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Zn Zinc
Element Information, Facts, Properties, Trends, Uses, Comparison with other elements

30
Zn
Zinc
Element 30 of Periodic table is Zinc with atomic number 30, atomic weight 65.409. Zinc, symbol Zn, has a Simple Hexagonal structure and SlateGray color. Zinc is a Transition Metal element. It is part of group 12 (zinc family). Know everything about Zinc Facts, Physical Properties, Chemical Properties, Electronic configuration, Atomic and Crystal Structure.
30 Zn - Zinc | SchoolMyKids

Zinc, in commerce also spelter, is a chemical element with symbol Zn and atomic number 30. It is the first element of group 12 of the periodic table. In some respects zinc is chemically similar to magnesium:its ion is of similar size and its only common oxidation state is +2.

It belongs to group 12 of the periodic table having trivial name volatile metals.

Zinc Facts

Read key information and facts about element Zinc

NameZinc
Atomic Number30
Atomic SymbolZn
Atomic Weight65.409
PhaseSolid
ColorSlateGray
Appearancesilver-gray
ClassificationTransition Metal
Group in Periodic Table12
Group Namezinc family
Period in Periodic Tableperiod 4
Block in Periodic Tabled -block
Electronic Configuration[Ar] 3d10 4s2
Electronic Shell Structure (Electrons per shell)2, 8, 18, 2
Melting Point692.68 K
Boiling Point1180 K
CAS NumberCAS7440-66-6
Neighborhood Elements
123456789101112131415161718
1
1
H
Hydrogen
1.008

Atomic #

Electronic Shell #

Symbol
Name
Atomic Weight
HGas
HgLiquid
CSolid
Metals
Metalloids
NonMetals
Alkali metals
Alkali earth metals
Lanthanoids
Transition metals
Post-transition metals
Other nonmetals
Halogens
Nobel gas
Actinoids
2
He
Helium
4.003
2
3
Li
Lithium
6.941
4
Be
Beryllium
9.012
5
B
Boron
10.811
6
C
Carbon
12.011
7
N
Nitrogen
14.007
8
O
Oxygen
15.999
9
F
Fluorine
18.998
10
Ne
Neon
20.180
3
11
Na
Sodium
22.990
12
Mg
Magnesium
24.305
13
Al
Aluminium
26.982
14
Si
Silicon
28.085
15
P
Phosphorus
30.974
16
S
Sulfur
32.065
17
Cl
Chlorine
35.453
18
Ar
Argon
39.948
4
19
K
Potassium
39.098
20
Ca
Calcium
40.078
21
Sc
Scandium
44.956
22
Ti
Titanium
47.867
23
V
Vanadium
50.941
24
Cr
Chromium
51.996
25
Mn
Manganese
54.938
26
Fe
Iron
55.845
27
Co
Cobalt
58.933
28
Ni
Nickel
58.693
29
Cu
Copper
63.546
30
Zn
Zinc
65.409
31
Ga
Gallium
69.723
32
Ge
Germanium
72.640
33
As
Arsenic
74.922
34
Se
Selenium
78.960
35
Br
Bromine
79.904
36
Kr
Krypton
83.798
5
37
Rb
Rubidium
85.468
38
Sr
Strontium
87.620
39
Y
Yttrium
88.906
40
Zr
Zirconium
91.224
41
Nb
Niobium
92.906
42
Mo
Molybdenum
95.940
43
Tc
Technetium
98
44
Ru
Ruthenium
101.070
45
Rh
Rhodium
102.906
46
Pd
Palladium
106.420
47
Ag
Silver
107.868
48
Cd
Cadmium
112.411
49
In
Indium
114.818
50
Sn
Tin
118.710
51
Sb
Antimony
121.760
52
Te
Tellurium
127.600
53
I
Iodine
126.904
54
Xe
Xenon
131.293
6
55
Cs
Cesium
132.905
56
Ba
Barium
137.327
57 - 71
La - Lu
Lanthanides
72
Hf
Hafnium
178.490
73
Ta
Tantalum
180.948
74
W
Tungsten
183.840
75
Re
Rhenium
186.207
76
Os
Osmium
190.230
77
Ir
Iridium
192.217
78
Pt
Platinum
195.078
79
Au
Gold
196.967
80
Hg
Mercury
200.590
81
Tl
Thallium
204.383
82
Pb
Lead
207.200
83
Bi
Bismuth
208.980
84
Po
Polonium
209
85
At
Astatine
210
86
Rn
Radon
222
7
87
Fr
Francium
223
88
Ra
Radium
226
89 - 103
Ac - Lr
Actinides
104
Rf
Rutherfordium
261
105
Db
Dubnium
262
106
Sg
Seaborgium
266
107
Bh
Bohrium
264
108
Hs
Hassium
277
109
Mt
Meitnerium
268
110
Ds
Darmstadtium
281
111
Rg
Roentgenium
272
112
Cn
Copernicium
285
113
Nh
Nihonium
284
114
Fl
Flerovium
289
115
Mc
Moscovium
288
116
Lv
Livermorium
292
117
Ts
Tennessine
294
118
Og
Oganesson
294
Lanthanides
57
La
Lanthanum
138.905
58
Ce
Cerium
140.116
59
Pr
Praseodymium
140.908
60
Nd
Neodymium
144.240
61
Pm
Promethium
145
62
Sm
Samarium
150.360
63
Eu
Europium
151.964
64
Gd
Gadolinium
157.250
65
Tb
Terbium
158.925
66
Dy
Dysprosium
162.500
67
Ho
Holmium
164.930
68
Er
Erbium
167.259
69
Tm
Thulium
168.934
70
Yb
Ytterbium
173.040
71
Lu
Lutetium
174.967
Actinides
89
Ac
Actinium
227
90
Th
Thorium
232.038
91
Pa
Protactinium
231.036
92
U
Uranium
238.029
93
Np
Neptunium
237
94
Pu
Plutonium
244
95
Am
Americium
243
96
Cm
Curium
247
97
Bk
Berkelium
247
98
Cf
Californium
251
99
Es
Einsteinium
252
100
Fm
Fermium
257
101
Md
Mendelevium
258
102
No
Nobelium
259
103
Lr
Lawrencium
262

