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Kr Krypton
Element Information, Facts, Properties, Trends, Uses, Comparison with other elements

36
Kr
Krypton
Element 36 of Periodic table is Krypton with atomic number 36, atomic weight 83.798. Krypton, symbol Kr, has a Face Centered Cubic structure and Colorless color. Krypton is a Noble Gas element. It is part of group 18 (helium family or neon family). Know everything about Krypton Facts, Physical Properties, Chemical Properties, Electronic configuration, Atomic and Crystal Structure.
36 Kr - Krypton | SchoolMyKids

Krypton (from Greek:κρυπτός kryptos 'the hidden one') is a chemical element with symbol Kr and atomic number 36. It is a member of group 18 (noble gases) elements. A colorless, odorless, tasteless Noble Gas, krypton occurs in trace amounts in the atmosphere, is isolated by fractionally distilling liquefied air, and is often used with other rare gases in fluorescent lamps.

It belongs to group 18 of the periodic table having trivial name noble gases, aerogens.

Krypton Facts

Read key information and facts about element Krypton

NameKrypton
Atomic Number36
Atomic SymbolKr
Atomic Weight83.798
PhaseGas (Monoatomic Gas )
ColorColorless
Appearancecolorless gas, exhibiting a whitish glow in a high electric field
ClassificationNoble Gas
Group in Periodic Table18
Group Namehelium family or neon family
Period in Periodic Tableperiod 4
Block in Periodic Tablep -block
Electronic Configuration[Ar] 3d10 4s2 4p6
Electronic Shell Structure (Electrons per shell)2, 8, 18, 8
Melting Point115.79 K
Boiling Point119.93 K
CAS NumberCAS7439-90-9
Neighborhood Elements
123456789101112131415161718
1
1
H
Hydrogen
1.008

