-
    Shear Modulus-
    Bulk Modulus 11 GPa
    Poisson Ratio-

    Hardness of Phosphorus - Tests to Measure of Hardness of Element

    Mohs Hardness-
    Vickers Hardness-
    Brinell Hardness-

    Phosphorus Electrical Properties

    Phosphorus is Conductor of electricity. Refer to table below for the Electrical properties ofPhosphorus

    Electrical Conductivity10000000 S/m
    Resistivity1e-7 m Ω
    Superconducting Point-

    Phosphorus Heat and Conduction Properties

    Thermal Conductivity0.236 W/(m K)
    Thermal Expansion-

    Phosphorus Magnetic Properties

    Magnetic TypeDiamagnetic
    Curie Point-
    Mass Magnetic Susceptibility-1.13e-8 m3/kg
    Molar Magnetic Susceptibility-3.5e-10 m3/mol
    Volume Magnetic Susceptibility-0.0000206

    Optical Properties of Phosphorus

    Refractive Index1.001212

    Acoustic Properties of Phosphorus

    Speed of Sound-

    Phosphorus Thermal Properties - Enthalpies and thermodynamics

    Refer to table below for Thermal properties of Phosphorus

    Melting Point317.3 K (44.15°C, 111.47000000000006 °F)
    Boiling Point553.6 K (280.45°C, 536.8100000000001 °F)
    Critical Temperature-
    Superconducting Point-

    Enthalpies of Phosphorus

    Heat of Fusion0.64 kJ/mol
    Heat of Vaporization12.4 kJ/mol
    Heat of Combustion-

    Phosphorus Isotopes - Nuclear Properties of Phosphorus

    Phosphorus has 23 isotopes, with between 24 and 46 nucleons. Phosphorus has 1 stable naturally occuring isotopes.

    Isotopes of Phosphorus - Naturally occurring stable Isotopes: 31P.

    IsotopeZNIsotope Mass% AbundanceT halfDecay Mode
    24P15924Synthetic
    25P151025Synthetic
    26P151126Synthetic
    27P151227Synthetic
    28P151328Synthetic
    29P151429Synthetic
    30P151530Synthetic
    31P151631100%Stable
    32P151732Synthetic
    33P151833Synthetic
    34P151934Synthetic
    35P152035Synthetic
    36P152136Synthetic
    37P152237Synthetic
    38P152338Synthetic
    39P152439Synthetic
    40P152540Synthetic
    41P152641Synthetic
    42P152742Synthetic
    43P152843Synthetic
    44P152944Synthetic
    45P153045Synthetic
    46P153146Synthetic

    Regulatory and Health - Health and Safety Parameters and Guidelines

    DOT Hazard Class{N/A, 4.1, 4.2, N/A}
    DOT Numbers{N/A, 1338, 1381, 2447, N/A}
    EU Number-
    NFPA Fire Rating{N/A, 0, 4, N/A}
    NFPA HazardsN/ A, N/ A, N/ A, N/ A
    NFPA Health Rating{N/A, 0, 4, N/A}
    NFPA Reactivity Rating{N/A, 2, 2, N/A}
    Autoignition Point-
    Flashpoint-

    Database Search

    List of unique identifiers to search the element in various chemical registry databases

    DatabaseIdentifier number
    CAS Number - Chemical Abstracts Service (CAS)CAS7723-14-0
    RTECS Number{N/A, RTECSTH3495000, RTECSTH3500000, N/A}
    CID Number {CID5462309, CID5462309, CID123286, CID5460700}
    Gmelin Number-
    NSC Number-