Element Information, Facts, Properties, Trends, Uses, Comparison with other elements
Gallium is a chemical element with symbol Ga and atomic number 31. Elemental gallium does not occur in free form in nature, but as the gallium(III) compounds that are in trace amounts in zinc ores and in bauxite. Gallium is a soft, silvery metal, and elemental gallium is a brittle solid at low temperatures, and melts at 29.76 °C (85.57 °F) (slightly above room temperature).
It belongs to group 13 of the periodic table having trivial name triels, icosagens. It got its trivial name from triels from Greek tri (three, III).
Read key information and facts about element Gallium
|Classification||Post Transition Metal|
|Group in Periodic Table||13|
|Group Name||boron family|
|Period in Periodic Table||period 4|
|Block in Periodic Table||p -block|
|Electronic Configuration||[Ar] 3d10 4s2 4p1|
|Electronic Shell Structure (Electrons per shell)||2, 8, 18, 3|
|Melting Point||302.91 K|
|Boiling Point||2477 K|
How to Locate Gallium on Periodic Table
Periodic table is arranged by atomic number, number of protons in the nucleus which is same as number of electrons. The atomic number increases from left to right. Periodic table starts at top left ( Atomic number 1) and ends at bottom right (atomic number 118). Therefore you can directly look for atomic number 31 to find Gallium on periodic table.
Another way to read periodic table and locate an element is by using group number (column) and period number (row). To locate Gallium on periodic table look for cross section of group 13 and period 4 in the modern periodic table.
The element Gallium was discovered by P. E. L. de Boisbaudran in year 1875 in France. Gallium was first isolated by P. E. L. de Boisbaudran in . Gallium derived its name from Gallia, the Latin name for France.
Boisbaudran observed on a pyrenea blende sample some emission lines corresponding to the eka-aluminium that waspredictedby Mendeleev in 1871 and subsequently isolated the element by electrolysis.
Gallium Presence: Abundance in Nature and Around Us
The table below shows the abundance of Gallium in Universe, Sun, Meteorites, Earth's Crust, Oceans and Human Body.
|ppb by weight (1ppb =10^-7 %)||ppb by atoms (1ppb =10^-7 %)|
|Abundance in Universe||10||0.2|
|Abundance in Sun||40||0.6|
|Abundance in Meteorites||7800||2000|
|Abundance in Earth's Crust||19000||5500|
|Abundance in Oceans||0.03||0.0027|
|Abundance in Humans||-||-|
Crystal Structure of Gallium
The solid state structure of Gallium is Base Centered Orthorhombic.
The Crystal structure can be described in terms of its unit Cell. The unit Cells repeats itself in three dimensional space to form the structure.
Unit Cell Parameters
The unit cell is represented in terms of its lattice parameters, which are the lengths of the cell edges Lattice Constants (a, b and c)
|451.97 pm||766.33 pm||452.6 pm|
and the angles between them Lattice Angles (alpha, beta and gamma).
The positions of the atoms inside the unit cell are described by the set of atomic positions ( xi, yi, zi) measured from a reference lattice point.
The symmetry properties of the crystal are described by the concept of space groups. All possible symmetric arrangements of particles in three-dimensional space are described by the 230 space groups (219 distinct types, or 230 if chiral copies are considered distinct.
|Space Group Name||Cmca|
|Oxidation States||Space Group Number||64|
|Crystal Structure||Base Centered Orthorhombic|
Gallium Atomic and Orbital Properties
Gallium atoms have 31 electrons and the electronic shell structure is [2, 8, 18, 3] with Atomic Term Symbol (Quantum Numbers) 2P1/2.
