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Ga Gallium
Element Information, Facts, Properties, Trends, Uses, Comparison with other elements

31
Ga
Gallium
Element 31 of Periodic table is Gallium with atomic number 31, atomic weight 69.723. Gallium, symbol Ga, has a Base Centered Orthorhombic structure and Silver color. Gallium is a Post Transition Metal element. It is part of group 13 (boron family). Know everything about Gallium Facts, Physical Properties, Chemical Properties, Electronic configuration, Atomic and Crystal Structure.
31 Ga - Gallium | SchoolMyKids

Gallium is a chemical element with symbol Ga and atomic number 31. Elemental gallium does not occur in free form in nature, but as the gallium(III) compounds that are in trace amounts in zinc ores and in bauxite. Gallium is a soft, silvery metal, and elemental gallium is a brittle solid at low temperatures, and melts at 29.76 °C (85.57 °F) (slightly above room temperature).

It belongs to group 13 of the periodic table having trivial name triels, icosagens. It got its trivial name from triels from Greek tri (three, III).

Gallium Facts

Read key information and facts about element Gallium

NameGallium
Atomic Number31
Atomic SymbolGa
Atomic Weight69.723
PhaseSolid
ColorSilver
Appearancesilver-white
ClassificationPost Transition Metal
Group in Periodic Table13
Group Nameboron family
Period in Periodic Tableperiod 4
Block in Periodic Tablep -block
Electronic Configuration[Ar] 3d10 4s2 4p1
Electronic Shell Structure (Electrons per shell)2, 8, 18, 3
Melting Point302.91 K
Boiling Point2477 K
CAS NumberCAS7440-55-3
123456789101112131415161718
1
1
H
Hydrogen
1.008

Atomic #

Electronic Shell #

Symbol
Name
Atomic Weight
HGas
HgLiquid
CSolid
Metals
Metalloids
NonMetals
Alkali metals
Alkali earth metals
Lanthanoids
Transition metals
Post-transition metals
Other nonmetals
Halogens
Nobel gas
Actinoids
2
He
Helium
4.003
2
3
Li
Lithium
6.941
4
Be
Beryllium
9.012
5
B
Boron
10.811
6
C
Carbon
12.011
7
N
Nitrogen
14.007
8
O
Oxygen
15.999
9
F
Fluorine
18.998
10
Ne
Neon
20.180
3
11
Na
Sodium
22.990
12
Mg
Magnesium
24.305
13
Al
Aluminium
26.982
14
Si
Silicon
28.085
15
P
Phosphorus
30.974
16
S
Sulfur
32.065
17
Cl
Chlorine
35.453
18
Ar
Argon
39.948
4
19
K
Potassium
39.098
20
Ca
Calcium
40.078
21
Sc
Scandium
44.956
22
Ti
Titanium
47.867
23
V
Vanadium
50.941
24
Cr
Chromium
51.996
25
Mn
Manganese
54.938
26
Fe
Iron
55.845
27
Co
Cobalt
58.933
28
Ni
Nickel
58.693
29
Cu
Copper
63.546
30
Zn
Zinc
65.409
31
Ga
Gallium
69.723
32
Ge
Germanium
72.640
33
As
Arsenic
74.922
34
Se
Selenium
78.960
35
Br
Bromine
79.904
36
Kr
Krypton
83.798
5
37
Rb
Rubidium
85.468
38
Sr
Strontium
87.620
39
Y
Yttrium
88.906
40
Zr
Zirconium
91.224
41
Nb
Niobium
92.906
42
Mo
Molybdenum
95.940
43
Tc
Technetium
98
44
Ru
Ruthenium
101.070
45
Rh
Rhodium
102.906
46
Pd
Palladium
106.420
47
Ag
Silver
107.868
48
Cd
Cadmium
112.411
49
In
Indium
114.818
50
Sn
Tin
118.710
51
Sb
Antimony
121.760
52
Te
Tellurium
127.600
53
I
Iodine
126.904
54
Xe
Xenon
131.293
6
55
Cs
Cesium
132.905
56
Ba
Barium
137.327
57 - 71
La - Lu
Lanthanides
72
Hf
Hafnium
178.490
73
Ta
Tantalum
180.948
74
W
Tungsten
183.840
75
Re
Rhenium
186.207
76
Os
Osmium
190.230
77
Ir
Iridium
192.217
78
Pt
Platinum
195.078
79
Au
Gold
196.967
80
Hg
Mercury
200.590
81
Tl
Thallium
204.383
82
Pb
Lead
207.200
83
Bi
Bismuth
208.980
84
Po
Polonium
209
85
At
Astatine
210
86
Rn
Radon
222
7
87
Fr
Francium
223
88
Ra
Radium
226
89 - 103
Ac - Lr
Actinides
104
Rf
Rutherfordium
261
105
Db
Dubnium
262
106
Sg
Seaborgium
266
107
Bh
Bohrium
264
108
Hs
Hassium
277
109
Mt
Meitnerium
268
110
Ds
Darmstadtium
281
111
Rg
Roentgenium
272
112
Cn
Copernicium
285
113
Nh
Nihonium
284
114
Fl
Flerovium
289
115
Mc
Moscovium
288
116
Lv
Livermorium
292
117
Ts
Tennessine
294
118
Og
Oganesson
294
Lanthanides
57
La
Lanthanum
138.905
58
Ce
Cerium
140.116
59
Pr
Praseodymium
140.908
60
Nd
Neodymium
144.240
61
Pm
Promethium
145
62
Sm
Samarium
150.360
63
Eu
Europium
151.964
64
Gd
Gadolinium
157.250
65
Tb
Terbium
158.925
66
Dy
Dysprosium
162.500
67
Ho
Holmium
164.930
68
Er
Erbium
167.259
69
Tm
Thulium
168.934
70
Yb
Ytterbium
173.040
71
Lu
Lutetium
174.967
Actinides
89
Ac
Actinium
227
90
Th
Thorium
232.038
91
Pa
Protactinium
231.036
92
U
Uranium
238.029
93
Np
Neptunium
237
94
Pu
Plutonium
244
95
Am
Americium
243
96
Cm
Curium
247
97
Bk
Berkelium
247
98
Cf
Californium
251
99
Es
Einsteinium
252
100
Fm
Fermium
257
101
Md
Mendelevium
258
102
No
Nobelium
259
103
Lr
Lawrencium
262

