• Explore SchoolMyKids in English

U Uranium
Element Information, Facts, Properties, Trends, Uses, Comparison with other elements

92
U
Uranium
Element 92 of Periodic table is Uranium with atomic number 92, atomic weight 238.02891. Uranium, symbol U, has a Base Centered Orthorhombic structure and Silver color. Uranium is a Actinide element. It is part of group null (). Know everything about Uranium Facts, Physical Properties, Chemical Properties, Electronic configuration, Atomic and Crystal Structure.
92 U - Uranium | SchoolMyKids

Uranium is a chemical element with symbol U and atomic number 92. It is a silvery-white metal in the Actinide series of the periodic table. A uranium atom has 92 protons and 92 electrons, of which 6 are valence electrons.

It belongs to group of the periodic table having trivial name .

Uranium Facts

Read key information and facts about element Uranium

NameUranium
Atomic Number92
Atomic SymbolU
Atomic Weight238.02891
PhaseSolid
ColorSilver
Appearance-
ClassificationActinide
Group in Periodic Table-
Group Name
Period in Periodic Tableperiod 7
Block in Periodic Tablef -block
Electronic Configuration[Rn] 5f3 6d1 7s2
Electronic Shell Structure (Electrons per shell)2, 8, 18, 32, 21, 9, 2
Melting Point1408 K
Boiling Point4200 K
CAS NumberCAS7440-61-1
Neighborhood Elements
123456789101112131415161718
1
1
H
Hydrogen
1.008

Atomic #

Electronic Shell #

Symbol
Name
Atomic Weight
HGas
HgLiquid
CSolid
Metals
Metalloids
NonMetals
Alkali metals
Alkali earth metals
Lanthanoids
Transition metals
Post-transition metals
Other nonmetals
Halogens
Nobel gas
Actinoids
2
He
Helium
4.003
2
3
Li
Lithium
6.941
4
Be
Beryllium
9.012
5
B
Boron
10.811
6
C
Carbon
12.011
7
N
Nitrogen
14.007
8
O
Oxygen
15.999
9
F
Fluorine
18.998
10
Ne
Neon
20.180
3
11
Na
Sodium
22.990
12
Mg
Magnesium
24.305
13
Al
Aluminium
26.982
14
Si
Silicon
28.085
15
P
Phosphorus
30.974
16
S
Sulfur
32.065
17
Cl
Chlorine
35.453
18
Ar
Argon
39.948
4
19
K
Potassium
39.098
20
Ca
Calcium
40.078
21
Sc
Scandium
44.956
22
Ti
Titanium
47.867
23
V
Vanadium
50.941
24
Cr
Chromium
51.996
25
Mn
Manganese
54.938
26
Fe
Iron
55.845
27
Co
Cobalt
58.933
28
Ni
Nickel
58.693
29
Cu
Copper
63.546
30
Zn
Zinc
65.409
31
Ga
Gallium
69.723
32
Ge
Germanium
72.640
33
As
Arsenic
74.922
34
Se
Selenium
78.960
35
Br
Bromine
79.904
36
Kr
Krypton
83.798
5
37
Rb
Rubidium
85.468
38
Sr
Strontium
87.620
39
Y
Yttrium
88.906
40
Zr
Zirconium
91.224
41
Nb
Niobium
92.906
42
Mo
Molybdenum
95.940
43
Tc
Technetium
98
44
Ru
Ruthenium
101.070
45
Rh
Rhodium
102.906
46
Pd
Palladium
106.420
47
Ag
Silver
107.868
48
Cd
Cadmium
112.411
49
In
Indium
114.818
50
Sn
Tin
118.710
51
Sb
Antimony
121.760
52
Te
Tellurium
127.600
53
I
Iodine
126.904
54
Xe
Xenon
131.293
6
55
Cs
Cesium
132.905
56
Ba
Barium
137.327
57 - 71
La - Lu
Lanthanides
72
Hf
Hafnium
178.490
73
Ta
Tantalum
180.948
74
W
Tungsten
183.840
75
Re
Rhenium
186.207
76
Os
Osmium
190.230
77
Ir
Iridium
192.217
78
Pt
Platinum
195.078
79
Au
Gold
196.967
80
Hg
Mercury
200.590
81
Tl
Thallium
204.383
82
Pb
Lead
207.200
83
Bi
Bismuth
208.980
84
Po
Polonium
209
85
At
Astatine
210
86
Rn
Radon
222
7
87
Fr
Francium
223
88
Ra
Radium
226
89 - 103
Ac - Lr
Actinides
104
Rf
Rutherfordium
261
105
Db
Dubnium
262
106
Sg
Seaborgium
266
107
Bh
Bohrium
264
108
Hs
Hassium
277
109
Mt
Meitnerium
268
110
Ds
Darmstadtium
281
111
Rg
Roentgenium
272
112
Cn
Copernicium
285
113
Nh
Nihonium
284
114
Fl
Flerovium
289
115
Mc
Moscovium
288
116
Lv
Livermorium
292
117
Ts
Tennessine
294
118
Og
Oganesson
294
Lanthanides
57
La
Lanthanum
138.905
58
Ce
Cerium
140.116
59
Pr
Praseodymium
140.908
60
Nd
Neodymium
144.240
61
Pm
Promethium
145
62
Sm
Samarium
150.360
63
Eu
Europium
151.964
64
Gd
Gadolinium
157.250
65
Tb
Terbium
158.925
66
Dy
Dysprosium
162.500
67
Ho
Holmium
164.930
68
Er
Erbium
167.259
69
Tm
Thulium
168.934
70
Yb
Ytterbium
173.040
71
Lu
Lutetium
174.967
Actinides
89
Ac
Actinium
227
90
Th
Thorium
232.038
91
Pa
Protactinium
231.036
92
U
Uranium
238.029
93
Np
Neptunium
237
94
Pu
Plutonium
244
95
Am
Americium
243
96
Cm
Curium
247
97
Bk
Berkelium
247
98
Cf
Californium
251
99
Es
Einsteinium
252
100
Fm
Fermium
257
101
Md
Mendelevium
258
102
No
Nobelium
259
103
Lr
Lawrencium
262