Atomic #

Electronic Shell #

Symbol
Name
Atomic Weight
HGas
HgLiquid
CSolid
Metals
Metalloids
NonMetals
Alkali metals
Alkali earth metals
Lanthanoids
Transition metals
Post-transition metals
Other nonmetals
Halogens
Nobel gas
Actinoids
2
He
Helium
4.003
2
3
Li
Lithium
6.941
4
Be
Beryllium
9.012
5
B
Boron
10.811
6
C
Carbon
12.011
7
N
Nitrogen
14.007
8
O
Oxygen
15.999
9
F
Fluorine
18.998
10
Ne
Neon
20.180
3
11
Na
Sodium
22.990
12
Mg
Magnesium
24.305
13
Al
Aluminium
26.982
14
Si
Silicon
28.085
15
P
Phosphorus
30.974
16
S
Sulfur
32.065
17
Cl
Chlorine
35.453
18
Ar
Argon
39.948
4
19
K
Potassium
39.098
20
Ca
Calcium
40.078
21
Sc
Scandium
44.956
22
Ti
Titanium
47.867
23
V
Vanadium
50.941
24
Cr
Chromium
51.996
25
Mn
Manganese
54.938
26
Fe
Iron
55.845
27
Co
Cobalt
58.933
28
Ni
Nickel
58.693
29
Cu
Copper
63.546
30
Zn
Zinc
65.409
31
Ga
Gallium
69.723
32
Ge
Germanium
72.640
33
As
Arsenic
74.922
34
Se
Selenium
78.960
35
Br
Bromine
79.904
36
Kr
Krypton
83.798
5
37
Rb
Rubidium
85.468
38
Sr
Strontium
87.620
39
Y
Yttrium
88.906
40
Zr
Zirconium
91.224
41
Nb
Niobium
92.906
42
Mo
Molybdenum
95.940
43
Tc
Technetium
98
44
Ru
Ruthenium
101.070
45
Rh
Rhodium
102.906
46
Pd
Palladium
106.420
47
Ag
Silver
107.868
48
Cd
Cadmium
112.411
49
In
Indium
114.818
50
Sn
Tin
118.710
51
Sb
Antimony
121.760
52
Te
Tellurium
127.600
53
I
Iodine
126.904
54
Xe
Xenon
131.293
6
55
Cs
Cesium
132.905
56
Ba
Barium
137.327
57 - 71
La - Lu
Lanthanides
72
Hf
Hafnium
178.490
73
Ta
Tantalum
180.948
74
W
Tungsten
183.840
75
Re
Rhenium
186.207
76
Os
Osmium
190.230
77
Ir
Iridium
192.217
78
Pt
Platinum
195.078
79
Au
Gold
196.967
80
Hg
Mercury
200.590
81
Tl
Thallium
204.383
82
Pb
Lead
207.200
83
Bi
Bismuth
208.980
84
Po
Polonium
209
85
At
Astatine
210
86
Rn
Radon
222
7
87
Fr
Francium
223
88
Ra
Radium
226
89 - 103
Ac - Lr
Actinides
104
Rf
Rutherfordium
261
105
Db
Dubnium
262
106
Sg
Seaborgium
266
107
Bh
Bohrium
264
108
Hs
Hassium
277
109
Mt
Meitnerium
268
110
Ds
Darmstadtium
281
111
Rg
Roentgenium
272
112
Cn
Copernicium
285
113
Nh
Nihonium
284
114
Fl
Flerovium
289
115
Mc
Moscovium
288
116
Lv
Livermorium
292
117
Ts
Tennessine
294
118
Og
Oganesson
294
Lanthanides
57
La
Lanthanum
138.905
58
Ce
Cerium
140.116
59
Pr
Praseodymium
140.908
60
Nd
Neodymium
144.240
61
Pm
Promethium
145
62
Sm
Samarium
150.360
63
Eu
Europium
151.964
64
Gd
Gadolinium
157.250
65
Tb
Terbium
158.925
66
Dy
Dysprosium
162.500
67
Ho
Holmium
164.930
68
Er
Erbium
167.259
69
Tm
Thulium
168.934
70
Yb
Ytterbium
173.040
71
Lu
Lutetium
174.967
Actinides
89
Ac
Actinium
227
90
Th
Thorium
232.038
91
Pa
Protactinium
231.036
92
U
Uranium
238.029
93
Np
Neptunium
237
94
Pu
Plutonium
244
95
Am
Americium
243
96
Cm
Curium
247
97
Bk
Berkelium
247
98
Cf
Californium
251
99
Es
Einsteinium
252
100
Fm
Fermium
257
101
Md
Mendelevium
258
102
No
Nobelium
259
103
Lr
Lawrencium
262

How to Locate Krypton on Periodic Table

Periodic table is arranged by atomic number, number of protons in the nucleus which is same as number of electrons. The atomic number increases from left to right. Periodic table starts at top left ( Atomic number 1) and ends at bottom right (atomic number 118). Therefore you can directly look for atomic number 36 to find Krypton on periodic table.

Another way to read periodic table and locate an element is by using group number (column) and period number (row). To locate Krypton on periodic table look for cross section of group 18 and period 4 in the modern periodic table.

Krypton History

The element Krypton was discovered by W. Ramsay and W. Travers in year 1898 in United Kingdom. Krypton was first isolated by W. Ramsay and W. Travers in 1898. Krypton derived its name from the Greek kryptos, meaning 'hidden'.

On May 30, 1898, Ramsay separated a noble gas from liquid argon by difference in boiling point.

Krypton Presence: Abundance in Nature and Around Us

The table below shows the abundance of Krypton in Universe, Sun, Meteorites, Earth's Crust, Oceans and Human Body.

 ppb by weight (1ppb =10^-7 %)ppb by atoms (1ppb =10^-7 %)
Abundance in Universe400.6
Abundance in Sun--
Abundance in Meteorites--
Abundance in Earth's Crust0.150.04
Abundance in Oceans0.210.016
Abundance in Humans--

Crystal Structure of Krypton

The solid state structure of Krypton is Face Centered Cubic.

