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Nb Niobium
Element Information, Facts, Properties, Trends, Uses, Comparison with other elements

41
Nb
Niobium
Element 41 of Periodic table is Niobium with atomic number 41, atomic weight 92.90638. Niobium, symbol Nb, has a Body Centered Cubic structure and Gray color. Niobium is a Transition Metal element. It is part of group 5 (vanadium family). Know everything about Niobium Facts, Physical Properties, Chemical Properties, Electronic configuration, Atomic and Crystal Structure.
41 Nb - Niobium | SchoolMyKids

Niobium, formerly columbium, is a chemical element with symbol Nb (formerly Cb) and atomic number 41. It is a soft, grey, ductile Transition Metal, which is often found in the pyrochlore mineral, the main commercial source for niobium, and columbite. The name comes from Greek mythology:Niobe, daughter of Tantalus since it is so similar to tantalum.

It belongs to group 5 of the periodic table having trivial name .

Niobium Facts

Read key information and facts about element Niobium

NameNiobium
Atomic Number41
Atomic SymbolNb
Atomic Weight92.90638
PhaseSolid
ColorGray
Appearancegray metallic, bluish when oxidized
ClassificationTransition Metal
Group in Periodic Table5
Group Namevanadium family
Period in Periodic Tableperiod 5
Block in Periodic Tabled -block
Electronic Configuration[Kr] 4d4 5s1
Electronic Shell Structure (Electrons per shell)2, 8, 18, 12, 1
Melting Point2750 K
Boiling Point5017 K
CAS NumberCAS7440-03-1
123456789101112131415161718
1
1
H
Hydrogen
1.008

