Element Information, Facts, Properties, Trends, Uses, Comparison with other elements
Zinc, in commerce also spelter, is a chemical element with symbol Zn and atomic number 30. It is the first element of group 12 of the periodic table. In some respects zinc is chemically similar to magnesium:its ion is of similar size and its only common oxidation state is +2.
It belongs to group 12 of the periodic table having trivial name volatile metals.
Read key information and facts about element Zinc
|Group in Periodic Table||12|
|Group Name||zinc family|
|Period in Periodic Table||period 4|
|Block in Periodic Table||d -block|
|Electronic Configuration||[Ar] 3d10 4s2|
|Electronic Shell Structure (Electrons per shell)||2, 8, 18, 2|
|Melting Point||692.68 K|
|Boiling Point||1180 K|
How to Locate Zinc on Periodic Table
Periodic table is arranged by atomic number, number of protons in the nucleus which is same as number of electrons. The atomic number increases from left to right. Periodic table starts at top left ( Atomic number 1) and ends at bottom right (atomic number 118). Therefore you can directly look for atomic number 30 to find Zinc on periodic table.
Another way to read periodic table and locate an element is by using group number (column) and period number (row). To locate Zinc on periodic table look for cross section of group 12 and period 4 in the modern periodic table.
The element Zinc was discovered by Indian metallurgists in year Before 1000 BCE in Germany. Zinc was first isolated by Indian subcontinent in 1000 BCE. Zinc derived its name from the German word Zink.
Extracted as a metal since antiquity (before 1000 BCE) by Indian metallurgists, but the true nature of this metal was not understood in ancient times. Identified as a distinct metal by the metallurgist Rasaratna Samuccaya in 800 and by the alchemist Paracelsus in 1526. Isolated by Andreas Sigismund Marggraf in 1746.
Zinc Presence: Abundance in Nature and Around Us
The table below shows the abundance of Zinc in Universe, Sun, Meteorites, Earth's Crust, Oceans and Human Body.
|ppb by weight (1ppb =10^-7 %)||ppb by atoms (1ppb =10^-7 %)|
|Abundance in Universe||300||6|
|Abundance in Sun||2000||30|
|Abundance in Meteorites||180000||44000|
|Abundance in Earth's Crust||79000||25000|
|Abundance in Oceans||5||0.47|
|Abundance in Humans||33000||3200|
Crystal Structure of Zinc
The solid state structure of Zinc is Simple Hexagonal.
The Crystal structure can be described in terms of its unit Cell. The unit Cells repeats itself in three dimensional space to form the structure.
Unit Cell Parameters
The unit cell is represented in terms of its lattice parameters, which are the lengths of the cell edges Lattice Constants (a, b and c)
|266.49 pm||266.49 pm||494.68 pm|
and the angles between them Lattice Angles (alpha, beta and gamma).
The positions of the atoms inside the unit cell are described by the set of atomic positions ( xi, yi, zi) measured from a reference lattice point.
The symmetry properties of the crystal are described by the concept of space groups. All possible symmetric arrangements of particles in three-dimensional space are described by the 230 space groups (219 distinct types, or 230 if chiral copies are considered distinct.
|Space Group Name||P63/mmc|
|Oxidation States||Space Group Number||194|
|Crystal Structure||Simple Hexagonal|
Zinc Atomic and Orbital Properties
Zinc atoms have 30 electrons and the electronic shell structure is [2, 8, 18, 2] with Atomic Term Symbol (Quantum Numbers) 1S0.
|Number of Electrons (with no charge)||30|
|Number of Protons||30|
|Number of Neutrons||35|
|Shell structure (Electrons per energy level)||2, 8, 18, 2|
|Electron Configuration||[Ar] 3d10 4s2|
|Valence Electrons||3d10 4s2|
|Main Oxidation States||2|
|Oxidation States||-2, 0, 1, 2|
|Atomic Term Symbol (Quantum Numbers)||1S0|
Bohr Atomic Model of Zinc - Electrons per energy level
Ground State Electronic Configuration of Zinc - neutral Zinc atom
Abbreviated electronic configuration of Zinc
The ground state abbreviated electronic configuration of Neutral Zinc atom is [Ar] 3d10 4s2. The portion of Zinc configuration that is equivalent to the noble gas of the preceding period, is abbreviated as [Ar]. For atoms with many electrons, this notation can become lengthy and so an abbreviated notation is used. This is important as it is the Valence electrons 3d10 4s2, electrons in the outermost shell that determine the chemical properties of the element.
Unabbreviated electronic configuration of neutral Zinc
Complete ground state electronic configuration for the Zinc atom, Unabbreviated electronic configuration
1s2 2s2 2p6 3s2 3p6 3d10 4s2
Electrons are filled in atomic orbitals as per the order determined by the Aufbau principle, Pauli Exclusion Principle and Hund’s Rule.
Atomic Structure of Zinc
Zinc atomic radius is 142 pm, while it's covalent radius is 131 pm.
|Atomic Radius Calculated|
142 pm (1.42 Å)
|Atomic Radius Empirical|
135 pm (1.35 Å)
|Atomic Volume||9.161 cm3/mol|
|Covalent Radius||131 pm (1.31 Å)|
|Van der Waals Radius||139 pm|
|Neutron Cross Section||1.1|
|Neutron Mass Absorption||0.00055|
Atomic Spectrum of Zinc
Zinc Chemical Properties: Zinc Ionization Energies and electron affinity
The electron affinity of Zinc is 0 kJ/mol.
Ionization Energy of Zinc
Refer to table below for Ionization energies of Zinc
|Ionization energy number||Enthalpy - kJ/mol|
Zinc Physical Properties
Refer to below table for Zinc Physical Properties
|Density||7.14 g/cm3(when liquid at m.p density is $6.57 g/cm3)|
|Molar Volume||9.161 cm3/mol|
|Shear Modulus||43 GPa|
|Bulk Modulus||70 GPa|
Hardness of Zinc - Tests to Measure of Hardness of Element
|Mohs Hardness||2.5 MPa|
|Brinell Hardness||412 MPa|
Zinc Electrical Properties
Zinc is Conductor of electricity. Refer to table below for the Electrical properties ofZinc
|Electrical Conductivity||17000000 S/m|
|Resistivity||5.9e-8 m Ω|
Zinc Heat and Conduction Properties
|Thermal Conductivity||120 W/(m K)|
|Thermal Expansion||0.0000302 /K|
Zinc Magnetic Properties
|Mass Magnetic Susceptibility||-2.21e-9 m3/kg|
|Molar Magnetic Susceptibility||-1.45e-10 m3/mol|
|Volume Magnetic Susceptibility||-0.0000158|
Optical Properties of Zinc
Acoustic Properties of Zinc
|Speed of Sound||3700 m/s|
Zinc Thermal Properties - Enthalpies and thermodynamics
Refer to table below for Thermal properties of Zinc
|Melting Point||692.68 K (419.53°C, 787.1539999999999 °F)|
|Boiling Point||1180 K (906.85°C, 1664.3300000000002 °F)|
Enthalpies of Zinc
|Heat of Fusion||7.35 kJ/mol|
|Heat of Vaporization||119 kJ/mol|
|Heat of Combustion||-|
Zinc Isotopes - Nuclear Properties of Zinc
Zinc has 30 isotopes, with between 54 and 83 nucleons. Zinc has 5 stable naturally occuring isotopes.
Isotopes of Zinc - Naturally occurring stable Isotopes: 64Zn, 66Zn, 67Zn, 68Zn, 70Zn.
|Isotope||Z||N||Isotope Mass||% Abundance||T half||Decay Mode|