How to Locate Zinc on Periodic Table

Periodic table is arranged by atomic number, number of protons in the nucleus which is same as number of electrons. The atomic number increases from left to right. Periodic table starts at top left ( Atomic number 1) and ends at bottom right (atomic number 118). Therefore you can directly look for atomic number 30 to find Zinc on periodic table.

Another way to read periodic table and locate an element is by using group number (column) and period number (row). To locate Zinc on periodic table look for cross section of group 12 and period 4 in the modern periodic table.

Zinc History

The element Zinc was discovered by Indian metallurgists in year Before 1000 BCE in Germany. Zinc was first isolated by Indian subcontinent in 1000 BCE. Zinc derived its name from the German word Zink.

Extracted as a metal since antiquity (before 1000 BCE) by Indian metallurgists, but the true nature of this metal was not understood in ancient times. Identified as a distinct metal by the metallurgist Rasaratna Samuccaya in 800 and by the alchemist Paracelsus in 1526. Isolated by Andreas Sigismund Marggraf in 1746.

Zinc Presence: Abundance in Nature and Around Us

The table below shows the abundance of Zinc in Universe, Sun, Meteorites, Earth's Crust, Oceans and Human Body.

 ppb by weight (1ppb =10^-7 %)ppb by atoms (1ppb =10^-7 %)
Abundance in Universe3006
Abundance in Sun200030
Abundance in Meteorites18000044000
Abundance in Earth's Crust7900025000
Abundance in Oceans50.47
Abundance in Humans330003200

Crystal Structure of Zinc

The solid state structure of Zinc is Simple Hexagonal.

The Crystal structure can be described in terms of its unit Cell. The unit Cells repeats itself in three dimensional space to form the structure.

