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Au Gold
Element Information, Facts, Properties, Trends, Uses, Comparison with other elements

79
Au
Gold
Element 79 of Periodic table is Gold with atomic number 79, atomic weight 196.96655. Gold, symbol Au, has a Face Centered Cubic structure and Gold color. Gold is a Transition Metal element. It is part of group 11 (copper family). Know everything about Gold Facts, Physical Properties, Chemical Properties, Electronic configuration, Atomic and Crystal Structure.
79 Au - Gold | SchoolMyKids

Gold is a chemical element with symbol Au (from Latin:aurum) and atomic number 79. In its purest form, it is a bright, slightly reddish yellow, dense, soft, malleable and ductile metal. Chemically, gold is a Transition Metal and a group 11 element.

It belongs to group 11 of the periodic table having trivial name coinage metals.

Gold Facts

Read key information and facts about element Gold

NameGold
Atomic Number79
Atomic SymbolAu
Atomic Weight196.96655
PhaseSolid
ColorGold
Appearancemetallic yellow
ClassificationTransition Metal
Group in Periodic Table11
Group Namecopper family
Period in Periodic Tableperiod 6
Block in Periodic Tabled -block
Electronic Configuration[Xe] 4f14 5d10 6s1
Electronic Shell Structure (Electrons per shell)2, 8, 18, 32, 18, 1
Melting Point1337.33 K
Boiling Point3129 K
CAS NumberCAS7440-57-5
123456789101112131415161718
1
1
H
Hydrogen
1.008

Atomic #

Electronic Shell #

Symbol
Name
Atomic Weight
HGas
HgLiquid
CSolid
Metals
Metalloids
NonMetals
Alkali metals
Alkali earth metals
Lanthanoids
Transition metals
Post-transition metals
Other nonmetals
Halogens
Nobel gas
Actinoids
2
He
Helium
4.003
2
3
Li
Lithium
6.941
4
Be
Beryllium
9.012
5
B
Boron
10.811
6
C
Carbon
12.011
7
N
Nitrogen
14.007
8
O
Oxygen
15.999
9
F
Fluorine
18.998
10
Ne
Neon
20.180
3
11
Na
Sodium
22.990
12
Mg
Magnesium
24.305
13
Al
Aluminium
26.982
14
Si
Silicon
28.085
15
P
Phosphorus
30.974
16
S
Sulfur
32.065
17
Cl
Chlorine
35.453
18
Ar
Argon
39.948
4
19
K
Potassium
39.098
20
Ca
Calcium
40.078
21
Sc
Scandium
44.956
22
Ti
Titanium
47.867
23
V
Vanadium
50.941
24
Cr
Chromium
51.996
25
Mn
Manganese
54.938
26
Fe
Iron
55.845
27
Co
Cobalt
58.933
28
Ni
Nickel
58.693
29
Cu
Copper
63.546
30
Zn
Zinc
65.409
31
Ga
Gallium
69.723
32
Ge
Germanium
72.640
33
As
Arsenic
74.922
34
Se
Selenium
78.960
35
Br
Bromine
79.904
36
Kr
Krypton
83.798
5
37
Rb
Rubidium
85.468
38
Sr
Strontium
87.620
39
Y
Yttrium
88.906
40
Zr
Zirconium
91.224
41
Nb
Niobium
92.906
42
Mo
Molybdenum
95.940
43
Tc
Technetium
98
44
Ru
Ruthenium
101.070
45
Rh
Rhodium
102.906
46
Pd
Palladium
106.420
47
Ag
Silver
107.868
48
Cd
Cadmium
112.411
49
In
Indium
114.818
50
Sn
Tin
118.710
51
Sb
Antimony
121.760
52
Te
Tellurium
127.600
53
I
Iodine
126.904
54
Xe
Xenon
131.293
6
55
Cs
Cesium
132.905
56
Ba
Barium
137.327
57 - 71
La - Lu
Lanthanides
72
Hf
Hafnium
178.490
73
Ta
Tantalum
180.948
74
W
Tungsten
183.840
75
Re
Rhenium
186.207
76
Os
Osmium
190.230
77
Ir
Iridium
192.217
78
Pt
Platinum
195.078
79
Au
Gold
196.967
80
Hg
Mercury
200.590
81
Tl
Thallium
204.383
82
Pb
Lead
207.200
83
Bi
Bismuth
208.980
84
Po
Polonium
209
85
At
Astatine
210
86
Rn
Radon
222
7
87
Fr
Francium
223
88
Ra
Radium
226
89 - 103
Ac - Lr
Actinides
104
Rf
Rutherfordium
261
105
Db
Dubnium
262
106
Sg
Seaborgium
266
107
Bh
Bohrium
264
108
Hs
Hassium
277
109
Mt
Meitnerium
268
110
Ds
Darmstadtium
281
111
Rg
Roentgenium
272
112
Cn
Copernicium
285
113
Nh
Nihonium
284
114
Fl
Flerovium
289
115
Mc
Moscovium
288
116
Lv
Livermorium
292
117
Ts
Tennessine
294
118
Og
Oganesson
294
Lanthanides
57
La
Lanthanum
138.905
58
Ce
Cerium
140.116
59
Pr
Praseodymium
140.908
60
Nd
Neodymium
144.240
61
Pm
Promethium
145
62
Sm
Samarium
150.360
63
Eu
Europium
151.964
64
Gd
Gadolinium
157.250
65
Tb
Terbium
158.925
66
Dy
Dysprosium
162.500
67
Ho
Holmium
164.930
68
Er
Erbium
167.259
69
Tm
Thulium
168.934
70
Yb
Ytterbium
173.040
71
Lu
Lutetium
174.967
Actinides
89
Ac
Actinium
227
90
Th
Thorium
232.038
91
Pa
Protactinium
231.036
92
U
Uranium
238.029
93
Np
Neptunium
237
94
Pu
Plutonium
244
95
Am
Americium
243
96
Cm
Curium
247
97
Bk
Berkelium
247
98
Cf
Californium
251
99
Es
Einsteinium
252
100
Fm
Fermium
257
101
Md
Mendelevium
258
102
No
Nobelium
259
103
Lr
Lawrencium
262

