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Te Tellurium
Element Information, Facts, Properties, Trends, Uses, Comparison with other elements

52
Te
Tellurium
Element 52 of Periodic table is Tellurium with atomic number 52, atomic weight 127.6. Tellurium, symbol Te, has a Simple Trigonal structure and Silver color. Tellurium is a Metalloid element. It is part of group 16 (oxygen family). Know everything about Tellurium Facts, Physical Properties, Chemical Properties, Electronic configuration, Atomic and Crystal Structure.
52 Te - Tellurium | SchoolMyKids

Tellurium is a chemical element with symbol Te and atomic number 52. It is a brittle, mildly toxic, rare, silver-white Metalloid. Tellurium is chemically related to selenium and sulfur.

It belongs to group 16 of the periodic table having trivial name chalcogens.

Tellurium Facts

Read key information and facts about element Tellurium

NameTellurium
Atomic Number52
Atomic SymbolTe
Atomic Weight127.6
PhaseSolid
ColorSilver
Appearance-
ClassificationMetalloid
Group in Periodic Table16
Group Nameoxygen family
Period in Periodic Tableperiod 5
Block in Periodic Tablep -block
Electronic Configuration[Kr] 4d10 5s2 5p4
Electronic Shell Structure (Electrons per shell)2, 8, 18, 18, 6
Melting Point722.66 K
Boiling Point1261 K
CAS NumberCAS13494-80-9
123456789101112131415161718
1
1
H
Hydrogen
1.008

Atomic #

Electronic Shell #

Symbol
Name
Atomic Weight
HGas
HgLiquid
CSolid
Metals
Metalloids
NonMetals
Alkali metals
Alkali earth metals
Lanthanoids
Transition metals
Post-transition metals
Other nonmetals
Halogens
Nobel gas
Actinoids
2
He
Helium
4.003
2
3
Li
Lithium
6.941
4
Be
Beryllium
9.012
5
B
Boron
10.811
6
C
Carbon
12.011
7
N
Nitrogen
14.007
8
O
Oxygen
15.999
9
F
Fluorine
18.998
10
Ne
Neon
20.180
3
11
Na
Sodium
22.990
12
Mg
Magnesium
24.305
13
Al
Aluminium
26.982
14
Si
Silicon
28.085
15
P
Phosphorus
30.974
16
S
Sulfur
32.065
17
Cl
Chlorine
35.453
18
Ar
Argon
39.948
4
19
K
Potassium
39.098
20
Ca
Calcium
40.078
21
Sc
Scandium
44.956
22
Ti
Titanium
47.867
23
V
Vanadium
50.941
24
Cr
Chromium
51.996
25
Mn
Manganese
54.938
26
Fe
Iron
55.845
27
Co
Cobalt
58.933
28
Ni
Nickel
58.693
29
Cu
Copper
63.546
30
Zn
Zinc
65.409
31
Ga
Gallium
69.723
32
Ge
Germanium
72.640
33
As
Arsenic
74.922
34
Se
Selenium
78.960
35
Br
Bromine
79.904
36
Kr
Krypton
83.798
5
37
Rb
Rubidium
85.468
38
Sr
Strontium
87.620
39
Y
Yttrium
88.906
40
Zr
Zirconium
91.224
41
Nb
Niobium
92.906
42
Mo
Molybdenum
95.940
43
Tc
Technetium
98
44
Ru
Ruthenium
101.070
45
Rh
Rhodium
102.906
46
Pd
Palladium
106.420
47
Ag
Silver
107.868
48
Cd
Cadmium
112.411
49
In
Indium
114.818
50
Sn
Tin
118.710
51
Sb
Antimony
121.760
52
Te
Tellurium
127.600
53
I
Iodine
126.904
54
Xe
Xenon
131.293
6
55
Cs
Cesium
132.905
56
Ba
Barium
137.327
57 - 71
La - Lu
Lanthanides
72
Hf
Hafnium
178.490
73
Ta
Tantalum
180.948
74
W
Tungsten
183.840
75
Re
Rhenium
186.207
76
Os
Osmium
190.230
77
Ir
Iridium
192.217
78
Pt
Platinum
195.078
79
Au
Gold
196.967
80
Hg
Mercury
200.590
81
Tl
Thallium
204.383
82
Pb
Lead
207.200
83
Bi
Bismuth
208.980
84
Po
Polonium
209
85
At
Astatine
210
86
Rn
Radon
222
7
87
Fr
Francium
223
88
Ra
Radium
226
89 - 103
Ac - Lr
Actinides
104
Rf
Rutherfordium
261
105
Db
Dubnium
262
106
Sg
Seaborgium
266
107
Bh
Bohrium
264
108
Hs
Hassium
277
109
Mt
Meitnerium
268
110
Ds
Darmstadtium
281
111
Rg
Roentgenium
272
112
Cn
Copernicium
285
113
Nh
Nihonium
284
114
Fl
Flerovium
289
115
Mc
Moscovium
288
116
Lv
Livermorium
292
117
Ts
Tennessine
294
118
Og
Oganesson
294
Lanthanides
57
La
Lanthanum
138.905
58
Ce
Cerium
140.116
59
Pr
Praseodymium
140.908
60
Nd
Neodymium
144.240
61
Pm
Promethium
145
62
Sm
Samarium
150.360
63
Eu
Europium
151.964
64
Gd
Gadolinium
157.250
65
Tb
Terbium
158.925
66
Dy
Dysprosium
162.500
67
Ho
Holmium
164.930
68
Er
Erbium
167.259
69
Tm
Thulium
168.934
70
Yb
Ytterbium
173.040
71
Lu
Lutetium
174.967
Actinides
89
Ac
Actinium
227
90
Th
Thorium
232.038
91
Pa
Protactinium
231.036
92
U
Uranium
238.029
93
Np
Neptunium
237
94
Pu
Plutonium
244
95
Am
Americium
243
96
Cm
Curium
247
97
Bk
Berkelium
247
98
Cf
Californium
251
99
Es
Einsteinium
252
100
Fm
Fermium
257
101
Md
Mendelevium
258
102
No
Nobelium
259
103
Lr
Lawrencium
262

