Niobium, formerly columbium, is a chemical element with symbol Nb (formerly Cb) and atomic number 41. It is a soft, grey, ductile Transition Metal, which is often found in the pyrochlore mineral, the main commercial source for niobium, and columbite. The name comes from Greek mythology:Niobe, daughter of Tantalus since it is so similar to tantalum.
It belongs to group 5 of the periodic table having trivial name .
Read key information and facts about element Niobium
|Appearance||gray metallic, bluish when oxidized|
|Group in Periodic Table||5|
|Group Name||vanadium family|
|Period in Periodic Table||period 5|
|Block in Periodic Table||d -block|
|Electronic Configuration||[Kr] 4d4 5s1|
|Electronic Shell Structure (Electrons per shell)||2, 8, 18, 12, 1|
|Melting Point||2750 K|
|Boiling Point||5017 K|
How to Locate Niobium on Periodic Table
Periodic table is arranged by atomic number, number of protons in the nucleus which is same as number of electrons. The atomic number increases from left to right. Periodic table starts at top left ( Atomic number 1) and ends at bottom right (atomic number 118). Therefore you can directly look for atomic number 41 to find Niobium on periodic table.
Another way to read periodic table and locate an element is by using group number (column) and period number (row). To locate Niobium on periodic table look for cross section of group 5 and period 5 in the modern periodic table.
The element Niobium was discovered by C. Hatchett in year 1801 in United Kingdom. Niobium was first isolated by W. Blomstrand in 1864. Niobium derived its name from Niobe, daughter of king Tantalus from Greek mythology.
Hatchett found the element incolumbiteore and named it columbium. Heinrich Rose proved in 1844 that the element is distinct from tantalum, and renamed it niobium which was officially accepted in 1949.
Niobium Presence: Abundance in Nature and Around Us
The table below shows the abundance of Niobium in Universe, Sun, Meteorites, Earth's Crust, Oceans and Human Body.
|ppb by weight (1ppb =10^-7 %)||ppb by atoms (1ppb =10^-7 %)|
|Abundance in Universe||2||0.02|
|Abundance in Sun||4||0.05|
|Abundance in Meteorites||190||30|
|Abundance in Earth's Crust||17000||3700|
|Abundance in Oceans||0.001||0.000067|
|Abundance in Humans||-||-|
Crystal Structure of Niobium
The solid state structure of Niobium is Body Centered Cubic.
The Crystal structure can be described in terms of its unit Cell. The unit Cells repeats itself in three dimensional space to form the structure.
Unit Cell Parameters
The unit cell is represented in terms of its lattice parameters, which are the lengths of the cell edges Lattice Constants (a, b and c)
|330.04 pm||330.04 pm||330.04 pm|
and the angles between them Lattice Angles (alpha, beta and gamma).
The positions of the atoms inside the unit cell are described by the set of atomic positions ( xi, yi, zi) measured from a reference lattice point.
The symmetry properties of the crystal are described by the concept of space groups. All possible symmetric arrangements of particles in three-dimensional space are described by the 230 space groups (219 distinct types, or 230 if chiral copies are considered distinct.
|Space Group Name||Im_ 3m|
|Space Group Number||229|
|Crystal Structure||Body Centered Cubic|
|Number of atoms per unit cell||2|
The number of atoms per unit cell in a simple cubic, face-centered cubic and body-centred cubic are 1,4,2 respectively.
Niobium Atomic and Orbital Properties
Niobium atoms have 41 electrons and the electronic shell structure is [2, 8, 18, 12, 1] with Atomic Term Symbol (Quantum Numbers) 6D1/2.
|Number of Electrons (with no charge)||41|
|Number of Protons||41|
|Number of Neutrons||52|
|Shell structure (Electrons per energy level)||2, 8, 18, 12, 1|
|Electron Configuration||[Kr] 4d4 5s1|
|Valence Electrons||4d4 5s1|
|Main Oxidation States||5|
|Oxidation States||-3, -1, 0, 1, 2, 3, 4, 5|
|Atomic Term Symbol (Quantum Numbers)||6D1/2|
Bohr Atomic Model of Niobium - Electrons per energy level
Ground State Electronic Configuration of Niobium - neutral Niobium atom
Abbreviated electronic configuration of Niobium
The ground state abbreviated electronic configuration of Neutral Niobium atom is [Kr] 4d4 5s1. The portion of Niobium configuration that is equivalent to the noble gas of the preceding period, is abbreviated as [Kr]. For atoms with many electrons, this notation can become lengthy and so an abbreviated notation is used. This is important as it is the Valence electrons 4d4 5s1, electrons in the outermost shell that determine the chemical properties of the element.
Unabbreviated electronic configuration of neutral Niobium
Complete ground state electronic configuration for the Niobium atom, Unabbreviated electronic configuration
1s2 2s2 2p6 3s2 3p6 3d10 4s2 4p6 4d4 5s1
Electrons are filled in atomic orbitals as per the order determined by the Aufbau principle, Pauli Exclusion Principle and Hund’s Rule.