How to Locate Gold on Periodic Table

Periodic table is arranged by atomic number, number of protons in the nucleus which is same as number of electrons. The atomic number increases from left to right. Periodic table starts at top left ( Atomic number 1) and ends at bottom right (atomic number 118). Therefore you can directly look for atomic number 79 to find Gold on periodic table.

Another way to read periodic table and locate an element is by using group number (column) and period number (row). To locate Gold on periodic table look for cross section of group 11 and period 6 in the modern periodic table.

Gold History

The element Gold was discovered by Bulgaria in year Before 6000 BCE . Gold was first isolated by Varna Necropolis in ca. 4400 BCE. Gold derived its name from English word (aurum in Latin).

The oldest golden treasure in the world, dating from 4,600 BC to 4,200 BC, was discovered at the burial site Varna Necropolis.

Gold Presence: Abundance in Nature and Around Us

The table below shows the abundance of Gold in Universe, Sun, Meteorites, Earth's Crust, Oceans and Human Body.

 ppb by weight (1ppb =10^-7 %)ppb by atoms (1ppb =10^-7 %)
Abundance in Universe0.60.004
Abundance in Sun10.01
Abundance in Meteorites17020
Abundance in Earth's Crust3.10.3
Abundance in Oceans0.050.0016
Abundance in Humans1003

Crystal Structure of Gold

The solid state structure of Gold is Face Centered Cubic.

The Crystal structure can be described in terms of its unit Cell. The unit Cells repeats itself in three dimensional space to form the structure.