Unit Cell Parameters

The unit cell is represented in terms of its lattice parameters, which are the lengths of the cell edges Lattice Constants (a, b and c)

abc
266.49 pm266.49 pm494.68 pm

and the angles between them Lattice Angles (alpha, beta and gamma).

alphabetagamma
π/2 π/2 2 π/3

The positions of the atoms inside the unit cell are described by the set of atomic positions ( xi, yi, zi) measured from a reference lattice point.

The symmetry properties of the crystal are described by the concept of space groups. All possible symmetric arrangements of particles in three-dimensional space are described by the 230 space groups (219 distinct types, or 230 if chiral copies are considered distinct.

Space Group NameP63/mmc 30 Zn Zinc - Crystal Structure | SchoolMyKids
Oxidation StatesSpace Group Number194
Crystal StructureSimple Hexagonal

Zinc Atomic and Orbital Properties

Zinc atoms have 30 electrons and the electronic shell structure is [2, 8, 18, 2] with Atomic Term Symbol (Quantum Numbers) 1S0.

Atomic Number30
Number of Electrons (with no charge)30
Number of Protons30
Mass Number65
Number of Neutrons35
Shell structure (Electrons per energy level)2, 8, 18, 2
Electron Configuration[Ar] 3d10 4s2
Valence Electrons3d10 4s2
Valence (Valency)2
Main Oxidation States2
Oxidation States-2, 0, 1, 2
Atomic Term Symbol (Quantum Numbers)1S0

Bohr Atomic Model of Zinc - Electrons per energy level

30 Zn Zinc - Electron Shell Structure | SchoolMyKids
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Ground State Electronic Configuration of Zinc - neutral Zinc atom

Abbreviated electronic configuration of Zinc

The ground state abbreviated electronic configuration of Neutral Zinc atom is [Ar] 3d10 4s2. The portion of Zinc configuration that is equivalent to the noble gas of the preceding period, is abbreviated as [Ar]. For atoms with many electrons, this notation can become lengthy and so an abbreviated notation is used. This is important as it is the Valence electrons 3d10 4s2, electrons in the outermost shell that determine the chemical properties of the element.

Unabbreviated electronic configuration of neutral Zinc

Complete ground state electronic configuration for the Zinc atom, Unabbreviated electronic configuration

1s2 2s2 2p6 3s2 3p6 3d10 4s2

Electrons are filled in atomic orbitals as per the order determined by the Aufbau principle, Pauli Exclusion Principle and Hund’s Rule.

  • As per the Aufbau principle the electrons will occupy the orbitals having lower energies before occupying higher energy orbitals. According to this principle, electrons are filled in the following order: 1s, 2s, 2p, 3s, 3p, 4s, 3d, 4p, 5s, 4d, 5p, 6s, 4f, 5d, 6p, 7s, 5f, 6d, 7p…
  • The Pauli exclusion principle states that a maximum of two electrons, each having opposite spins, can fit in an orbital.
  • Hund's rule states that every orbital in a given subshell is singly occupied by electrons before a second electron is filled in an orbital.
  • Electron configuration of Zinc
    Atomic Structure of Zinc

    Zinc atomic radius is 142 pm, while it's covalent radius is 131 pm.

    Atomic Radius Calculated

    142 pm (1.42 Å)

    Atomic Radius Empirical

    135 pm (1.35 Å)

    Atomic Volume9.161 cm3/mol
    Covalent Radius131 pm (1.31 Å)
    Van der Waals Radius139 pm
    Neutron Cross Section1.1
    Neutron Mass Absorption 0.00055

    Atomic Spectrum of Zinc

    Atomic Spectrum of Zinc | SchoolMyKids

    Zinc Chemical Properties: Zinc Ionization Energies and electron affinity

    The electron affinity of Zinc is 0 kJ/mol.

