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Mn Manganese
Element Information, Facts, Properties, Trends, Uses, Comparison with other elements

25
Mn
Manganese
Element 25 of Periodic table is Manganese with atomic number 25, atomic weight 54.938049. Manganese, symbol Mn, has a Body Centered Cubic structure and Silver color. Manganese is a Transition Metal element. It is part of group 7 (manganese family). Know everything about Manganese Facts, Physical Properties, Chemical Properties, Electronic configuration, Atomic and Crystal Structure.
25 Mn - Manganese | SchoolMyKids

Manganese is a chemical element with symbol Mn and atomic number 25. It is not found as a free element in nature; it is often found in combination with iron, and in many minerals. Manganese is a metal with important industrial metal alloy uses, particularly in stainless steels.

It belongs to group 7 of the periodic table having trivial name .

Manganese Facts

Read key information and facts about element Manganese

NameManganese
Atomic Number25
Atomic SymbolMn
Atomic Weight54.938049
PhaseSolid
ColorSilver
Appearancesilvery metallic
ClassificationTransition Metal
Group in Periodic Table7
Group Namemanganese family
Period in Periodic Tableperiod 4
Block in Periodic Tabled -block
Electronic Configuration[Ar] 3d5 4s2
Electronic Shell Structure (Electrons per shell)2, 8, 13, 2
Melting Point1519 K
Boiling Point2334 K
CAS NumberCAS7439-96-5
Neighborhood Elements
123456789101112131415161718
1
1
H
Hydrogen
1.008

Atomic #

Electronic Shell #

Symbol
Name
Atomic Weight
HGas
HgLiquid
CSolid
Metals
Metalloids
NonMetals
Alkali metals
Alkali earth metals
Lanthanoids
Transition metals
Post-transition metals
Other nonmetals
Halogens
Nobel gas
Actinoids
2
He
Helium
4.003
2
3
Li
Lithium
6.941
4
Be
Beryllium
9.012
5
B
Boron
10.811
6
C
Carbon
12.011
7
N
Nitrogen
14.007
8
O
Oxygen
15.999
9
F
Fluorine
18.998
10
Ne
Neon
20.180
3
11
Na
Sodium
22.990
12
Mg
Magnesium
24.305
13
Al
Aluminium
26.982
14
Si
Silicon
28.085
15
P
Phosphorus
30.974
16
S
Sulfur
32.065
17
Cl
Chlorine
35.453
18
Ar
Argon
39.948
4
19
K
Potassium
39.098
20
Ca
Calcium
40.078
21
Sc
Scandium
44.956
22
Ti
Titanium
47.867
23
V
Vanadium
50.941
24
Cr
Chromium
51.996
25
Mn
Manganese
54.938
26
Fe
Iron
55.845
27
Co
Cobalt
58.933
28
Ni
Nickel
58.693
29
Cu
Copper
63.546
30
Zn
Zinc
65.409
31
Ga
Gallium
69.723
32
Ge
Germanium
72.640
33
As
Arsenic
74.922
34
Se
Selenium
78.960
35
Br
Bromine
79.904
36
Kr
Krypton
83.798
5
37
Rb
Rubidium
85.468
38
Sr
Strontium
87.620
39
Y
Yttrium
88.906
40
Zr
Zirconium
91.224
41
Nb
Niobium
92.906
42
Mo
Molybdenum
95.940
43
Tc
Technetium
98
44
Ru
Ruthenium
101.070
45
Rh
Rhodium
102.906
46
Pd
Palladium
106.420
47
Ag
Silver
107.868
48
Cd
Cadmium
112.411
49
In
Indium
114.818
50
Sn
Tin
118.710
51
Sb
Antimony
121.760
52
Te
Tellurium
127.600
53
I
Iodine
126.904
54
Xe
Xenon
131.293
6
55
Cs
Cesium
132.905
56
Ba
Barium
137.327
57 - 71
La - Lu
Lanthanides
72
Hf
Hafnium
178.490
73
Ta
Tantalum
180.948
74
W
Tungsten
183.840
75
Re
Rhenium
186.207
76
Os
Osmium
190.230
77
Ir
Iridium
192.217
78
Pt
Platinum
195.078
79
Au
Gold
196.967
80
Hg
Mercury
200.590
81
Tl
Thallium
204.383
82
Pb
Lead
207.200
83
Bi
Bismuth
208.980
84
Po
Polonium
209
85
At
Astatine
210
86
Rn
Radon
222
7
87
Fr
Francium
223
88
Ra
Radium
226
89 - 103
Ac - Lr
Actinides
104
Rf
Rutherfordium
261
105
Db
Dubnium
262
106
Sg
Seaborgium
266
107
Bh
Bohrium
264
108
Hs
Hassium
277
109
Mt
Meitnerium
268
110
Ds
Darmstadtium
281
111
Rg
Roentgenium
272
112
Cn
Copernicium
285
113
Nh
Nihonium
284
114
Fl
Flerovium
289
115
Mc
Moscovium
288
116
Lv
Livermorium
292
117
Ts
Tennessine
294
118
Og
Oganesson
294
Lanthanides
57
La
Lanthanum
138.905
58
Ce
Cerium
140.116
59
Pr
Praseodymium
140.908
60
Nd
Neodymium
144.240
61
Pm
Promethium
145
62
Sm
Samarium
150.360
63
Eu
Europium
151.964
64
Gd
Gadolinium
157.250
65
Tb
Terbium
158.925
66
Dy
Dysprosium
162.500
67
Ho
Holmium
164.930
68
Er
Erbium
167.259
69
Tm
Thulium
168.934
70
Yb
Ytterbium
173.040
71
Lu
Lutetium
174.967
Actinides
89
Ac
Actinium
227
90
Th
Thorium
232.038
91
Pa
Protactinium
231.036
92
U
Uranium
238.029
93
Np
Neptunium
237
94
Pu
Plutonium
244
95
Am
Americium
243
96
Cm
Curium
247
97
Bk
Berkelium
247
98
Cf
Californium
251
99
Es
Einsteinium
252
100
Fm
Fermium
257
101
Md
Mendelevium
258
102
No
Nobelium
259
103
Lr
Lawrencium
262