How to Locate Uranium on Periodic Table

Periodic table is arranged by atomic number, number of protons in the nucleus which is same as number of electrons. The atomic number increases from left to right. Periodic table starts at top left ( Atomic number 1) and ends at bottom right (atomic number 118). Therefore you can directly look for atomic number 92 to find Uranium on periodic table.

Another way to read periodic table and locate an element is by using group number (column) and period number (row). To locate Uranium on periodic table look for cross section of group - and period 7 in the modern periodic table.

Uranium History

The element Uranium was discovered by H. Klaproth in year 1789 in Germany. Uranium was first isolated by E.-M. Péligot in 1841. Uranium derived its name from Uranus, the seventh planet in the Solar System.

Klaproth mistakenly identified auranium oxideobtained frompitchblendeas the element itself and named it after the recently discovered planetUranus.

Uranium Presence: Abundance in Nature and Around Us

The table below shows the abundance of Uranium in Universe, Sun, Meteorites, Earth's Crust, Oceans and Human Body.

 ppb by weight (1ppb =10^-7 %)ppb by atoms (1ppb =10^-7 %)
Abundance in Universe0.20.001
Abundance in Sun10.004
Abundance in Meteorites101
Abundance in Earth's Crust1800150
Abundance in Oceans3.30.086
Abundance in Humans10.03

Crystal Structure of Uranium

The solid state structure of Uranium is Base Centered Orthorhombic.

The Crystal structure can be described in terms of its unit Cell. The unit Cells repeats itself in three dimensional space to form the structure.

Unit Cell Parameters

The unit cell is represented in terms of its lattice parameters, which are the lengths of the cell edges Lattice Constants (a, b and c)

abc
285.37 pm586.95 pm495.48 pm

and the angles between them Lattice Angles (alpha, beta and gamma).

alphabetagamma
π/2 π/2 π/2

The positions of the atoms inside the unit cell are described by the set of atomic positions ( xi, yi, zi) measured from a reference lattice point.

The symmetry properties of the crystal are described by the concept of space groups. All possible symmetric arrangements of particles in three-dimensional space are described by the 230 space groups (219 distinct types, or 230 if chiral copies are considered distinct.

Space Group NameCmcm 92 U Uranium - Crystal Structure | SchoolMyKids
Oxidation StatesSpace Group Number63
Crystal StructureBase Centered Orthorhombic

Uranium Atomic and Orbital Properties

Uranium atoms have 92 electrons and the electronic shell structure is [2, 8, 18, 32, 21, 9, 2] with Atomic Term Symbol (Quantum Numbers) 5L6.

Atomic Number92
Number of Electrons (with no charge)92
Number of Protons92
Mass Number238
Number of Neutrons146
Shell structure (Electrons per energy level)2, 8, 18, 32, 21, 9, 2
Electron Configuration[Rn] 5f3 6d1 7s2
Valence Electrons5f3 6d1 7s2
Valence (Valency)6
Main Oxidation States4, 6
Oxidation States-1, 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6
Atomic Term Symbol (Quantum Numbers)5L6

Bohr Atomic Model of Uranium - Electrons per energy level

92 U Uranium - Electron Shell Structure | SchoolMyKids
nspdf

Ground State Electronic Configuration of Uranium - neutral Uranium atom

Abbreviated electronic configuration of Uranium

The ground state abbreviated electronic configuration of Neutral Uranium atom is [Rn] 5f3 6d1 7s2. The portion of Uranium configuration that is equivalent to the noble gas of the preceding period, is abbreviated as [Rn]. For atoms with many electrons, this notation can become lengthy and so an abbreviated notation is used. This is important as it is the Valence electrons 5f3 6d1 7s2, electrons in the outermost shell that determine the chemical properties of the element.

Unabbreviated electronic configuration of neutral Uranium

Complete ground state electronic configuration for the Uranium atom, Unabbreviated electronic configuration

1s2 2s2 2p6 3s2 3p6 3d10 4s2 4p6 4d10 5s2 5p6 4f14 5d10 6s2 6p6 5f3 6d1 7s2

Electrons are filled in atomic orbitals as per the order determined by the Aufbau principle, Pauli Exclusion Principle and Hund’s Rule.