    Valence2
    Electronegativity1.65
    ElectronAffinity0 kJ/mol

    Ionization Energy of Zinc

    Refer to table below for Ionization energies of Zinc

    Ionization energy numberEnthalpy - kJ/mol
    1st906.4
    2nd1733.3
    3rd3833
    4th5731
    5th7970
    6th10400
    7th12900
    8th16800
    9th19600
    10th23000
    11th26400
    12th29990
    13th40490
    14th43800
    15th47300
    16th52300
    17th55900
    18th59700
    19th67300
    20th71200
    21st179100

    Zinc Physical Properties

    Refer to below table for Zinc Physical Properties

    Density7.14 g/cm3(when liquid at m.p density is $6.57 g/cm3)
    Molar Volume9.161 cm3/mol

    Elastic Properties

    Young Modulus108
    Shear Modulus43 GPa
    Bulk Modulus 70 GPa
    Poisson Ratio0.25

    Hardness of Zinc - Tests to Measure of Hardness of Element

    Mohs Hardness2.5 MPa
    Vickers Hardness-
    Brinell Hardness412 MPa

    Zinc Electrical Properties

    Zinc is Conductor of electricity. Refer to table below for the Electrical properties ofZinc

    Electrical Conductivity17000000 S/m
    Resistivity5.9e-8 m Ω
    Superconducting Point0.85

    Zinc Heat and Conduction Properties

    Thermal Conductivity120 W/(m K)
    Thermal Expansion0.0000302 /K

    Zinc Magnetic Properties

    Magnetic TypeDiamagnetic
    Curie Point-
    Mass Magnetic Susceptibility-2.21e-9 m3/kg
    Molar Magnetic Susceptibility-1.45e-10 m3/mol
    Volume Magnetic Susceptibility-0.0000158

    Optical Properties of Zinc

    Refractive Index1.00205

    Acoustic Properties of Zinc

    Speed of Sound3700 m/s

    Zinc Thermal Properties - Enthalpies and thermodynamics

    Refer to table below for Thermal properties of Zinc

    Melting Point692.68 K (419.53°C, 787.1539999999999 °F)
    Boiling Point1180 K (906.85°C, 1664.3300000000002 °F)
    Critical Temperature-
    Superconducting Point0.85

    Enthalpies of Zinc

    Heat of Fusion7.35 kJ/mol
    Heat of Vaporization119 kJ/mol
    Heat of Combustion-

    Zinc Isotopes - Nuclear Properties of Zinc

    Zinc has 30 isotopes, with between 54 and 83 nucleons. Zinc has 5 stable naturally occuring isotopes.

    Isotopes of Zinc - Naturally occurring stable Isotopes: 64Zn, 66Zn, 67Zn, 68Zn, 70Zn.

    IsotopeZNIsotope Mass% AbundanceT halfDecay Mode
    54Zn302454Synthetic
    55Zn302555Synthetic
    56Zn302656Synthetic
    57Zn302757Synthetic
    58Zn302858Synthetic
    59Zn302959Synthetic
    60Zn303060Synthetic
    61Zn303161Synthetic
    62Zn303262Synthetic
    63Zn303363Synthetic
    64Zn30346448.63%StableN/A
    65Zn303565SyntheticStable
    66Zn30366627.9%StableN/A
    67Zn3037674.1%StableN/A
    68Zn30386818.75%StableN/A
    69Zn303969Synthetic
    70Zn3040700.62%StableN/A
    71Zn304171Synthetic
    72Zn304272Synthetic
    73Zn304373Synthetic
    74Zn304474Synthetic
    75Zn304575Synthetic
    76Zn304676Synthetic
    77Zn304777Synthetic
    78Zn304878Synthetic
    79Zn304979Synthetic
    80Zn305080Synthetic
    81Zn305181Synthetic
    82Zn305282Synthetic
    83Zn305383Synthetic

    Regulatory and Health - Health and Safety Parameters and Guidelines

    Database Search

    List of unique identifiers to search the element in various chemical registry databases

    DatabaseIdentifier number
    CAS Number - Chemical Abstracts Service (CAS)CAS7440-66-6
    RTECS NumberRTECSZG8600000
    CID Number CID23994
    Gmelin Number-
    NSC Number-