How to Locate Tellurium on Periodic Table

Periodic table is arranged by atomic number, number of protons in the nucleus which is same as number of electrons. The atomic number increases from left to right. Periodic table starts at top left ( Atomic number 1) and ends at bottom right (atomic number 118). Therefore you can directly look for atomic number 52 to find Tellurium on periodic table.

Another way to read periodic table and locate an element is by using group number (column) and period number (row). To locate Tellurium on periodic table look for cross section of group 16 and period 5 in the modern periodic table.

Tellurium History

The element Tellurium was discovered by F.-J.M. von Reichenstein in year 1782 in Romania. Tellurium was first isolated by H. Klaproth in . Tellurium derived its name from Latin tellus, meaning 'earth'.

Muller observed it as an impurity in gold ores from Transylvania.

Tellurium Presence: Abundance in Nature and Around Us

The table below shows the abundance of Tellurium in Universe, Sun, Meteorites, Earth's Crust, Oceans and Human Body.

 ppb by weight (1ppb =10^-7 %)ppb by atoms (1ppb =10^-7 %)
Abundance in Universe90.09
Abundance in Sun--
Abundance in Meteorites2100300
Abundance in Earth's Crust1.00.2
Abundance in Oceans--
Abundance in Humans--

Crystal Structure of Tellurium

The solid state structure of Tellurium is Simple Trigonal.

The Crystal structure can be described in terms of its unit Cell. The unit Cells repeats itself in three dimensional space to form the structure.