  • As per the Aufbau principle the electrons will occupy the orbitals having lower energies before occupying higher energy orbitals. According to this principle, electrons are filled in the following order: 1s, 2s, 2p, 3s, 3p, 4s, 3d, 4p, 5s, 4d, 5p, 6s, 4f, 5d, 6p, 7s, 5f, 6d, 7p…
  • The Pauli exclusion principle states that a maximum of two electrons, each having opposite spins, can fit in an orbital.
  • Hund's rule states that every orbital in a given subshell is singly occupied by electrons before a second electron is filled in an orbital.
  • Electron configuration of Uranium
    Atomic Structure of Uranium

    Uranium atomic radius is 175 pm, while it's covalent radius is - .

    Atomic Radius Calculated

    175 pm (1.75 Å)

    Atomic Radius Empirical

    175 pm (1.75 Å)

    Atomic Volume12.495 cm3/mol
    Covalent Radius-
    Van der Waals Radius186 pm
    Neutron Cross Section7.57
    Neutron Mass Absorption 0.0005

    Atomic Spectrum of Uranium

    Atomic Spectrum of Uranium | SchoolMyKids

    Uranium Chemical Properties: Uranium Ionization Energies and electron affinity

    The electron affinity of Uranium is - .

    Valence6
    Electronegativity1.38
    ElectronAffinity-

    Ionization Energy of Uranium

    Refer to table below for Ionization energies of Uranium

    Ionization energy numberEnthalpy - kJ/mol
    1st597.6
    2nd1420

    Uranium Physical Properties

    Refer to below table for Uranium Physical Properties

    Density19.05 g/cm3(when liquid at m.p density is $17.3 g/cm3)
    Molar Volume12.495 cm3/mol

    Elastic Properties

    Young Modulus208
    Shear Modulus111 GPa
    Bulk Modulus 100 GPa
    Poisson Ratio0.23

    Hardness of Uranium - Tests to Measure of Hardness of Element

    Mohs Hardness6 MPa
    Vickers Hardness1960 MPa
    Brinell Hardness2400 MPa

    Uranium Electrical Properties

    Uranium is Conductor of electricity. Refer to table below for the Electrical properties ofUranium

    Electrical Conductivity3600000 S/m
    Resistivity2.79e-7 m Ω
    Superconducting Point0.68

    Uranium Heat and Conduction Properties

    Thermal Conductivity27 W/(m K)
    Thermal Expansion0.0000139 /K

    Uranium Magnetic Properties

    Magnetic TypeParamagnetic
    Curie Point-
    Mass Magnetic Susceptibility2.16e-8 m3/kg
    Molar Magnetic Susceptibility5.14e-9 m3/mol
    Volume Magnetic Susceptibility0.000411

    Optical Properties of Uranium

    Refractive Index-

    Acoustic Properties of Uranium

    Speed of Sound3155 m/s

    Uranium Thermal Properties - Enthalpies and thermodynamics

    Refer to table below for Thermal properties of Uranium

    Melting Point1408 K (1134.85°C, 2074.73 °F)
    Boiling Point4200 K (3926.85°C, 7100.33 °F)
    Critical Temperature-
    Superconducting Point0.68

    Enthalpies of Uranium

    Heat of Fusion14 kJ/mol
    Heat of Vaporization420 kJ/mol
    Heat of Combustion-

    Uranium Isotopes - Nuclear Properties of Uranium

    Uranium has 26 isotopes, with between 217 and 242 nucleons. Uranium has 0 stable naturally occuring isotopes.

    Isotopes of Uranium - Naturally occurring stable Isotopes: -.

    IsotopeZNIsotope Mass% AbundanceT halfDecay Mode
    217U92125217Synthetic
    218U92126218Synthetic
    219U92127219Synthetic
    220U92128220Synthetic
    221U92129221Synthetic
    222U92130222Synthetic
    223U92131223Synthetic
    224U92132224Synthetic
    225U92133225Synthetic
    226U92134226Synthetic
    227U92135227Synthetic
    228U92136228Synthetic
    229U92137229Synthetic
    230U92138230Synthetic
    231U92139231Synthetic
    232U92140232Synthetic
    233U92141233Synthetic
    234U921422340.0055%StableN/A
    235U921432350.72%StableN/A
    236U92144236Synthetic
    237U92145237Synthetic
    238U9214623899.2745%4.471×10^9 yearsAlphaEmission
    239U92147239Synthetic
    240U92148240Synthetic
    241U92149241Synthetic
    242U92150242Synthetic

    Regulatory and Health - Health and Safety Parameters and Guidelines

    Database Search

    List of unique identifiers to search the element in various chemical registry databases

    DatabaseIdentifier number
    CAS Number - Chemical Abstracts Service (CAS)CAS7440-61-1
    RTECS NumberRTECSYR3490000
    CID Number CID23989
    Gmelin NumberGmelin16315
    NSC Number-

    Compare Uranium with other elements

    Compare Uranium with all Group elements

    Compare Uranium with all Period 7 elements

    Compare Uranium with all Actinide elements