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Np Neptunium
Element Information, Facts, Properties, Trends, Uses, Comparison with other elements

93
Np
Neptunium
Element 93 of Periodic table is Neptunium with atomic number 93, atomic weight 237. Neptunium, symbol Np, has a Simple Orthorhombic structure and Silver color. Neptunium is a Actinide element. It is part of group null (). Know everything about Neptunium Facts, Physical Properties, Chemical Properties, Electronic configuration, Atomic and Crystal Structure.
93 Np - Neptunium | SchoolMyKids

Neptunium is a chemical element with symbol Np and atomic number 93. A radioactive Actinide metal, neptunium is the first transuranic element. Its position in the periodic table just after uranium, named after the planet Uranus, led to it being named after Neptune, the next planet beyond Uranus.

It belongs to group of the periodic table having trivial name .

Neptunium Facts

Read key information and facts about element Neptunium

NameNeptunium
Atomic Number93
Atomic SymbolNp
Atomic Weight237
PhaseSolid
ColorSilver
Appearancesilvery metallic
ClassificationActinide
Group in Periodic Table-
Group Name
Period in Periodic Tableperiod 7
Block in Periodic Tablef -block
Electronic Configuration[Rn] 5f4 6d1 7s2
Electronic Shell Structure (Electrons per shell)2, 8, 18, 32, 22, 9, 2
Melting Point917 K
Boiling Point4273 K
CAS NumberCAS7439-99-8
Neighborhood Elements
123456789101112131415161718
1
1
H
Hydrogen
1.008

Atomic #

Electronic Shell #

Symbol
Name
Atomic Weight
HGas
HgLiquid
CSolid
Metals
Metalloids
NonMetals
Alkali metals
Alkali earth metals
Lanthanoids
Transition metals
Post-transition metals
Other nonmetals
Halogens
Nobel gas
Actinoids
2
He
Helium
4.003
2
3
Li
Lithium
6.941
4
Be
Beryllium
9.012
5
B
Boron
10.811
6
C
Carbon
12.011
7
N
Nitrogen
14.007
8
O
Oxygen
15.999
9
F
Fluorine
18.998
10
Ne
Neon
20.180
3
11
Na
Sodium
22.990
12
Mg
Magnesium
24.305
13
Al
Aluminium
26.982
14
Si
Silicon
28.085
15
P
Phosphorus
30.974
16
S
Sulfur
32.065
17
Cl
Chlorine
35.453
18
Ar
Argon
39.948
4
19
K
Potassium
39.098
20
Ca
Calcium
40.078
21
Sc
Scandium
44.956
22
Ti
Titanium
47.867
23
V
Vanadium
50.941
24
Cr
Chromium
51.996
25
Mn
Manganese
54.938
26
Fe
Iron
55.845
27
Co
Cobalt
58.933
28
Ni
Nickel
58.693
29
Cu
Copper
63.546
30
Zn
Zinc
65.409
31
Ga
Gallium
69.723
32
Ge
Germanium
72.640
33
As
Arsenic
74.922
34
Se
Selenium
78.960
35
Br
Bromine
79.904
36
Kr
Krypton
83.798
5
37
Rb
Rubidium
85.468
38
Sr
Strontium
87.620
39
Y
Yttrium
88.906
40
Zr
Zirconium
91.224
41
Nb
Niobium
92.906
42
Mo
Molybdenum
95.940
43
Tc
Technetium
98
44
Ru
Ruthenium
101.070
45
Rh
Rhodium
102.906
46
Pd
Palladium
106.420
47
Ag
Silver
107.868
48
Cd
Cadmium
112.411
49
In
Indium
114.818
50
Sn
Tin
118.710
51
Sb
Antimony
121.760
52
Te
Tellurium
127.600
53
I
Iodine
126.904
54
Xe
Xenon
131.293
6
55
Cs
Cesium
132.905
56
Ba
Barium
137.327
57 - 71
La - Lu
Lanthanides
72
Hf
Hafnium
178.490
73
Ta
Tantalum
180.948
74
W
Tungsten
183.840
75
Re
Rhenium
186.207
76
Os
Osmium
190.230
77
Ir
Iridium
192.217
78
Pt
Platinum
195.078
79
Au
Gold
196.967
80
Hg
Mercury
200.590
81
Tl
Thallium
204.383
82
Pb
Lead
207.200
83
Bi
Bismuth
208.980
84
Po
Polonium
209
85
At
Astatine
210
86
Rn
Radon
222
7
87
Fr
Francium
223
88
Ra
Radium
226
89 - 103
Ac - Lr
Actinides
104
Rf
Rutherfordium
261
105
Db
Dubnium
262
106
Sg
Seaborgium
266
107
Bh
Bohrium
264
108
Hs
Hassium
277
109
Mt
Meitnerium
268
110
Ds
Darmstadtium
281
111
Rg
Roentgenium
272
112
Cn
Copernicium
285
113
Nh
Nihonium
284
114
Fl
Flerovium
289
115
Mc
Moscovium
288
116
Lv
Livermorium
292
117
Ts
Tennessine
294
118
Og
Oganesson
294
Lanthanides
57
La
Lanthanum
138.905
58
Ce
Cerium
140.116
59
Pr
Praseodymium
140.908
60
Nd
Neodymium
144.240
61
Pm
Promethium
145
62
Sm
Samarium
150.360
63
Eu
Europium
151.964
64
Gd
Gadolinium
157.250
65
Tb
Terbium
158.925
66
Dy
Dysprosium
162.500
67
Ho
Holmium
164.930
68
Er
Erbium
167.259
69
Tm
Thulium
168.934
70
Yb
Ytterbium
173.040
71
Lu
Lutetium
174.967
Actinides
89
Ac
Actinium
227
90
Th
Thorium
232.038
91
Pa
Protactinium
231.036
92
U
Uranium
238.029
93
Np
Neptunium
237
94
Pu
Plutonium
244
95
Am
Americium
243
96
Cm
Curium
247
97
Bk
Berkelium
247
98
Cf
Californium
251
99
Es
Einsteinium
252
100
Fm
Fermium
257
101
Md
Mendelevium
258
102
No
Nobelium
259
103
Lr
Lawrencium
262