How to Locate Manganese on Periodic Table

Periodic table is arranged by atomic number, number of protons in the nucleus which is same as number of electrons. The atomic number increases from left to right. Periodic table starts at top left ( Atomic number 1) and ends at bottom right (atomic number 118). Therefore you can directly look for atomic number 25 to find Manganese on periodic table.

Another way to read periodic table and locate an element is by using group number (column) and period number (row). To locate Manganese on periodic table look for cross section of group 7 and period 4 in the modern periodic table.

Manganese History

The element Manganese was discovered by W. Scheele in year 1774 in Sweden. Manganese was first isolated by G. Gahn in 1774. Manganese derived its name from magnesia negra.

Distinguished pyrolusiteas the calx of a new metal. Ignatius Gottfred Kaimal so discovered the new metal in 1770, as did Scheele in 1774. It was isolated by reduction ofmanganese dioxidewith carbon.

Manganese Presence: Abundance in Nature and Around Us

The table below shows the abundance of Manganese in Universe, Sun, Meteorites, Earth's Crust, Oceans and Human Body.

 ppb by weight (1ppb =10^-7 %)ppb by atoms (1ppb =10^-7 %)
Abundance in Universe8000200
Abundance in Sun10000200
Abundance in Meteorites2800000920000
Abundance in Earth's Crust1100000420000
Abundance in Oceans20.23
Abundance in Humans20023

Crystal Structure of Manganese

The solid state structure of Manganese is Body Centered Cubic.

The Crystal structure can be described in terms of its unit Cell. The unit Cells repeats itself in three dimensional space to form the structure.

