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Rh Rhodium
Element Information, Facts, Properties, Trends, Uses, Comparison with other elements

45
Rh
Rhodium
Element 45 of Periodic table is Rhodium with atomic number 45, atomic weight 102.9055. Rhodium, symbol Rh, has a Face Centered Cubic structure and Silver color. Rhodium is a Transition Metal element. It is part of group 9 (cobalt family). Know everything about Rhodium Facts, Physical Properties, Chemical Properties, Electronic configuration, Atomic and Crystal Structure.
45 Rh - Rhodium | SchoolMyKids

Rhodium is a chemical element with symbol Rh and atomic number 45. It is a rare, silvery-white, hard, and chemically inert Transition Metal. It is a member of the platinum group.

It belongs to group 9 of the periodic table having trivial name .

Rhodium Facts

Read key information and facts about element Rhodium

NameRhodium
Atomic Number45
Atomic SymbolRh
Atomic Weight102.9055
PhaseSolid
ColorSilver
Appearancesilvery white metallic
ClassificationTransition Metal
Group in Periodic Table9
Group Namecobalt family
Period in Periodic Tableperiod 5
Block in Periodic Tabled -block
Electronic Configuration[Kr] 4d8 5s1
Electronic Shell Structure (Electrons per shell)2, 8, 18, 16, 1
Melting Point2237 K
Boiling Point3968 K
CAS NumberCAS7440-16-6
123456789101112131415161718
1
1
H
Hydrogen
1.008

Atomic #

Electronic Shell #

Symbol
Name
Atomic Weight
HGas
HgLiquid
CSolid
Metals
Metalloids
NonMetals
Alkali metals
Alkali earth metals
Lanthanoids
Transition metals
Post-transition metals
Other nonmetals
Halogens
Nobel gas
Actinoids
2
He
Helium
4.003
2
3
Li
Lithium
6.941
4
Be
Beryllium
9.012
5
B
Boron
10.811
6
C
Carbon
12.011
7
N
Nitrogen
14.007
8
O
Oxygen
15.999
9
F
Fluorine
18.998
10
Ne
Neon
20.180
3
11
Na
Sodium
22.990
12
Mg
Magnesium
24.305
13
Al
Aluminium
26.982
14
Si
Silicon
28.085
15
P
Phosphorus
30.974
16
S
Sulfur
32.065
17
Cl
Chlorine
35.453
18
Ar
Argon
39.948
4
19
K
Potassium
39.098
20
Ca
Calcium
40.078
21
Sc
Scandium
44.956
22
Ti
Titanium
47.867
23
V
Vanadium
50.941
24
Cr
Chromium
51.996
25
Mn
Manganese
54.938
26
Fe
Iron
55.845
27
Co
Cobalt
58.933
28
Ni
Nickel
58.693
29
Cu
Copper
63.546
30
Zn
Zinc
65.409
31
Ga
Gallium
69.723
32
Ge
Germanium
72.640
33
As
Arsenic
74.922
34
Se
Selenium
78.960
35
Br
Bromine
79.904
36
Kr
Krypton
83.798
5
37
Rb
Rubidium
85.468
38
Sr
Strontium
87.620
39
Y
Yttrium
88.906
40
Zr
Zirconium
91.224
41
Nb
Niobium
92.906
42
Mo
Molybdenum
95.940
43
Tc
Technetium
98
44
Ru
Ruthenium
101.070
45
Rh
Rhodium
102.906
46
Pd
Palladium
106.420
47
Ag
Silver
107.868
48
Cd
Cadmium
112.411
49
In
Indium
114.818
50
Sn
Tin
118.710
51
Sb
Antimony
121.760
52
Te
Tellurium
127.600
53
I
Iodine
126.904
54
Xe
Xenon
131.293
6
55
Cs
Cesium
132.905
56
Ba
Barium
137.327
57 - 71
La - Lu
Lanthanides
72
Hf
Hafnium
178.490
73
Ta
Tantalum
180.948
74
W
Tungsten
183.840
75
Re
Rhenium
186.207
76
Os
Osmium
190.230
77
Ir
Iridium
192.217
78
Pt
Platinum
195.078
79
Au
Gold
196.967
80
Hg
Mercury
200.590
81
Tl
Thallium
204.383
82
Pb
Lead
207.200
83
Bi
Bismuth
208.980
84
Po
Polonium
209
85
At
Astatine
210
86
Rn
Radon
222
7
87
Fr
Francium
223
88
Ra
Radium
226
89 - 103
Ac - Lr
Actinides
104
Rf
Rutherfordium
261
105
Db
Dubnium
262
106
Sg
Seaborgium
266
107
Bh
Bohrium
264
108
Hs
Hassium
277
109
Mt
Meitnerium
268
110
Ds
Darmstadtium
281
111
Rg
Roentgenium
272
112
Cn
Copernicium
285
113
Nh
Nihonium
284
114
Fl
Flerovium
289
115
Mc
Moscovium
288
116
Lv
Livermorium
292
117
Ts
Tennessine
294
118
Og
Oganesson
294
Lanthanides
57
La
Lanthanum
138.905
58
Ce
Cerium
140.116
59
Pr
Praseodymium
140.908
60
Nd
Neodymium
144.240
61
Pm
Promethium
145
62
Sm
Samarium
150.360
63
Eu
Europium
151.964
64
Gd
Gadolinium
157.250
65
Tb
Terbium
158.925
66
Dy
Dysprosium
162.500
67
Ho
Holmium
164.930
68
Er
Erbium
167.259
69
Tm
Thulium
168.934
70
Yb
Ytterbium
173.040
71
Lu
Lutetium
174.967
Actinides
89
Ac
Actinium
227
90
Th
Thorium
232.038
91
Pa
Protactinium
231.036
92
U
Uranium
238.029
93
Np
Neptunium
237
94
Pu
Plutonium
244
95
Am
Americium
243
96
Cm
Curium
247
97
Bk
Berkelium
247
98
Cf
Californium
251
99
Es
Einsteinium
252
100
Fm
Fermium
257
101
Md
Mendelevium
258
102
No
Nobelium
259
103
Lr
Lawrencium
262