Unit Cell Parameters

The unit cell is represented in terms of its lattice parameters, which are the lengths of the cell edges Lattice Constants (a, b and c)

abc
407.82 pm407.82 pm407.82 pm

and the angles between them Lattice Angles (alpha, beta and gamma).

alphabetagamma
π/2 π/2 π/2

The positions of the atoms inside the unit cell are described by the set of atomic positions ( xi, yi, zi) measured from a reference lattice point.

The symmetry properties of the crystal are described by the concept of space groups. All possible symmetric arrangements of particles in three-dimensional space are described by the 230 space groups (219 distinct types, or 230 if chiral copies are considered distinct.

Space Group NameFm_ 3m 79 Au Gold - Crystal Structure | SchoolMyKids
Oxidation StatesSpace Group Number225
Crystal StructureFace Centered Cubic

Gold Atomic and Orbital Properties

Gold atoms have 79 electrons and the electronic shell structure is [2, 8, 18, 32, 18, 1] with Atomic Term Symbol (Quantum Numbers) 2S1/2.

Atomic Number79
Number of Electrons (with no charge)79
Number of Protons79
Mass Number197
Number of Neutrons118
Shell structure (Electrons per energy level)2, 8, 18, 32, 18, 1
Electron Configuration[Xe] 4f14 5d10 6s1
Valence Electrons5d10 6s1
Valence (Valency)5
Main Oxidation States1, 3
Oxidation States-3, -2, -1, 0, 1, 2, 3, 5
Atomic Term Symbol (Quantum Numbers)2S1/2

Bohr Atomic Model of Gold - Electrons per energy level

79 Au Gold - Electron Shell Structure | SchoolMyKids
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Ground State Electronic Configuration of Gold - neutral Gold atom

Abbreviated electronic configuration of Gold

The ground state abbreviated electronic configuration of Neutral Gold atom is [Xe] 4f14 5d10 6s1. The portion of Gold configuration that is equivalent to the noble gas of the preceding period, is abbreviated as [Xe]. For atoms with many electrons, this notation can become lengthy and so an abbreviated notation is used. This is important as it is the Valence electrons 5d10 6s1, electrons in the outermost shell that determine the chemical properties of the element.

Unabbreviated electronic configuration of neutral Gold

Complete ground state electronic configuration for the Gold atom, Unabbreviated electronic configuration

1s2 2s2 2p6 3s2 3p6 3d10 4s2 4p6 4d10 5s2 5p6 4f14 5d10 6s1

Electrons are filled in atomic orbitals as per the order determined by the Aufbau principle, Pauli Exclusion Principle and Hund’s Rule.

  • As per the Aufbau principle the electrons will occupy the orbitals having lower energies before occupying higher energy orbitals. According to this principle, electrons are filled in the following order: 1s, 2s, 2p, 3s, 3p, 4s, 3d, 4p, 5s, 4d, 5p, 6s, 4f, 5d, 6p, 7s, 5f, 6d, 7p…
  • The Pauli exclusion principle states that a maximum of two electrons, each having opposite spins, can fit in an orbital.
  • Hund's rule states that every orbital in a given subshell is singly occupied by electrons before a second electron is filled in an orbital.
  • Electron configuration of Gold
    Atomic Structure of Gold

    Gold atomic radius is 174 pm, while it's covalent radius is 144 pm.

    Atomic Radius Calculated

    174 pm (1.74 Å)

    Atomic Radius Empirical

    135 pm (1.35 Å)

    Atomic Volume10.21 cm3/mol
    Covalent Radius144 pm (1.44 Å)
    Van der Waals Radius166 pm
    Neutron Cross Section98.7
    Neutron Mass Absorption 0.017

    Atomic Spectrum of Gold

    Atomic Spectrum of Gold | SchoolMyKids

    Gold Chemical Properties: Gold Ionization Energies and electron affinity

    The electron affinity of Gold is 222.8 kJ/mol.