How to Locate Neptunium on Periodic Table

Periodic table is arranged by atomic number, number of protons in the nucleus which is same as number of electrons. The atomic number increases from left to right. Periodic table starts at top left ( Atomic number 1) and ends at bottom right (atomic number 118). Therefore you can directly look for atomic number 93 to find Neptunium on periodic table.

Another way to read periodic table and locate an element is by using group number (column) and period number (row). To locate Neptunium on periodic table look for cross section of group - and period 7 in the modern periodic table.

Neptunium History

The element Neptunium was discovered by E.M. McMillan and H. Abelson in year 1940 in United States. Neptunium was first isolated by in . Neptunium derived its name from Neptune, the eighth planet in the Solar System.

Obtained by irradiating uranium with neutrons, it is the firsttransuranium elementdiscovered.

Neptunium Presence: Abundance in Nature and Around Us

The table below shows the abundance of Neptunium in Universe, Sun, Meteorites, Earth's Crust, Oceans and Human Body.

 ppb by weight (1ppb =10^-7 %)ppb by atoms (1ppb =10^-7 %)
Abundance in Universe--
Abundance in Sun--
Abundance in Meteorites--
Abundance in Earth's Crust--
Abundance in Oceans--
Abundance in Humans--

Crystal Structure of Neptunium

The solid state structure of Neptunium is Simple Orthorhombic.

The Crystal structure can be described in terms of its unit Cell. The unit Cells repeats itself in three dimensional space to form the structure.

Unit Cell Parameters

The unit cell is represented in terms of its lattice parameters, which are the lengths of the cell edges Lattice Constants (a, b and c)

abc
666.3 pm472.3 pm488.7 pm

and the angles between them Lattice Angles (alpha, beta and gamma).

alphabetagamma
π/2 π/2 π/2

The positions of the atoms inside the unit cell are described by the set of atomic positions ( xi, yi, zi) measured from a reference lattice point.

The symmetry properties of the crystal are described by the concept of space groups. All possible symmetric arrangements of particles in three-dimensional space are described by the 230 space groups (219 distinct types, or 230 if chiral copies are considered distinct.

Space Group NamePnma 93 Np Neptunium - Crystal Structure | SchoolMyKids
Oxidation StatesSpace Group Number62
Crystal StructureSimple Orthorhombic

Neptunium Atomic and Orbital Properties

Neptunium atoms have 93 electrons and the electronic shell structure is [2, 8, 18, 32, 22, 9, 2] with Atomic Term Symbol (Quantum Numbers) 6L11/2.

Atomic Number93
Number of Electrons (with no charge)93
Number of Protons93
Mass Number237
Number of Neutrons144
Shell structure (Electrons per energy level)2, 8, 18, 32, 22, 9, 2
Electron Configuration[Rn] 5f4 6d1 7s2
Valence Electrons5f4 6d1 7s2
Valence (Valency)6
Main Oxidation States5
Oxidation States2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7
Atomic Term Symbol (Quantum Numbers)6L11/2

Bohr Atomic Model of Neptunium - Electrons per energy level

93 Np Neptunium - Electron Shell Structure | SchoolMyKids
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Ground State Electronic Configuration of Neptunium - neutral Neptunium atom

Abbreviated electronic configuration of Neptunium

The ground state abbreviated electronic configuration of Neutral Neptunium atom is [Rn] 5f4 6d1 7s2. The portion of Neptunium configuration that is equivalent to the noble gas of the preceding period, is abbreviated as [Rn]. For atoms with many electrons, this notation can become lengthy and so an abbreviated notation is used. This is important as it is the Valence electrons 5f4 6d1 7s2, electrons in the outermost shell that determine the chemical properties of the element.