How to Locate Rhodium on Periodic Table

Periodic table is arranged by atomic number, number of protons in the nucleus which is same as number of electrons. The atomic number increases from left to right. Periodic table starts at top left ( Atomic number 1) and ends at bottom right (atomic number 118). Therefore you can directly look for atomic number 45 to find Rhodium on periodic table.

Another way to read periodic table and locate an element is by using group number (column) and period number (row). To locate Rhodium on periodic table look for cross section of group 9 and period 5 in the modern periodic table.

Rhodium History

The element Rhodium was discovered by H. Wollaston in year 1804 in United Kingdom. Rhodium was first isolated by H. Wollaston in 1804. Rhodium derived its name from the Greek rhodos, meaning 'rose coloured'.

Wollaston discovered and isolated it from crude platinum samples from South America.

Rhodium Presence: Abundance in Nature and Around Us

The table below shows the abundance of Rhodium in Universe, Sun, Meteorites, Earth's Crust, Oceans and Human Body.

 ppb by weight (1ppb =10^-7 %)ppb by atoms (1ppb =10^-7 %)
Abundance in Universe0.60.007
Abundance in Sun20.02
Abundance in Meteorites18040
Abundance in Earth's Crust0.700.1
Abundance in Oceans--
Abundance in Humans--

Crystal Structure of Rhodium

The solid state structure of Rhodium is Face Centered Cubic.

The Crystal structure can be described in terms of its unit Cell. The unit Cells repeats itself in three dimensional space to form the structure.

Unit Cell Parameters

The unit cell is represented in terms of its lattice parameters, which are the lengths of the cell edges Lattice Constants (a, b and c)

abc
380.34 pm380.34 pm380.34 pm

and the angles between them Lattice Angles (alpha, beta and gamma).

alphabetagamma
π/2 π/2 π/2

The positions of the atoms inside the unit cell are described by the set of atomic positions ( xi, yi, zi) measured from a reference lattice point.

The symmetry properties of the crystal are described by the concept of space groups. All possible symmetric arrangements of particles in three-dimensional space are described by the 230 space groups (219 distinct types, or 230 if chiral copies are considered distinct.

Space Group NameFm_ 3m 45 Rh Rhodium - Crystal Structure | SchoolMyKids
Oxidation StatesSpace Group Number225
Crystal StructureFace Centered Cubic

Rhodium Atomic and Orbital Properties

Rhodium atoms have 45 electrons and the electronic shell structure is [2, 8, 18, 16, 1] with Atomic Term Symbol (Quantum Numbers) 4F9/2.

Atomic Number45
Number of Electrons (with no charge)45
Number of Protons45
Mass Number103
Number of Neutrons58
Shell structure (Electrons per energy level)2, 8, 18, 16, 1
Electron Configuration[Kr] 4d8 5s1
Valence Electrons4d8 5s1
Valence (Valency)6
Main Oxidation States3
Oxidation States-3, -1, 0, 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6
Atomic Term Symbol (Quantum Numbers)4F9/2

Bohr Atomic Model of Rhodium - Electrons per energy level

45 Rh Rhodium - Electron Shell Structure | SchoolMyKids
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Ground State Electronic Configuration of Rhodium - neutral Rhodium atom

Abbreviated electronic configuration of Rhodium

The ground state abbreviated electronic configuration of Neutral Rhodium atom is [Kr] 4d8 5s1. The portion of Rhodium configuration that is equivalent to the noble gas of the preceding period, is abbreviated as [Kr]. For atoms with many electrons, this notation can become lengthy and so an abbreviated notation is used. This is important as it is the Valence electrons 4d8 5s1, electrons in the outermost shell that determine the chemical properties of the element.