Atomic #

Electronic Shell #

Symbol
Name
Atomic Weight
HGas
HgLiquid
CSolid
Metals
Metalloids
NonMetals
Alkali metals
Alkali earth metals
Lanthanoids
Transition metals
Post-transition metals
Other nonmetals
Halogens
Nobel gas
Actinoids
2
He
Helium
4.003
2
3
Li
Lithium
6.941
4
Be
Beryllium
9.012
5
B
Boron
10.811
6
C
Carbon
12.011
7
N
Nitrogen
14.007
8
O
Oxygen
15.999
9
F
Fluorine
18.998
10
Ne
Neon
20.180
3
11
Na
Sodium
22.990
12
Mg
Magnesium
24.305
13
Al
Aluminium
26.982
14
Si
Silicon
28.085
15
P
Phosphorus
30.974
16
S
Sulfur
32.065
17
Cl
Chlorine
35.453
18
Ar
Argon
39.948
4
19
K
Potassium
39.098
20
Ca
Calcium
40.078
21
Sc
Scandium
44.956
22
Ti
Titanium
47.867
23
V
Vanadium
50.941
24
Cr
Chromium
51.996
25
Mn
Manganese
54.938
26
Fe
Iron
55.845
27
Co
Cobalt
58.933
28
Ni
Nickel
58.693
29
Cu
Copper
63.546
30
Zn
Zinc
65.409
31
Ga
Gallium
69.723
32
Ge
Germanium
72.640
33
As
Arsenic
74.922
34
Se
Selenium
78.960
35
Br
Bromine
79.904
36
Kr
Krypton
83.798
5
37
Rb
Rubidium
85.468
38
Sr
Strontium
87.620
39
Y
Yttrium
88.906
40
Zr
Zirconium
91.224
41
Nb
Niobium
92.906
42
Mo
Molybdenum
95.940
43
Tc
Technetium
98
44
Ru
Ruthenium
101.070
45
Rh
Rhodium
102.906
46
Pd
Palladium
106.420
47
Ag
Silver
107.868
48
Cd
Cadmium
112.411
49
In
Indium
114.818
50
Sn
Tin
118.710
51
Sb
Antimony
121.760
52
Te
Tellurium
127.600
53
I
Iodine
126.904
54
Xe
Xenon
131.293
6
55
Cs
Cesium
132.905
56
Ba
Barium
137.327
57 - 71
La - Lu
Lanthanides
72
Hf
Hafnium
178.490
73
Ta
Tantalum
180.948
74
W
Tungsten
183.840
75
Re
Rhenium
186.207
76
Os
Osmium
190.230
77
Ir
Iridium
192.217
78
Pt
Platinum
195.078
79
Au
Gold
196.967
80
Hg
Mercury
200.590
81
Tl
Thallium
204.383
82
Pb
Lead
207.200
83
Bi
Bismuth
208.980
84
Po
Polonium
209
85
At
Astatine
210
86
Rn
Radon
222
7
87
Fr
Francium
223
88
Ra
Radium
226
89 - 103
Ac - Lr
Actinides
104
Rf
Rutherfordium
261
105
Db
Dubnium
262
106
Sg
Seaborgium
266
107
Bh
Bohrium
264
108
Hs
Hassium
277
109
Mt
Meitnerium
268
110
Ds
Darmstadtium
281
111
Rg
Roentgenium
272
112
Cn
Copernicium
285
113
Nh
Nihonium
284
114
Fl
Flerovium
289
115
Mc
Moscovium
288
116
Lv
Livermorium
292
117
Ts
Tennessine
294
118
Og
Oganesson
294
Lanthanides
57
La
Lanthanum
138.905
58
Ce
Cerium
140.116
59
Pr
Praseodymium
140.908
60
Nd
Neodymium
144.240
61
Pm
Promethium
145
62
Sm
Samarium
150.360
63
Eu
Europium
151.964
64
Gd
Gadolinium
157.250
65
Tb
Terbium
158.925
66
Dy
Dysprosium
162.500
67
Ho
Holmium
164.930
68
Er
Erbium
167.259
69
Tm
Thulium
168.934
70
Yb
Ytterbium
173.040
71
Lu
Lutetium
174.967
Actinides
89
Ac
Actinium
227
90
Th
Thorium
232.038
91
Pa
Protactinium
231.036
92
U
Uranium
238.029
93
Np
Neptunium
237
94
Pu
Plutonium
244
95
Am
Americium
243
96
Cm
Curium
247
97
Bk
Berkelium
247
98
Cf
Californium
251
99
Es
Einsteinium
252
100
Fm
Fermium
257
101
Md
Mendelevium
258
102
No
Nobelium
259
103
Lr
Lawrencium
262

How to Locate Niobium on Periodic Table

Periodic table is arranged by atomic number, number of protons in the nucleus which is same as number of electrons. The atomic number increases from left to right. Periodic table starts at top left ( Atomic number 1) and ends at bottom right (atomic number 118). Therefore you can directly look for atomic number 41 to find Niobium on periodic table.

Another way to read periodic table and locate an element is by using group number (column) and period number (row). To locate Niobium on periodic table look for cross section of group 5 and period 5 in the modern periodic table.

Niobium History

The element Niobium was discovered by C. Hatchett in year 1801 in United Kingdom. Niobium was first isolated by W. Blomstrand in 1864. Niobium derived its name from Niobe, daughter of king Tantalus from Greek mythology.

Hatchett found the element incolumbiteore and named it columbium. Heinrich Rose proved in 1844 that the element is distinct from tantalum, and renamed it niobium which was officially accepted in 1949.

Niobium Presence: Abundance in Nature and Around Us

The table below shows the abundance of Niobium in Universe, Sun, Meteorites, Earth's Crust, Oceans and Human Body.

 ppb by weight (1ppb =10^-7 %)ppb by atoms (1ppb =10^-7 %)
Abundance in Universe20.02
Abundance in Sun40.05
Abundance in Meteorites19030
Abundance in Earth's Crust170003700
Abundance in Oceans0.0010.000067
Abundance in Humans--

Crystal Structure of Niobium

The solid state structure of Niobium is Body Centered Cubic.