Unabbreviated electronic configuration of neutral Neptunium

Complete ground state electronic configuration for the Neptunium atom, Unabbreviated electronic configuration

1s2 2s2 2p6 3s2 3p6 3d10 4s2 4p6 4d10 5s2 5p6 4f14 5d10 6s2 6p6 5f4 6d1 7s2

Electrons are filled in atomic orbitals as per the order determined by the Aufbau principle, Pauli Exclusion Principle and Hund’s Rule.

  • As per the Aufbau principle the electrons will occupy the orbitals having lower energies before occupying higher energy orbitals. According to this principle, electrons are filled in the following order: 1s, 2s, 2p, 3s, 3p, 4s, 3d, 4p, 5s, 4d, 5p, 6s, 4f, 5d, 6p, 7s, 5f, 6d, 7p…
  • The Pauli exclusion principle states that a maximum of two electrons, each having opposite spins, can fit in an orbital.
  • Hund's rule states that every orbital in a given subshell is singly occupied by electrons before a second electron is filled in an orbital.
  • Electron configuration of Neptunium
    Atomic Structure of Neptunium

    Neptunium atomic radius is 175 pm, while it's covalent radius is - .

    Atomic Radius Calculated

    175 pm (1.75 Å)

    Atomic Radius Empirical

    175 pm (1.75 Å)

    Atomic Volume11.5892 cm3/mol
    Covalent Radius-
    Van der Waals Radius-
    Neutron Cross Section180
    Neutron Mass Absorption -

    Atomic Spectrum of Neptunium

    Atomic Spectrum of Neptunium | SchoolMyKids

    Neptunium Chemical Properties: Neptunium Ionization Energies and electron affinity

    The electron affinity of Neptunium is - .

    Valence6
    Electronegativity1.36
    ElectronAffinity-

    Ionization Energy of Neptunium

    Refer to table below for Ionization energies of Neptunium

    Ionization energy numberEnthalpy - kJ/mol
    1st604.5

    Neptunium Physical Properties

    Refer to below table for Neptunium Physical Properties

    Density20.45 g/cm3
    Molar Volume11.5892 cm3/mol

    Elastic Properties

    Young Modulus-
    Shear Modulus-
    Bulk Modulus -
    Poisson Ratio-

    Hardness of Neptunium - Tests to Measure of Hardness of Element

    Mohs Hardness-
    Vickers Hardness-
    Brinell Hardness-

    Neptunium Electrical Properties

    Neptunium is Conductor of electricity. Refer to table below for the Electrical properties ofNeptunium

    Electrical Conductivity830000 S/m
    Resistivity0.0000012 m Ω
    Superconducting Point-

    Neptunium Heat and Conduction Properties

    Thermal Conductivity6 W/(m K)
    Thermal Expansion-

    Neptunium Magnetic Properties

    Magnetic Type-
    Curie Point-
    Mass Magnetic Susceptibility-
    Molar Magnetic Susceptibility-
    Volume Magnetic Susceptibility-

    Optical Properties of Neptunium

    Refractive Index-

    Acoustic Properties of Neptunium

    Speed of Sound-

    Neptunium Thermal Properties - Enthalpies and thermodynamics

    Refer to table below for Thermal properties of Neptunium

    Melting Point917 K (643.85°C, 1190.93 °F)
    Boiling Point4273 K (3999.85°C, 7231.7300000000005 °F)
    Critical Temperature-
    Superconducting Point-

    Enthalpies of Neptunium

    Heat of Fusion10 kJ/mol
    Heat of Vaporization335 kJ/mol
    Heat of Combustion-

    Neptunium Isotopes - Nuclear Properties of Neptunium

    Neptunium has 20 isotopes, with between 225 and 244 nucleons. Neptunium has 0 stable naturally occuring isotopes.

    Isotopes of Neptunium - Naturally occurring stable Isotopes: -.

    IsotopeZNIsotope Mass% AbundanceT halfDecay Mode
    225Np93132225Synthetic
    226Np93133226Synthetic
    227Np93134227Synthetic
    228Np93135228Synthetic
    229Np93136229Synthetic
    230Np93137230Synthetic
    231Np93138231Synthetic
    232Np93139232Synthetic
    233Np93140233Synthetic
    234Np93141234Synthetic
    235Np93142235Synthetic
    236Np93143236Synthetic
    237Np93144237Synthetic2.1455×10^6 yearsAlphaEmission
    238Np93145238Synthetic
    239Np93146239Synthetic
    240Np93147240Synthetic
    241Np93148241Synthetic
    242Np93149242Synthetic
    243Np93150243Synthetic
    244Np93151244Synthetic

    Database Search

    List of unique identifiers to search the element in various chemical registry databases

    DatabaseIdentifier number
    CAS Number - Chemical Abstracts Service (CAS)CAS7439-99-8
    RTECS Number-
    CID Number -
    Gmelin Number-
    NSC Number-

    Compare Neptunium with other elements

    Compare Neptunium with all Group elements

    Compare Neptunium with all Period 7 elements

    Compare Neptunium with all Actinide elements