Unit Cell Parameters

The unit cell is represented in terms of its lattice parameters, which are the lengths of the cell edges Lattice Constants (a, b and c)

abc
445.72 pm445.72 pm592.9 pm

and the angles between them Lattice Angles (alpha, beta and gamma).

alphabetagamma
π/2 π/2 2 π/3

The positions of the atoms inside the unit cell are described by the set of atomic positions ( xi, yi, zi) measured from a reference lattice point.

The symmetry properties of the crystal are described by the concept of space groups. All possible symmetric arrangements of particles in three-dimensional space are described by the 230 space groups (219 distinct types, or 230 if chiral copies are considered distinct.

Space Group NameP3121 52 Te Tellurium - Crystal Structure | SchoolMyKids
Oxidation StatesSpace Group Number152
Crystal StructureSimple Trigonal

Tellurium Atomic and Orbital Properties

Tellurium atoms have 52 electrons and the electronic shell structure is [2, 8, 18, 18, 6] with Atomic Term Symbol (Quantum Numbers) 3P2.

Atomic Number52
Number of Electrons (with no charge)52
Number of Protons52
Mass Number128
Number of Neutrons76
Shell structure (Electrons per energy level)2, 8, 18, 18, 6
Electron Configuration[Kr] 4d10 5s2 5p4
Valence Electrons5s2 5p4
Valence (Valency)6
Main Oxidation States-2, 2, 4, 6
Oxidation States-2, -1, 0, 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6
Atomic Term Symbol (Quantum Numbers)3P2

Bohr Atomic Model of Tellurium - Electrons per energy level

52 Te Tellurium - Electron Shell Structure | SchoolMyKids
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Ground State Electronic Configuration of Tellurium - neutral Tellurium atom

Abbreviated electronic configuration of Tellurium

The ground state abbreviated electronic configuration of Neutral Tellurium atom is [Kr] 4d10 5s2 5p4. The portion of Tellurium configuration that is equivalent to the noble gas of the preceding period, is abbreviated as [Kr]. For atoms with many electrons, this notation can become lengthy and so an abbreviated notation is used. This is important as it is the Valence electrons 5s2 5p4, electrons in the outermost shell that determine the chemical properties of the element.

Unabbreviated electronic configuration of neutral Tellurium

Complete ground state electronic configuration for the Tellurium atom, Unabbreviated electronic configuration

1s2 2s2 2p6 3s2 3p6 3d10 4s2 4p6 4d10 5s2 5p4

Electrons are filled in atomic orbitals as per the order determined by the Aufbau principle, Pauli Exclusion Principle and Hund’s Rule.

  • As per the Aufbau principle the electrons will occupy the orbitals having lower energies before occupying higher energy orbitals. According to this principle, electrons are filled in the following order: 1s, 2s, 2p, 3s, 3p, 4s, 3d, 4p, 5s, 4d, 5p, 6s, 4f, 5d, 6p, 7s, 5f, 6d, 7p…
  • The Pauli exclusion principle states that a maximum of two electrons, each having opposite spins, can fit in an orbital.
  • Hund's rule states that every orbital in a given subshell is singly occupied by electrons before a second electron is filled in an orbital.
  • Electron configuration of Tellurium
    Atomic Structure of Tellurium

    Tellurium atomic radius is 123 pm, while it's covalent radius is 135 pm.

    Atomic Radius Calculated

    123 pm (1.23 Å)

    Atomic Radius Empirical

    140 pm (1.4 Å)

    Atomic Volume20.449 cm3/mol
    Covalent Radius135 pm (1.35 Å)
    Van der Waals Radius206 pm
    Neutron Cross Section5.4
    Neutron Mass Absorption 0.0013

    Atomic Spectrum of Tellurium

    Atomic Spectrum of Tellurium | SchoolMyKids

    Tellurium Chemical Properties: Tellurium Ionization Energies and electron affinity

    The electron affinity of Tellurium is 190.2 kJ/mol.