The Crystal structure can be described in terms of its unit Cell. The unit Cells repeats itself in three dimensional space to form the structure.

Unit Cell Parameters

The unit cell is represented in terms of its lattice parameters, which are the lengths of the cell edges Lattice Constants (a, b and c)

abc
330.04 pm330.04 pm330.04 pm

and the angles between them Lattice Angles (alpha, beta and gamma).

alphabetagamma
π/2 π/2 π/2

The positions of the atoms inside the unit cell are described by the set of atomic positions ( xi, yi, zi) measured from a reference lattice point.

The symmetry properties of the crystal are described by the concept of space groups. All possible symmetric arrangements of particles in three-dimensional space are described by the 230 space groups (219 distinct types, or 230 if chiral copies are considered distinct.

Space Group NameIm_ 3m 41 Nb Niobium - Crystal Structure | SchoolMyKids
Oxidation StatesSpace Group Number229
Crystal StructureBody Centered Cubic

Niobium Atomic and Orbital Properties

Niobium atoms have 41 electrons and the electronic shell structure is [2, 8, 18, 12, 1] with Atomic Term Symbol (Quantum Numbers) 6D1/2.

Atomic Number41
Number of Electrons (with no charge)41
Number of Protons41
Mass Number93
Number of Neutrons52
Shell structure (Electrons per energy level)2, 8, 18, 12, 1
Electron Configuration[Kr] 4d4 5s1
Valence Electrons4d4 5s1
Valence (Valency)5
Main Oxidation States5
Oxidation States-3, -1, 0, 1, 2, 3, 4, 5
Atomic Term Symbol (Quantum Numbers)6D1/2

Bohr Atomic Model of Niobium - Electrons per energy level

41 Nb Niobium - Electron Shell Structure | SchoolMyKids
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Ground State Electronic Configuration of Niobium - neutral Niobium atom

Abbreviated electronic configuration of Niobium

The ground state abbreviated electronic configuration of Neutral Niobium atom is [Kr] 4d4 5s1. The portion of Niobium configuration that is equivalent to the noble gas of the preceding period, is abbreviated as [Kr]. For atoms with many electrons, this notation can become lengthy and so an abbreviated notation is used. This is important as it is the Valence electrons 4d4 5s1, electrons in the outermost shell that determine the chemical properties of the element.

Unabbreviated electronic configuration of neutral Niobium

Complete ground state electronic configuration for the Niobium atom, Unabbreviated electronic configuration

1s2 2s2 2p6 3s2 3p6 3d10 4s2 4p6 4d4 5s1

Electrons are filled in atomic orbitals as per the order determined by the Aufbau principle, Pauli Exclusion Principle and Hund’s Rule.

  • As per the Aufbau principle the electrons will occupy the orbitals having lower energies before occupying higher energy orbitals. According to this principle, electrons are filled in the following order: 1s, 2s, 2p, 3s, 3p, 4s, 3d, 4p, 5s, 4d, 5p, 6s, 4f, 5d, 6p, 7s, 5f, 6d, 7p…
  • The Pauli exclusion principle states that a maximum of two electrons, each having opposite spins, can fit in an orbital.
  • Hund's rule states that every orbital in a given subshell is singly occupied by electrons before a second electron is filled in an orbital.
  • Electron configuration of Niobium
    Atomic Structure of Niobium

    Niobium atomic radius is 198 pm, while it's covalent radius is 137 pm.

    Atomic Radius Calculated

    198 pm (1.98 Å)

    Atomic Radius Empirical

    145 pm (1.45 Å)

    Atomic Volume10.841 cm3/mol
    Covalent Radius137 pm (1.37 Å)
    Van der Waals Radius-
    Neutron Cross Section1.15
    Neutron Mass Absorption 0.0004

    Atomic Spectrum of Niobium

    Atomic Spectrum of Niobium | SchoolMyKids

    Niobium Chemical Properties: Niobium Ionization Energies and electron affinity

    The electron affinity of Niobium is 86.1 kJ/mol.