The Crystal structure can be described in terms of its unit Cell. The unit Cells repeats itself in three dimensional space to form the structure.

Unit Cell Parameters

The unit cell is represented in terms of its lattice parameters, which are the lengths of the cell edges Lattice Constants (a, b and c)

abc
570.6 pm570.6 pm570.6 pm

and the angles between them Lattice Angles (alpha, beta and gamma).

alphabetagamma
π/2 π/2 π/2

The positions of the atoms inside the unit cell are described by the set of atomic positions ( xi, yi, zi) measured from a reference lattice point.

The symmetry properties of the crystal are described by the concept of space groups. All possible symmetric arrangements of particles in three-dimensional space are described by the 230 space groups (219 distinct types, or 230 if chiral copies are considered distinct.

Space Group NameFm_ 3m 36 Kr Krypton - Crystal Structure | SchoolMyKids
Oxidation StatesSpace Group Number225
Crystal StructureFace Centered Cubic

Krypton Atomic and Orbital Properties

Krypton atoms have 36 electrons and the electronic shell structure is [2, 8, 18, 8] with Atomic Term Symbol (Quantum Numbers) 1S0.

Atomic Number36
Number of Electrons (with no charge)36
Number of Protons36
Mass Number84
Number of Neutrons48
Shell structure (Electrons per energy level)2, 8, 18, 8
Electron Configuration[Ar] 3d10 4s2 4p6
Valence Electrons4s2 4p6
Valence (Valency)2
Main Oxidation States0
Oxidation States0, 1, 2
Atomic Term Symbol (Quantum Numbers)1S0

Bohr Atomic Model of Krypton - Electrons per energy level

36 Kr Krypton - Electron Shell Structure | SchoolMyKids
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Ground State Electronic Configuration of Krypton - neutral Krypton atom

Abbreviated electronic configuration of Krypton

The ground state abbreviated electronic configuration of Neutral Krypton atom is [Ar] 3d10 4s2 4p6. The portion of Krypton configuration that is equivalent to the noble gas of the preceding period, is abbreviated as [Ar]. For atoms with many electrons, this notation can become lengthy and so an abbreviated notation is used. This is important as it is the Valence electrons 4s2 4p6, electrons in the outermost shell that determine the chemical properties of the element.

Unabbreviated electronic configuration of neutral Krypton

Complete ground state electronic configuration for the Krypton atom, Unabbreviated electronic configuration

1s2 2s2 2p6 3s2 3p6 3d10 4s2 4p6

Electrons are filled in atomic orbitals as per the order determined by the Aufbau principle, Pauli Exclusion Principle and Hund’s Rule.

  • As per the Aufbau principle the electrons will occupy the orbitals having lower energies before occupying higher energy orbitals. According to this principle, electrons are filled in the following order: 1s, 2s, 2p, 3s, 3p, 4s, 3d, 4p, 5s, 4d, 5p, 6s, 4f, 5d, 6p, 7s, 5f, 6d, 7p…
  • The Pauli exclusion principle states that a maximum of two electrons, each having opposite spins, can fit in an orbital.
  • Hund's rule states that every orbital in a given subshell is singly occupied by electrons before a second electron is filled in an orbital.
  • Electron configuration of Krypton
    Atomic Structure of Krypton

    Krypton atomic radius is 88 pm, while it's covalent radius is 110 pm.

    Atomic Radius Calculated

    88 pm (0.88 Å)

    Atomic Radius Empirical

    - (0 Å)

    Atomic Volume22.35 cm3/mol
    Covalent Radius110 pm (1.1 Å)
    Van der Waals Radius202 pm
    Neutron Cross Section25
    Neutron Mass Absorption 0.013

    Atomic Spectrum of Krypton

    Atomic Spectrum of Krypton | SchoolMyKids

    Krypton Chemical Properties: Krypton Ionization Energies and electron affinity

    The electron affinity of Krypton is 0 kJ/mol.