Atomic Structure of Niobium
Niobium atomic radius is 198 pm, while it's covalent radius is 137 pm.
|Atomic Radius Calculated|
198 pm (1.98 Å)
|Atomic Radius Empirical|
145 pm (1.45 Å)
|Atomic Volume||10.841 cm3/mol|
|Covalent Radius||137 pm (1.37 Å)|
|Van der Waals Radius||-|
|Neutron Cross Section||1.15|
|Neutron Mass Absorption||0.0004|
Atomic Spectrum of Niobium
Niobium Chemical Properties: Niobium Ionization Energies and electron affinity
The electron affinity of Niobium is 86.1 kJ/mol.
Ionization Energy of Niobium
Refer to table below for Ionization energies of Niobium
|Ionization energy number||Enthalpy - kJ/mol|
Niobium Physical Properties
Refer to below table for Niobium Physical Properties
|Molar Volume||10.841 cm3/mol|
|Shear Modulus||38 GPa|
|Bulk Modulus||170 GPa|
Hardness of Niobium - Tests to Measure of Hardness of Element
|Mohs Hardness||6 MPa|
|Vickers Hardness||1320 MPa|
|Brinell Hardness||736 MPa|
Niobium Electrical Properties
Niobium is Conductor of electricity. Refer to table below for the Electrical properties ofNiobium
|Electrical Conductivity||6700000 S/m|
|Resistivity||1.5e-7 m Ω|
Niobium Heat and Conduction Properties
|Thermal Conductivity||54 W/(m K)|
|Thermal Expansion||0.00000729 /K|
Niobium Magnetic Properties
|Mass Magnetic Susceptibility||2.76e-8 m3/kg|
|Molar Magnetic Susceptibility||2.56e-9 m3/mol|
|Volume Magnetic Susceptibility||0.000237|
Optical Properties of Niobium
Acoustic Properties of Niobium
|Speed of Sound||3480 m/s|
Niobium Thermal Properties - Enthalpies and thermodynamics
Refer to table below for Thermal properties of Niobium
|Melting Point||2750 K (2476.85°C, 4490.33 °F)|
|Boiling Point||5017 K (4743.85°C, 8570.93 °F)|
Enthalpies of Niobium
|Heat of Fusion||26.8 kJ/mol|
|Heat of Vaporization||690 kJ/mol|
|Heat of Combustion||-|
Niobium Isotopes - Nuclear Properties of Niobium
Niobium has 33 isotopes, with between 81 and 113 nucleons. Niobium has 1 stable naturally occuring isotopes.
Isotopes of Niobium - Naturally occurring stable Isotopes: 93Nb.
|Isotope||Z||N||Isotope Mass||% Abundance||T half||Decay Mode|
Compare Niobium with other elements
Compare Niobium with all Group 5 elements
Compare Niobium with all Period 5 elements
Compare Niobium with all Transition Metal elements
What is the electronic configuration of Niobium?
The electronic configuration of Niobium is 1s2 2s2 2p6 3s2 3p6 3d10 4s2 4p6 4d4 5s1.
What is the abbreviated electronic configuration of Niobium?
The abbreviated electronic configuration of Niobium is [Kr] 4d4 5s1. To form abbreviated notation of electronic configuration, the completely filled subshells are replaced by the noble gas of the preceding period in square brackets.
What is the symbol of Niobium?
Symbol of Niobium is Nb. Niobium is a chemical element with symbol Nb and atomic number 41.
What is the position of Niobium in the Periodic Table?
Niobium is a chemical element with the symbol Nb and atomic number 41. Niobium is the 41 element on the periodic table. It is located in group 5 and period 5 in the modern periodic table.
What is the atomic number of Niobium?
The atomic number of Niobium is 41.
What is the color of Niobium?
Niobium is of Gray color.
Who discovered Niobium?
The element Niobium was discovered by C. Hatchett in year 1801 in United Kingdom. Niobium was first isolated by W. Blomstrand in 1864.
How many valence electrons does a Niobium atom have?
Niobium has 5 valence electrons. Niobium has 41 electrons out of which 5 valence electrons are present in the 4d4 5s1 outer orbitals of atom.
What is the melting Point of Niobium?
Melting Point of Niobium is 2750 K.
What is the boiling Point of Niobium?
Boiling Point of Niobium is 5017 K.
What is the melting Point of Niobium in Kelvin?
Melting Point of Niobium in Kelvin is 2750 K.
What is the boiling Point of Niobium in Kelvin?
Boiling Point of Niobium in Kelvin is 5017 K.
What is the electronic configuration of Niobium 41?
The electronic configuration of Niobium will be 1s2 2s2 2p6 3s2 3p6 3d10 4s2 4p6 4d4 5s1.
How do you write the electron configuration for Niobium?
The electronic configuration of Niobium will be 1s2 2s2 2p6 3s2 3p6 3d10 4s2 4p6 4d4 5s1.