    Valence5
    Electronegativity1.6
    ElectronAffinity86.1 kJ/mol

    Ionization Energy of Niobium

    Refer to table below for Ionization energies of Niobium

    Ionization energy numberEnthalpy - kJ/mol
    1st652.1
    2nd1380
    3rd2416
    4th3700
    5th4877
    6th9847
    7th12100

    Niobium Physical Properties

    Refer to below table for Niobium Physical Properties

    Density8.57 g/cm3
    Molar Volume10.841 cm3/mol

    Elastic Properties

    Young Modulus105
    Shear Modulus38 GPa
    Bulk Modulus 170 GPa
    Poisson Ratio0.4

    Hardness of Niobium - Tests to Measure of Hardness of Element

    Mohs Hardness6 MPa
    Vickers Hardness1320 MPa
    Brinell Hardness736 MPa

    Niobium Electrical Properties

    Niobium is Conductor of electricity. Refer to table below for the Electrical properties ofNiobium

    Electrical Conductivity6700000 S/m
    Resistivity1.5e-7 m Ω
    Superconducting Point9.25

    Niobium Heat and Conduction Properties

    Thermal Conductivity54 W/(m K)
    Thermal Expansion0.00000729 /K

    Niobium Magnetic Properties

    Magnetic TypeParamagnetic
    Curie Point-
    Mass Magnetic Susceptibility2.76e-8 m3/kg
    Molar Magnetic Susceptibility2.56e-9 m3/mol
    Volume Magnetic Susceptibility0.000237

    Optical Properties of Niobium

    Refractive Index-

    Acoustic Properties of Niobium

    Speed of Sound3480 m/s

    Niobium Thermal Properties - Enthalpies and thermodynamics

    Refer to table below for Thermal properties of Niobium

    Melting Point2750 K (2476.85°C, 4490.33 °F)
    Boiling Point5017 K (4743.85°C, 8570.93 °F)
    Critical Temperature-
    Superconducting Point9.25

    Enthalpies of Niobium

    Heat of Fusion26.8 kJ/mol
    Heat of Vaporization690 kJ/mol
    Heat of Combustion-

    Niobium Isotopes - Nuclear Properties of Niobium

    Niobium has 33 isotopes, with between 81 and 113 nucleons. Niobium has 1 stable naturally occuring isotopes.

    Isotopes of Niobium - Naturally occurring stable Isotopes: 93Nb.

    IsotopeZNIsotope Mass% AbundanceT halfDecay Mode
    81Nb414081Synthetic
    82Nb414182Synthetic
    83Nb414283Synthetic
    84Nb414384Synthetic
    85Nb414485Synthetic
    86Nb414586Synthetic
    87Nb414687Synthetic
    88Nb414788Synthetic
    89Nb414889Synthetic
    90Nb414990Synthetic
    91Nb415091Synthetic
    92Nb415192Synthetic
    93Nb415293100%Stable
    94Nb415394Synthetic
    95Nb415495Synthetic
    96Nb415596Synthetic
    97Nb415697Synthetic
    98Nb415798Synthetic
    99Nb415899Synthetic
    100Nb4159100Synthetic
    101Nb4160101Synthetic
    102Nb4161102Synthetic
    103Nb4162103Synthetic
    104Nb4163104Synthetic
    105Nb4164105Synthetic
    106Nb4165106Synthetic
    107Nb4166107Synthetic
    108Nb4167108Synthetic
    109Nb4168109Synthetic
    110Nb4169110Synthetic
    111Nb4170111Synthetic
    112Nb4171112Synthetic
    113Nb4172113Synthetic

    Database Search

    List of unique identifiers to search the element in various chemical registry databases

    DatabaseIdentifier number
    CAS Number - Chemical Abstracts Service (CAS)CAS7440-03-1
    RTECS NumberRTECSQT9900000
    CID Number CID23936
    Gmelin Number-
    NSC Number-