    Valence2
    Electronegativity3
    ElectronAffinity0 kJ/mol

    Ionization Energy of Krypton

    Refer to table below for Ionization energies of Krypton

    Ionization energy numberEnthalpy - kJ/mol
    1st1350.8
    2nd2350.4
    3rd3565
    4th5070
    5th6240
    6th7570
    7th10710
    8th12138
    9th22274
    10th25880
    11th29700
    12th33800
    13th37700
    14th43100
    15th47500
    16th52200
    17th57100
    18th61800
    19th75800
    20th80400
    21st85300
    22nd90400
    23rd96300
    24th101400
    25th111100
    26th116290
    27th282500
    28th296200
    29th311400
    30th326200

    Krypton Physical Properties

    Refer to below table for Krypton Physical Properties

    Density0.00375 g/cm3
    Molar Volume22.35 cm3/mol

    Elastic Properties

    Young Modulus-
    Shear Modulus-
    Bulk Modulus -
    Poisson Ratio-

    Hardness of Krypton - Tests to Measure of Hardness of Element

    Mohs Hardness-
    Vickers Hardness-
    Brinell Hardness-

    Krypton Electrical Properties

    Krypton is Conductor of electricity. Refer to table below for the Electrical properties ofKrypton

    Electrical Conductivity-
    Resistivity-
    Superconducting Point-

    Krypton Heat and Conduction Properties

    Thermal Conductivity0.00943 W/(m K)
    Thermal Expansion-

    Krypton Magnetic Properties

    Magnetic TypeDiamagnetic
    Curie Point-
    Mass Magnetic Susceptibility-4.4e-9 m3/kg
    Molar Magnetic Susceptibility-3.69e-10 m3/mol
    Volume Magnetic Susceptibility-1.65e-8

    Optical Properties of Krypton

    Refractive Index1.000427

    Acoustic Properties of Krypton

    Speed of Sound1120 m/s

    Krypton Thermal Properties - Enthalpies and thermodynamics

    Refer to table below for Thermal properties of Krypton

    Melting Point115.79 K (-157.36°C, -251.24799999999993 °F)
    Boiling Point119.93 K (-153.22°C, -243.79599999999994 °F)
    Critical Temperature209.41 K
    Superconducting Point-

    Enthalpies of Krypton

    Heat of Fusion1.64 kJ/mol
    Heat of Vaporization9.02 kJ/mol
    Heat of Combustion-

    Krypton Isotopes - Nuclear Properties of Krypton

    Krypton has 32 isotopes, with between 69 and 100 nucleons. Krypton has 6 stable naturally occuring isotopes.

    Isotopes of Krypton - Naturally occurring stable Isotopes: 78Kr, 80Kr, 82Kr, 83Kr, 84Kr, 86Kr.

    IsotopeZNIsotope Mass% AbundanceT halfDecay Mode
    69Kr363369Synthetic
    70Kr363470Synthetic
    71Kr363571Synthetic
    72Kr363672Synthetic
    73Kr363773Synthetic
    74Kr363874Synthetic
    75Kr363975Synthetic
    76Kr364076Synthetic
    77Kr364177Synthetic
    78Kr3642780.35%StableN/A
    79Kr364379Synthetic
    80Kr3644802.28%StableN/A
    81Kr364581Synthetic
    82Kr36468211.58%StableN/A
    83Kr36478311.49%StableN/A
    84Kr36488457%Stable
    85Kr364985Synthetic
    86Kr36508617.3%StableN/A
    87Kr365187Synthetic
    88Kr365288Synthetic
    89Kr365389Synthetic
    90Kr365490Synthetic
    91Kr365591Synthetic
    92Kr365692Synthetic
    93Kr365793Synthetic
    94Kr365894Synthetic
    95Kr365995Synthetic
    96Kr366096Synthetic
    97Kr366197Synthetic
    98Kr366298Synthetic
    99Kr366399Synthetic
    100Kr3664100Synthetic