How to Locate Gallium on Periodic Table

Periodic table is arranged by atomic number, number of protons in the nucleus which is same as number of electrons. The atomic number increases from left to right. Periodic table starts at top left ( Atomic number 1) and ends at bottom right (atomic number 118). Therefore you can directly look for atomic number 31 to find Gallium on periodic table.

Another way to read periodic table and locate an element is by using group number (column) and period number (row). To locate Gallium on periodic table look for cross section of group 13 and period 4 in the modern periodic table.

Gallium History

The element Gallium was discovered by P. E. L. de Boisbaudran in year 1875 in France. Gallium was first isolated by P. E. L. de Boisbaudran in . Gallium derived its name from Gallia, the Latin name for France.

Boisbaudran observed on a pyrenea blende sample some emission lines corresponding to the eka-aluminium that waspredictedby Mendeleev in 1871 and subsequently isolated the element by electrolysis.

Gallium Presence: Abundance in Nature and Around Us

The table below shows the abundance of Gallium in Universe, Sun, Meteorites, Earth's Crust, Oceans and Human Body.

 ppb by weight (1ppb =10^-7 %)ppb by atoms (1ppb =10^-7 %)
Abundance in Universe100.2
Abundance in Sun400.6
Abundance in Meteorites78002000
Abundance in Earth's Crust190005500
Abundance in Oceans0.030.0027
Abundance in Humans--

Crystal Structure of Gallium

The solid state structure of Gallium is Base Centered Orthorhombic.

The Crystal structure can be described in terms of its unit Cell. The unit Cells repeats itself in three dimensional space to form the structure.

Unit Cell Parameters

The unit cell is represented in terms of its lattice parameters, which are the lengths of the cell edges Lattice Constants (a, b and c)

abc
451.97 pm766.33 pm452.6 pm

and the angles between them Lattice Angles (alpha, beta and gamma).

alphabetagamma
π/2 π/2 π/2

The positions of the atoms inside the unit cell are described by the set of atomic positions ( xi, yi, zi) measured from a reference lattice point.

The symmetry properties of the crystal are described by the concept of space groups. All possible symmetric arrangements of particles in three-dimensional space are described by the 230 space groups (219 distinct types, or 230 if chiral copies are considered distinct.

Space Group NameCmca 31 Ga Gallium - Crystal Structure | SchoolMyKids
Oxidation StatesSpace Group Number64
Crystal StructureBase Centered Orthorhombic

Gallium Atomic and Orbital Properties

Gallium atoms have 31 electrons and the electronic shell structure is [2, 8, 18, 3] with Atomic Term Symbol (Quantum Numbers) 2P1/2.

Atomic Number31
Number of Electrons (with no charge)31
Number of Protons31
Mass Number70
Number of Neutrons39
Shell structure (Electrons per energy level)2, 8, 18, 3
Electron Configuration[Ar] 3d10 4s2 4p1
Valence Electrons4s2 4p1
Valence (Valency)3
Main Oxidation States3
Oxidation States-5, -4, -3, -2, -1, 0, 1, 2, 3
Atomic Term Symbol (Quantum Numbers)2P1/2

Bohr Atomic Model of Gallium - Electrons per energy level

31 Ga Gallium - Electron Shell Structure | SchoolMyKids
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Ground State Electronic Configuration of Gallium - neutral Gallium atom

Abbreviated electronic configuration of Gallium

The ground state abbreviated electronic configuration of Neutral Gallium atom is [Ar] 3d10 4s2 4p1. The portion of Gallium configuration that is equivalent to the noble gas of the preceding period, is abbreviated as [Ar]. For atoms with many electrons, this notation can become lengthy and so an abbreviated notation is used. This is important as it is the Valence electrons 4s2 4p1, electrons in the outermost shell that determine the chemical properties of the element.