Unit Cell Parameters

The unit cell is represented in terms of its lattice parameters, which are the lengths of the cell edges Lattice Constants (a, b and c)

abc
891.25 pm891.25 pm891.25 pm

and the angles between them Lattice Angles (alpha, beta and gamma).

alphabetagamma
π/2 π/2 π/2

The positions of the atoms inside the unit cell are described by the set of atomic positions ( xi, yi, zi) measured from a reference lattice point.

The symmetry properties of the crystal are described by the concept of space groups. All possible symmetric arrangements of particles in three-dimensional space are described by the 230 space groups (219 distinct types, or 230 if chiral copies are considered distinct.

Space Group NameI_ 43m 25 Mn Manganese - Crystal Structure | SchoolMyKids
Oxidation StatesSpace Group Number217
Crystal StructureBody Centered Cubic

Manganese Atomic and Orbital Properties

Manganese atoms have 25 electrons and the electronic shell structure is [2, 8, 13, 2] with Atomic Term Symbol (Quantum Numbers) 6S5/2.

Atomic Number25
Number of Electrons (with no charge)25
Number of Protons25
Mass Number55
Number of Neutrons30
Shell structure (Electrons per energy level)2, 8, 13, 2
Electron Configuration[Ar] 3d5 4s2
Valence Electrons3d5 4s2
Valence (Valency)4
Main Oxidation States2, 3, 4, 6, 7
Oxidation States-3, -2, -1, 0, 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7
Atomic Term Symbol (Quantum Numbers)6S5/2

Bohr Atomic Model of Manganese - Electrons per energy level

25 Mn Manganese - Electron Shell Structure | SchoolMyKids
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Ground State Electronic Configuration of Manganese - neutral Manganese atom

Abbreviated electronic configuration of Manganese

The ground state abbreviated electronic configuration of Neutral Manganese atom is [Ar] 3d5 4s2. The portion of Manganese configuration that is equivalent to the noble gas of the preceding period, is abbreviated as [Ar]. For atoms with many electrons, this notation can become lengthy and so an abbreviated notation is used. This is important as it is the Valence electrons 3d5 4s2, electrons in the outermost shell that determine the chemical properties of the element.

Unabbreviated electronic configuration of neutral Manganese

Complete ground state electronic configuration for the Manganese atom, Unabbreviated electronic configuration

1s2 2s2 2p6 3s2 3p6 3d5 4s2

Electrons are filled in atomic orbitals as per the order determined by the Aufbau principle, Pauli Exclusion Principle and Hund’s Rule.

  • As per the Aufbau principle the electrons will occupy the orbitals having lower energies before occupying higher energy orbitals. According to this principle, electrons are filled in the following order: 1s, 2s, 2p, 3s, 3p, 4s, 3d, 4p, 5s, 4d, 5p, 6s, 4f, 5d, 6p, 7s, 5f, 6d, 7p…
  • The Pauli exclusion principle states that a maximum of two electrons, each having opposite spins, can fit in an orbital.
  • Hund's rule states that every orbital in a given subshell is singly occupied by electrons before a second electron is filled in an orbital.
  • Electron configuration of Manganese
    Atomic Structure of Manganese

    Manganese atomic radius is 161 pm, while it's covalent radius is 139 pm.

    Atomic Radius Calculated

    161 pm (1.61 Å)

    Atomic Radius Empirical

    140 pm (1.4 Å)

    Atomic Volume7.3545 cm3/mol
    Covalent Radius139 pm (1.39 Å)
    Van der Waals Radius-
    Neutron Cross Section13.3
    Neutron Mass Absorption 0.0083

    Atomic Spectrum of Manganese

    Atomic Spectrum of Manganese | SchoolMyKids

    Manganese Chemical Properties: Manganese Ionization Energies and electron affinity

    The electron affinity of Manganese is 0 kJ/mol.

