Element Information, Facts, Properties, Trends, Uses, Comparison with other elements
Rutherfordium is a chemical element with symbol Rf and atomic number 104, named in honor of physicist Ernest Rutherford. It is a synthetic element (an element that can be created in a laboratory but is not found in nature) and radioactive; the most stable known isotope, 267Rf, has a half-life of approximately 1.3 hours. In the periodic table of the elements, it is a d - block element and the second of the fourth - row transition elements.
It belongs to group 4 of the periodic table having trivial name .
Read key information and facts about element Rutherfordium
|Group in Periodic Table||4|
|Group Name||titanium family|
|Period in Periodic Table||period 7|
|Block in Periodic Table||d -block|
|Electronic Configuration||[Rn] 5f14 6d2 7s2|
|Electronic Shell Structure (Electrons per shell)||2, 8, 18, 32, 32, 10, 2|
How to Locate Rutherfordium on Periodic Table
Periodic table is arranged by atomic number, number of protons in the nucleus which is same as number of electrons. The atomic number increases from left to right. Periodic table starts at top left ( Atomic number 1) and ends at bottom right (atomic number 118). Therefore you can directly look for atomic number 104 to find Rutherfordium on periodic table.
Another way to read periodic table and locate an element is by using group number (column) and period number (row). To locate Rutherfordium on periodic table look for cross section of group 4 and period 7 in the modern periodic table.
The element Rutherfordium was discovered by A. Ghiorso,M. Nurmia,J. Harris,K. Eskola and P. Eskola in year 1969 in Russia and United States. Rutherfordium was first isolated by in . Rutherfordium derived its name from Ernest Rutherford, chemist and physicist.
Prepared by bombardment of californium with carbon atoms.
Rutherfordium Presence: Abundance in Nature and Around Us
The table below shows the abundance of Rutherfordium in Universe, Sun, Meteorites, Earth's Crust, Oceans and Human Body.
|ppb by weight (1ppb =10^-7 %)||ppb by atoms (1ppb =10^-7 %)|
|Abundance in Universe||-||-|
|Abundance in Sun||-||-|
|Abundance in Meteorites||-||-|
|Abundance in Earth's Crust||-||-|
|Abundance in Oceans||-||-|
|Abundance in Humans||-||-|
Crystal Structure of Rutherfordium
The solid state structure of Rutherfordium is Simple Hexagonal.
The Crystal structure can be described in terms of its unit Cell. The unit Cells repeats itself in three dimensional space to form the structure.
Unit Cell Parameters
The unit cell is represented in terms of its lattice parameters, which are the lengths of the cell edges Lattice Constants (a, b and c)
and the angles between them Lattice Angles (alpha, beta and gamma).
The positions of the atoms inside the unit cell are described by the set of atomic positions ( xi, yi, zi) measured from a reference lattice point.
The symmetry properties of the crystal are described by the concept of space groups. All possible symmetric arrangements of particles in three-dimensional space are described by the 230 space groups (219 distinct types, or 230 if chiral copies are considered distinct.
|Space Group Name||-|
|Oxidation States||Space Group Number||-|
|Crystal Structure||Simple Hexagonal|
Rutherfordium Atomic and Orbital Properties
Rutherfordium atoms have 104 electrons and the electronic shell structure is [2, 8, 18, 32, 32, 10, 2] with Atomic Term Symbol (Quantum Numbers) 3F2.
|Number of Electrons (with no charge)||104|
|Number of Protons||104|
|Number of Neutrons||157|
|Shell structure (Electrons per energy level)||2, 8, 18, 32, 32, 10, 2|
|Electron Configuration||[Rn] 5f14 6d2 7s2|
|Valence Electrons||6d2 7s2|
|Main Oxidation States||4|
|Atomic Term Symbol (Quantum Numbers)||3F2|
Bohr Atomic Model of Rutherfordium - Electrons per energy level
Ground State Electronic Configuration of Rutherfordium - neutral Rutherfordium atom
Abbreviated electronic configuration of Rutherfordium
The ground state abbreviated electronic configuration of Neutral Rutherfordium atom is [Rn] 5f14 6d2 7s2. The portion of Rutherfordium configuration that is equivalent to the noble gas of the preceding period, is abbreviated as [Rn]. For atoms with many electrons, this notation can become lengthy and so an abbreviated notation is used. This is important as it is the Valence electrons 6d2 7s2, electrons in the outermost shell that determine the chemical properties of the element.
Unabbreviated electronic configuration of neutral Rutherfordium
Complete ground state electronic configuration for the Rutherfordium atom, Unabbreviated electronic configuration
1s2 2s2 2p6 3s2 3p6 3d10 4s2 4p6 4d10 5s2 5p6 4f14 5d10 6s2 6p6 5f14 6d2 7s2
Electrons are filled in atomic orbitals as per the order determined by the Aufbau principle, Pauli Exclusion Principle and Hund’s Rule.
Atomic Structure of Rutherfordium
Rutherfordium atomic radius is - , while it's covalent radius is - .
|Atomic Radius Calculated|
- (0 Å)
|Atomic Radius Empirical|
- (0 Å)
|Van der Waals Radius||-|
|Neutron Cross Section||-|
|Neutron Mass Absorption||-|
Atomic Spectrum of Rutherfordium
Rutherfordium Chemical Properties: Rutherfordium Ionization Energies and electron affinity
The electron affinity of Rutherfordium is - .
Ionization Energy of Rutherfordium
Refer to table below for Ionization energies of Rutherfordium
|Ionization energy number||Enthalpy - kJ/mol|
Rutherfordium Physical Properties
Refer to below table for Rutherfordium Physical Properties
Hardness of Rutherfordium - Tests to Measure of Hardness of Element
Rutherfordium Electrical Properties
Rutherfordium is Conductor of electricity. Refer to table below for the Electrical properties ofRutherfordium
Rutherfordium Heat and Conduction Properties
Rutherfordium Magnetic Properties
|Mass Magnetic Susceptibility||-|
|Molar Magnetic Susceptibility||-|
|Volume Magnetic Susceptibility||-|
Optical Properties of Rutherfordium
Acoustic Properties of Rutherfordium
|Speed of Sound||-|
Rutherfordium Thermal Properties - Enthalpies and thermodynamics
Refer to table below for Thermal properties of Rutherfordium
|Melting Point||- (-273.15°C, -459.66999999999996 °F)|
|Boiling Point||- (-273.15°C, -459.66999999999996 °F)|
Enthalpies of Rutherfordium
|Heat of Fusion||-|
|Heat of Vaporization||-|
|Heat of Combustion||-|
Rutherfordium Isotopes - Nuclear Properties of Rutherfordium
Rutherfordium has 16 isotopes, with between 253 and 268 nucleons. Rutherfordium has 0 stable naturally occuring isotopes.
Isotopes of Rutherfordium - Naturally occurring stable Isotopes: -.
|Isotope||Z||N||Isotope Mass||% Abundance||T half||Decay Mode|