Unabbreviated electronic configuration of neutral Gallium

Complete ground state electronic configuration for the Gallium atom, Unabbreviated electronic configuration

1s2 2s2 2p6 3s2 3p6 3d10 4s2 4p1

Electrons are filled in atomic orbitals as per the order determined by the Aufbau principle, Pauli Exclusion Principle and Hund’s Rule.

  • As per the Aufbau principle the electrons will occupy the orbitals having lower energies before occupying higher energy orbitals. According to this principle, electrons are filled in the following order: 1s, 2s, 2p, 3s, 3p, 4s, 3d, 4p, 5s, 4d, 5p, 6s, 4f, 5d, 6p, 7s, 5f, 6d, 7p…
  • The Pauli exclusion principle states that a maximum of two electrons, each having opposite spins, can fit in an orbital.
  • Hund's rule states that every orbital in a given subshell is singly occupied by electrons before a second electron is filled in an orbital.
  • Electron configuration of Gallium
    Atomic Structure of Gallium

    Gallium atomic radius is 136 pm, while it's covalent radius is 126 pm.

    Atomic Radius Calculated

    136 pm (1.36 Å)

    Atomic Radius Empirical

    130 pm (1.3 Å)

    Atomic Volume11.809 cm3/mol
    Covalent Radius126 pm (1.26 Å)
    Van der Waals Radius187 pm
    Neutron Cross Section2.9
    Neutron Mass Absorption 0.0015

    Atomic Spectrum of Gallium

    Atomic Spectrum of Gallium | SchoolMyKids

    Gallium Chemical Properties: Gallium Ionization Energies and electron affinity

    The electron affinity of Gallium is 28.9 kJ/mol.

    Valence3
    Electronegativity1.81
    ElectronAffinity28.9 kJ/mol

    Ionization Energy of Gallium

    Refer to table below for Ionization energies of Gallium

    Ionization energy numberEnthalpy - kJ/mol
    1st578.8
    2nd1979.3
    3rd2963
    4th6180

    Gallium Physical Properties

    Refer to below table for Gallium Physical Properties

    Density5.904 g/cm3(when liquid at m.p density is $6.095 g/cm3)
    Molar Volume11.809 cm3/mol

    Elastic Properties

    Young Modulus-
    Shear Modulus-
    Bulk Modulus -
    Poisson Ratio-

    Hardness of Gallium - Tests to Measure of Hardness of Element

    Mohs Hardness1.5 MPa
    Vickers Hardness-
    Brinell Hardness60 MPa

    Gallium Electrical Properties

    Gallium is Conductor of electricity. Refer to table below for the Electrical properties ofGallium

    Electrical Conductivity7100000 S/m
    Resistivity1.39e-7 m Ω
    Superconducting Point1.083

    Gallium Heat and Conduction Properties

    Thermal Conductivity29 W/(m K)
    Thermal Expansion0.00012 /K

    Gallium Magnetic Properties

    Magnetic TypeDiamagnetic
    Curie Point-
    Mass Magnetic Susceptibility-3e-9 m3/kg
    Molar Magnetic Susceptibility-2.09e-10 m3/mol
    Volume Magnetic Susceptibility-0.0000177

    Optical Properties of Gallium

    Refractive Index-

    Acoustic Properties of Gallium

    Speed of Sound2740 m/s

    Gallium Thermal Properties - Enthalpies and thermodynamics

    Refer to table below for Thermal properties of Gallium

    Melting Point302.91 K (29.76°C, 85.56800000000008 °F)
    Boiling Point2477 K (2203.85°C, 3998.9299999999994 °F)
    Critical Temperature-
    Superconducting Point1.083

    Enthalpies of Gallium

    Heat of Fusion5.59 kJ/mol
    Heat of Vaporization256 kJ/mol
    Heat of Combustion-

    Gallium Isotopes - Nuclear Properties of Gallium

    Gallium has 31 isotopes, with between 56 and 86 nucleons. Gallium has 2 stable naturally occuring isotopes.

    Isotopes of Gallium - Naturally occurring stable Isotopes: 69Ga, 71Ga.

    IsotopeZNIsotope Mass% AbundanceT halfDecay Mode
    56Ga312556Synthetic
    57Ga312657Synthetic
    58Ga312758Synthetic
    59Ga312859Synthetic
    60Ga312960Synthetic
    61Ga313061Synthetic
    62Ga313162Synthetic
    63Ga313263Synthetic
    64Ga313364Synthetic
    65Ga313465Synthetic
    66Ga313566Synthetic
    67Ga313667Synthetic
    68Ga313768Synthetic
    69Ga31386960.108%StableN/A
    70Ga313970SyntheticStable
    71Ga31407139.892%StableN/A
    72Ga314172Synthetic
    73Ga314273Synthetic
    74Ga314374Synthetic
    75Ga314475Synthetic
    76Ga314576Synthetic
    77Ga314677Synthetic
    78Ga314778Synthetic
    79Ga314879Synthetic
    80Ga314980Synthetic
    81Ga315081Synthetic
    82Ga315182Synthetic
    83Ga315283Synthetic
    84Ga315384Synthetic
    85Ga315485Synthetic
    86Ga315586Synthetic