    Valence4
    Electronegativity1.55
    ElectronAffinity0 kJ/mol

    Ionization Energy of Manganese

    Refer to table below for Ionization energies of Manganese

    Ionization energy numberEnthalpy - kJ/mol
    1st717.3
    2nd1509
    3rd3248
    4th4940
    5th6990
    6th9220
    7th11500
    8th18770
    9th21400
    10th23960
    11th27590
    12th30330
    13th33150
    14th38880
    15th41987
    16th109480
    17th118100
    18th127100
    19th138600
    20th148500
    21st158600
    22nd172500
    23rd181380
    24th785450
    25th827067

    Manganese Physical Properties

    Refer to below table for Manganese Physical Properties

    Density7.47 g/cm3(when liquid at m.p density is $5.95 g/cm3)
    Molar Volume7.3545 cm3/mol

    Elastic Properties

    Young Modulus198
    Shear Modulus-
    Bulk Modulus 120 GPa
    Poisson Ratio-

    Hardness of Manganese - Tests to Measure of Hardness of Element

    Mohs Hardness6 MPa
    Vickers Hardness-
    Brinell Hardness196 MPa

    Manganese Electrical Properties

    Manganese is Conductor of electricity. Refer to table below for the Electrical properties ofManganese

    Electrical Conductivity620000 S/m
    Resistivity0.0000016 m Ω
    Superconducting Point-

    Manganese Heat and Conduction Properties

    Thermal Conductivity7.8 W/(m K)
    Thermal Expansion0.0000217 /K

    Manganese Magnetic Properties

    Magnetic TypeParamagnetic
    Curie Point-
    Mass Magnetic Susceptibility1.21e-7 m3/kg
    Molar Magnetic Susceptibility6.6475e-9 m3/mol
    Volume Magnetic Susceptibility0.00090387

    Optical Properties of Manganese

    Refractive Index-

    Acoustic Properties of Manganese

    Speed of Sound5150 m/s

    Manganese Thermal Properties - Enthalpies and thermodynamics

    Refer to table below for Thermal properties of Manganese

    Melting Point1519 K (1245.85°C, 2274.5299999999997 °F)
    Boiling Point2334 K (2060.85°C, 3741.5299999999997 °F)
    Critical Temperature-
    Superconducting Point-

    Enthalpies of Manganese

    Heat of Fusion13.2 kJ/mol
    Heat of Vaporization220 kJ/mol
    Heat of Combustion-

    Manganese Isotopes - Nuclear Properties of Manganese

    Manganese has 26 isotopes, with between 44 and 69 nucleons. Manganese has 1 stable naturally occuring isotopes.

    Isotopes of Manganese - Naturally occurring stable Isotopes: 55Mn.

    IsotopeZNIsotope Mass% AbundanceT halfDecay Mode
    44Mn251944Synthetic
    45Mn252045Synthetic
    46Mn252146Synthetic
    47Mn252247Synthetic
    48Mn252348Synthetic
    49Mn252449Synthetic
    50Mn252550Synthetic
    51Mn252651Synthetic
    52Mn252752Synthetic
    53Mn252853Synthetic
    54Mn252954Synthetic
    55Mn253055100%Stable
    56Mn253156Synthetic
    57Mn253257Synthetic
    58Mn253358Synthetic
    59Mn253459Synthetic
    60Mn253560Synthetic
    61Mn253661Synthetic
    62Mn253762Synthetic
    63Mn253863Synthetic
    64Mn253964Synthetic
    65Mn254065Synthetic
    66Mn254166Synthetic
    67Mn254267Synthetic
    68Mn254368Synthetic
    69Mn254469Synthetic

    Regulatory and Health - Health and Safety Parameters and Guidelines

    Database Search

    List of unique identifiers to search the element in various chemical registry databases

    DatabaseIdentifier number
    CAS Number - Chemical Abstracts Service (CAS)CAS7439-96-5
    RTECS Number-
    CID Number CID23930
    Gmelin Number-
    NSC Number-