    Valence6
    Electronegativity2.1
    ElectronAffinity190.2 kJ/mol

    Ionization Energy of Tellurium

    Refer to table below for Ionization energies of Tellurium

    Ionization energy numberEnthalpy - kJ/mol
    1st869.3
    2nd1790
    3rd2698
    4th3610
    5th5668
    6th6820
    7th13200

    Tellurium Physical Properties

    Refer to below table for Tellurium Physical Properties

    Density6.24 g/cm3(when liquid at m.p density is $5.7 g/cm3)
    Molar Volume20.449 cm3/mol

    Elastic Properties

    Young Modulus43
    Shear Modulus16 GPa
    Bulk Modulus 65 GPa
    Poisson Ratio-

    Hardness of Tellurium - Tests to Measure of Hardness of Element

    Mohs Hardness2.25 MPa
    Vickers Hardness-
    Brinell Hardness180 MPa

    Tellurium Electrical Properties

    Tellurium is Conductor of electricity. Refer to table below for the Electrical properties ofTellurium

    Electrical Conductivity10000 S/m
    Resistivity0.0001 m Ω
    Superconducting Point-

    Tellurium Heat and Conduction Properties

    Thermal Conductivity3 W/(m K)
    Thermal Expansion-

    Tellurium Magnetic Properties

    Magnetic TypeDiamagnetic
    Curie Point-
    Mass Magnetic Susceptibility-3.9e-9 m3/kg
    Molar Magnetic Susceptibility-4.98e-10 m3/mol
    Volume Magnetic Susceptibility-0.0000243

    Optical Properties of Tellurium

    Refractive Index1.000991

    Acoustic Properties of Tellurium

    Speed of Sound2610 m/s

    Tellurium Thermal Properties - Enthalpies and thermodynamics

    Refer to table below for Thermal properties of Tellurium

    Melting Point722.66 K (449.51°C, 841.118 °F)
    Boiling Point1261 K (987.85°C, 1810.1299999999999 °F)
    Critical Temperature-
    Superconducting Point-

    Enthalpies of Tellurium

    Heat of Fusion17.5 kJ/mol
    Heat of Vaporization48 kJ/mol
    Heat of Combustion-

    Tellurium Isotopes - Nuclear Properties of Tellurium

    Tellurium has 38 isotopes, with between 105 and 142 nucleons. Tellurium has 5 stable naturally occuring isotopes.

    Isotopes of Tellurium - Naturally occurring stable Isotopes: 120Te, 122Te, 124Te, 125Te, 126Te.

    IsotopeZNIsotope Mass% AbundanceT halfDecay Mode
    105Te5253105Synthetic
    106Te5254106Synthetic
    107Te5255107Synthetic
    108Te5256108Synthetic
    109Te5257109Synthetic
    110Te5258110Synthetic
    111Te5259111Synthetic
    112Te5260112Synthetic
    113Te5261113Synthetic
    114Te5262114Synthetic
    115Te5263115Synthetic
    116Te5264116Synthetic
    117Te5265117Synthetic
    118Te5266118Synthetic
    119Te5267119Synthetic
    120Te52681200.09%StableN/A
    121Te5269121Synthetic
    122Te52701222.55%StableN/A
    123Te52711230.89%StableN/A
    124Te52721244.74%StableN/A
    125Te52731257.07%StableN/A
    126Te527412618.84%StableN/A
    127Te5275127Synthetic
    128Te527612831.74%Stable
    129Te5277129Synthetic
    130Te527813034.08%StableN/A
    131Te5279131Synthetic
    132Te5280132Synthetic
    133Te5281133Synthetic
    134Te5282134Synthetic
    135Te5283135Synthetic
    136Te5284136Synthetic
    137Te5285137Synthetic
    138Te5286138Synthetic
    139Te5287139Synthetic
    140Te5288140Synthetic
    141Te5289141Synthetic
    142Te5290142Synthetic