    Valence5
    Electronegativity2.54
    ElectronAffinity222.8 kJ/mol

    Ionization Energy of Gold

    Refer to table below for Ionization energies of Gold

    Ionization energy numberEnthalpy - kJ/mol
    1st890.1
    2nd1980

    Gold Physical Properties

    Refer to below table for Gold Physical Properties

    Density19.3 g/cm3(when liquid at m.p density is $17.31 g/cm3)
    Molar Volume10.21 cm3/mol

    Elastic Properties

    Young Modulus78
    Shear Modulus27 GPa
    Bulk Modulus 220 GPa
    Poisson Ratio0.44

    Hardness of Gold - Tests to Measure of Hardness of Element

    Mohs Hardness2.5 MPa
    Vickers Hardness216 MPa
    Brinell Hardness2450 MPa

    Gold Electrical Properties

    Gold is Conductor of electricity. Refer to table below for the Electrical properties ofGold

    Electrical Conductivity45000000 S/m
    Resistivity2.2e-8 m Ω
    Superconducting Point-

    Gold Heat and Conduction Properties

    Thermal Conductivity320 W/(m K)
    Thermal Expansion0.0000142 /K

    Gold Magnetic Properties

    Magnetic TypeDiamagnetic
    Curie Point-
    Mass Magnetic Susceptibility-1.78e-9 m3/kg
    Molar Magnetic Susceptibility-3.51e-10 m3/mol
    Volume Magnetic Susceptibility-0.0000344

    Optical Properties of Gold

    Refractive Index-

    Acoustic Properties of Gold

    Speed of Sound1740 m/s

    Gold Thermal Properties - Enthalpies and thermodynamics

    Refer to table below for Thermal properties of Gold

    Melting Point1337.33 K (1064.18°C, 1947.524 °F)
    Boiling Point3129 K (2855.85°C, 5172.53 °F)
    Critical Temperature-
    Superconducting Point-

    Enthalpies of Gold

    Heat of Fusion12.5 kJ/mol
    Heat of Vaporization330 kJ/mol
    Heat of Combustion-

    Gold Isotopes - Nuclear Properties of Gold

    Gold has 37 isotopes, with between 169 and 205 nucleons. Gold has 1 stable naturally occuring isotopes.

    Isotopes of Gold - Naturally occurring stable Isotopes: 197Au.

    IsotopeZNIsotope Mass% AbundanceT halfDecay Mode
    169Au7990169Synthetic
    170Au7991170Synthetic
    171Au7992171Synthetic
    172Au7993172Synthetic
    173Au7994173Synthetic
    174Au7995174Synthetic
    175Au7996175Synthetic
    176Au7997176Synthetic
    177Au7998177Synthetic
    178Au7999178Synthetic
    179Au79100179Synthetic
    180Au79101180Synthetic
    181Au79102181Synthetic
    182Au79103182Synthetic
    183Au79104183Synthetic
    184Au79105184Synthetic
    185Au79106185Synthetic
    186Au79107186Synthetic
    187Au79108187Synthetic
    188Au79109188Synthetic
    189Au79110189Synthetic
    190Au79111190Synthetic
    191Au79112191Synthetic
    192Au79113192Synthetic
    193Au79114193Synthetic
    194Au79115194Synthetic
    195Au79116195Synthetic
    196Au79117196Synthetic
    197Au79118197100%Stable
    198Au79119198Synthetic
    199Au79120199Synthetic
    200Au79121200Synthetic
    201Au79122201Synthetic
    202Au79123202Synthetic
    203Au79124203Synthetic
    204Au79125204Synthetic
    205Au79126205Synthetic

    Database Search

    List of unique identifiers to search the element in various chemical registry databases

    DatabaseIdentifier number
    CAS Number - Chemical Abstracts Service (CAS)CAS7440-57-5
    RTECS NumberRTECSMD5070000
    CID Number CID23985
    Gmelin Number-
    NSC Number-