Element Information, Facts, Properties, Trends, Uses, Comparison with other elements
Manganese is a chemical element with symbol Mn and atomic number 25. It is not found as a free element in nature; it is often found in combination with iron, and in many minerals. Manganese is a metal with important industrial metal alloy uses, particularly in stainless steels.
It belongs to group 7 of the periodic table having trivial name .
Read key information and facts about element Manganese
|Group in Periodic Table||7|
|Group Name||manganese family|
|Period in Periodic Table||period 4|
|Block in Periodic Table||d -block|
|Electronic Configuration||[Ar] 3d5 4s2|
|Electronic Shell Structure (Electrons per shell)||2, 8, 13, 2|
|Melting Point||1519 K|
|Boiling Point||2334 K|
How to Locate Manganese on Periodic Table
Periodic table is arranged by atomic number, number of protons in the nucleus which is same as number of electrons. The atomic number increases from left to right. Periodic table starts at top left ( Atomic number 1) and ends at bottom right (atomic number 118). Therefore you can directly look for atomic number 25 to find Manganese on periodic table.
Another way to read periodic table and locate an element is by using group number (column) and period number (row). To locate Manganese on periodic table look for cross section of group 7 and period 4 in the modern periodic table.
The element Manganese was discovered by W. Scheele in year 1774 in Sweden. Manganese was first isolated by G. Gahn in 1774. Manganese derived its name from magnesia negra.
Distinguished pyrolusiteas the calx of a new metal. Ignatius Gottfred Kaimal so discovered the new metal in 1770, as did Scheele in 1774. It was isolated by reduction ofmanganese dioxidewith carbon.
Manganese Presence: Abundance in Nature and Around Us
The table below shows the abundance of Manganese in Universe, Sun, Meteorites, Earth's Crust, Oceans and Human Body.
|ppb by weight (1ppb =10^-7 %)||ppb by atoms (1ppb =10^-7 %)|
|Abundance in Universe||8000||200|
|Abundance in Sun||10000||200|
|Abundance in Meteorites||2800000||920000|
|Abundance in Earth's Crust||1100000||420000|
|Abundance in Oceans||2||0.23|
|Abundance in Humans||200||23|
Crystal Structure of Manganese
The solid state structure of Manganese is Body Centered Cubic.
The Crystal structure can be described in terms of its unit Cell. The unit Cells repeats itself in three dimensional space to form the structure.
Unit Cell Parameters
The unit cell is represented in terms of its lattice parameters, which are the lengths of the cell edges Lattice Constants (a, b and c)
|891.25 pm||891.25 pm||891.25 pm|
and the angles between them Lattice Angles (alpha, beta and gamma).
The positions of the atoms inside the unit cell are described by the set of atomic positions ( xi, yi, zi) measured from a reference lattice point.
The symmetry properties of the crystal are described by the concept of space groups. All possible symmetric arrangements of particles in three-dimensional space are described by the 230 space groups (219 distinct types, or 230 if chiral copies are considered distinct.
|Space Group Name||I_ 43m|
|Oxidation States||Space Group Number||217|
|Crystal Structure||Body Centered Cubic|
Manganese Atomic and Orbital Properties
Manganese atoms have 25 electrons and the electronic shell structure is [2, 8, 13, 2] with Atomic Term Symbol (Quantum Numbers) 6S5/2.
|Number of Electrons (with no charge)||25|
|Number of Protons||25|
|Number of Neutrons||30|
|Shell structure (Electrons per energy level)||2, 8, 13, 2|
|Electron Configuration||[Ar] 3d5 4s2|
|Valence Electrons||3d5 4s2|
|Main Oxidation States||2, 3, 4, 6, 7|
|Oxidation States||-3, -2, -1, 0, 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7|
|Atomic Term Symbol (Quantum Numbers)||6S5/2|
Bohr Atomic Model of Manganese - Electrons per energy level
Ground State Electronic Configuration of Manganese - neutral Manganese atom
Abbreviated electronic configuration of Manganese
The ground state abbreviated electronic configuration of Neutral Manganese atom is [Ar] 3d5 4s2. The portion of Manganese configuration that is equivalent to the noble gas of the preceding period, is abbreviated as [Ar]. For atoms with many electrons, this notation can become lengthy and so an abbreviated notation is used. This is important as it is the Valence electrons 3d5 4s2, electrons in the outermost shell that determine the chemical properties of the element.
Unabbreviated electronic configuration of neutral Manganese
Complete ground state electronic configuration for the Manganese atom, Unabbreviated electronic configuration
1s2 2s2 2p6 3s2 3p6 3d5 4s2
Electrons are filled in atomic orbitals as per the order determined by the Aufbau principle, Pauli Exclusion Principle and Hund’s Rule.
Atomic Structure of Manganese
Manganese atomic radius is 161 pm, while it's covalent radius is 139 pm.
|Atomic Radius Calculated|
161 pm (1.61 Å)
|Atomic Radius Empirical|
140 pm (1.4 Å)
|Atomic Volume||7.3545 cm3/mol|
|Covalent Radius||139 pm (1.39 Å)|
|Van der Waals Radius||-|
|Neutron Cross Section||13.3|
|Neutron Mass Absorption||0.0083|
Atomic Spectrum of Manganese
Manganese Chemical Properties: Manganese Ionization Energies and electron affinity
The electron affinity of Manganese is 0 kJ/mol.
Ionization Energy of Manganese
Refer to table below for Ionization energies of Manganese
|Ionization energy number||Enthalpy - kJ/mol|
Manganese Physical Properties
Refer to below table for Manganese Physical Properties
|Density||7.47 g/cm3(when liquid at m.p density is $5.95 g/cm3)|
|Molar Volume||7.3545 cm3/mol|
|Bulk Modulus||120 GPa|
Hardness of Manganese - Tests to Measure of Hardness of Element
|Mohs Hardness||6 MPa|
|Brinell Hardness||196 MPa|
Manganese Electrical Properties
Manganese is Conductor of electricity. Refer to table below for the Electrical properties ofManganese
|Electrical Conductivity||620000 S/m|
|Resistivity||0.0000016 m Ω|
Manganese Heat and Conduction Properties
|Thermal Conductivity||7.8 W/(m K)|
|Thermal Expansion||0.0000217 /K|
Manganese Magnetic Properties
|Mass Magnetic Susceptibility||1.21e-7 m3/kg|
|Molar Magnetic Susceptibility||6.6475e-9 m3/mol|
|Volume Magnetic Susceptibility||0.00090387|
Optical Properties of Manganese
Acoustic Properties of Manganese
|Speed of Sound||5150 m/s|
Manganese Thermal Properties - Enthalpies and thermodynamics
Refer to table below for Thermal properties of Manganese
|Melting Point||1519 K (1245.85°C, 2274.5299999999997 °F)|
|Boiling Point||2334 K (2060.85°C, 3741.5299999999997 °F)|
Enthalpies of Manganese
|Heat of Fusion||13.2 kJ/mol|
|Heat of Vaporization||220 kJ/mol|
|Heat of Combustion||-|
Manganese Isotopes - Nuclear Properties of Manganese
Manganese has 26 isotopes, with between 44 and 69 nucleons. Manganese has 1 stable naturally occuring isotopes.
Isotopes of Manganese - Naturally occurring stable Isotopes: 55Mn.
|Isotope||Z||N||Isotope Mass||% Abundance||T half||Decay Mode|