|Number of Electrons (with no charge)||31|
|Number of Protons||31|
|Number of Neutrons||39|
|Shell structure (Electrons per energy level)||2, 8, 18, 3|
|Electron Configuration||[Ar] 3d10 4s2 4p1|
|Valence Electrons||4s2 4p1|
|Main Oxidation States||3|
|Oxidation States||-5, -4, -3, -2, -1, 0, 1, 2, 3|
|Atomic Term Symbol (Quantum Numbers)||2P1/2|
Bohr Atomic Model of Gallium - Electrons per energy level
Ground State Electronic Configuration of Gallium - neutral Gallium atom
Abbreviated electronic configuration of Gallium
The ground state abbreviated electronic configuration of Neutral Gallium atom is [Ar] 3d10 4s2 4p1. The portion of Gallium configuration that is equivalent to the noble gas of the preceding period, is abbreviated as [Ar]. For atoms with many electrons, this notation can become lengthy and so an abbreviated notation is used. This is important as it is the Valence electrons 4s2 4p1, electrons in the outermost shell that determine the chemical properties of the element.
Unabbreviated electronic configuration of neutral Gallium
Complete ground state electronic configuration for the Gallium atom, Unabbreviated electronic configuration
1s2 2s2 2p6 3s2 3p6 3d10 4s2 4p1
Electrons are filled in atomic orbitals as per the order determined by the Aufbau principle, Pauli Exclusion Principle and Hund’s Rule.
Atomic Structure of Gallium
Gallium atomic radius is 136 pm, while it's covalent radius is 126 pm.
|Atomic Radius Calculated|
136 pm (1.36 Å)
|Atomic Radius Empirical|
130 pm (1.3 Å)
|Atomic Volume||11.809 cm3/mol|
|Covalent Radius||126 pm (1.26 Å)|
|Van der Waals Radius||187 pm|
|Neutron Cross Section||2.9|
|Neutron Mass Absorption||0.0015|
Atomic Spectrum of Gallium
Gallium Chemical Properties: Gallium Ionization Energies and electron affinity
The electron affinity of Gallium is 28.9 kJ/mol.
Ionization Energy of Gallium
Refer to table below for Ionization energies of Gallium
|Ionization energy number||Enthalpy - kJ/mol|
Gallium Physical Properties
Refer to below table for Gallium Physical Properties
|Density||5.904 g/cm3(when liquid at m.p density is $6.095 g/cm3)|
|Molar Volume||11.809 cm3/mol|
Hardness of Gallium - Tests to Measure of Hardness of Element
|Mohs Hardness||1.5 MPa|
|Brinell Hardness||60 MPa|
Gallium Electrical Properties
Gallium is Conductor of electricity. Refer to table below for the Electrical properties ofGallium
|Electrical Conductivity||7100000 S/m|
|Resistivity||1.39e-7 m Ω|
Gallium Heat and Conduction Properties
|Thermal Conductivity||29 W/(m K)|
|Thermal Expansion||0.00012 /K|
Gallium Magnetic Properties
|Mass Magnetic Susceptibility||-3e-9 m3/kg|
|Molar Magnetic Susceptibility||-2.09e-10 m3/mol|
|Volume Magnetic Susceptibility||-0.0000177|
Optical Properties of Gallium
Acoustic Properties of Gallium
|Speed of Sound||2740 m/s|
Gallium Thermal Properties - Enthalpies and thermodynamics
Refer to table below for Thermal properties of Gallium
|Melting Point||302.91 K (29.76°C, 85.56800000000008 °F)|
|Boiling Point||2477 K (2203.85°C, 3998.9299999999994 °F)|
Enthalpies of Gallium
|Heat of Fusion||5.59 kJ/mol|
|Heat of Vaporization||256 kJ/mol|
|Heat of Combustion||-|
Gallium Isotopes - Nuclear Properties of Gallium
Gallium has 31 isotopes, with between 56 and 86 nucleons. Gallium has 2 stable naturally occuring isotopes.
Isotopes of Gallium - Naturally occurring stable Isotopes: 69Ga, 71Ga.
|Isotope||Z||N||Isotope Mass||% Abundance||T half||Decay Mode|