Unabbreviated electronic configuration of neutral Rhodium

Complete ground state electronic configuration for the Rhodium atom, Unabbreviated electronic configuration

1s2 2s2 2p6 3s2 3p6 3d10 4s2 4p6 4d8 5s1

Electrons are filled in atomic orbitals as per the order determined by the Aufbau principle, Pauli Exclusion Principle and Hund’s Rule.

  • As per the Aufbau principle the electrons will occupy the orbitals having lower energies before occupying higher energy orbitals. According to this principle, electrons are filled in the following order: 1s, 2s, 2p, 3s, 3p, 4s, 3d, 4p, 5s, 4d, 5p, 6s, 4f, 5d, 6p, 7s, 5f, 6d, 7p…
  • The Pauli exclusion principle states that a maximum of two electrons, each having opposite spins, can fit in an orbital.
  • Hund's rule states that every orbital in a given subshell is singly occupied by electrons before a second electron is filled in an orbital.
  • Electron configuration of Rhodium
    Atomic Structure of Rhodium

    Rhodium atomic radius is 173 pm, while it's covalent radius is 135 pm.

    Atomic Radius Calculated

    173 pm (1.73 Å)

    Atomic Radius Empirical

    135 pm (1.35 Å)

    Atomic Volume8.2655 cm3/mol
    Covalent Radius135 pm (1.35 Å)
    Van der Waals Radius-
    Neutron Cross Section145
    Neutron Mass Absorption 0.063

    Atomic Spectrum of Rhodium

    Atomic Spectrum of Rhodium | SchoolMyKids

    Rhodium Chemical Properties: Rhodium Ionization Energies and electron affinity

    The electron affinity of Rhodium is 109.7 kJ/mol.

    Valence6
    Electronegativity2.28
    ElectronAffinity109.7 kJ/mol

    Ionization Energy of Rhodium

    Refer to table below for Ionization energies of Rhodium

    Ionization energy numberEnthalpy - kJ/mol
    1st719.7
    2nd1740
    3rd2997

    Rhodium Physical Properties

    Refer to below table for Rhodium Physical Properties

    Density12.45 g/cm3(when liquid at m.p density is $10.7 g/cm3)
    Molar Volume8.2655 cm3/mol

    Elastic Properties

    Young Modulus275
    Shear Modulus150 GPa
    Bulk Modulus 380 GPa
    Poisson Ratio0.26

    Hardness of Rhodium - Tests to Measure of Hardness of Element

    Mohs Hardness6 MPa
    Vickers Hardness1246 MPa
    Brinell Hardness1100 MPa

    Rhodium Electrical Properties

    Rhodium is Conductor of electricity. Refer to table below for the Electrical properties ofRhodium

    Electrical Conductivity23000000 S/m
    Resistivity4.3e-8 m Ω
    Superconducting Point-

    Rhodium Heat and Conduction Properties

    Thermal Conductivity150 W/(m K)
    Thermal Expansion0.0000082 /K

    Rhodium Magnetic Properties

    Magnetic TypeParamagnetic
    Curie Point-
    Mass Magnetic Susceptibility1.36e-8 m3/kg
    Molar Magnetic Susceptibility1.4e-9 m3/mol
    Volume Magnetic Susceptibility0.0001693

    Optical Properties of Rhodium

    Refractive Index-

    Acoustic Properties of Rhodium

    Speed of Sound4700 m/s

    Rhodium Thermal Properties - Enthalpies and thermodynamics

    Refer to table below for Thermal properties of Rhodium

    Melting Point2237 K (1963.85°C, 3566.9299999999994 °F)
    Boiling Point3968 K (3694.85°C, 6682.7300000000005 °F)
    Critical Temperature-
    Superconducting Point-

    Enthalpies of Rhodium

    Heat of Fusion21.7 kJ/mol
    Heat of Vaporization495 kJ/mol
    Heat of Combustion-

    Rhodium Isotopes - Nuclear Properties of Rhodium

    Rhodium has 27 isotopes, with between 89 and 115 nucleons. Rhodium has 1 stable naturally occuring isotopes.

    Isotopes of Rhodium - Naturally occurring stable Isotopes: 103Rh.

    IsotopeZNIsotope Mass% AbundanceT halfDecay Mode
    89Rh454489Synthetic
    90Rh454590Synthetic
    91Rh454691Synthetic
    92Rh454792Synthetic
    93Rh454893Synthetic
    94Rh454994Synthetic
    95Rh455095Synthetic
    96Rh455196Synthetic
    97Rh455297Synthetic
    98Rh455398Synthetic
    99Rh455499Synthetic
    100Rh4555100Synthetic
    101Rh4556101Synthetic
    102Rh4557102Synthetic
    103Rh4558103100%Stable
    104Rh4559104Synthetic
    105Rh4560105Synthetic
    106Rh4561106Synthetic
    107Rh4562107Synthetic
    108Rh4563108Synthetic
    109Rh4564109Synthetic
    110Rh4565110Synthetic
    111Rh4566111Synthetic
    112Rh4567112Synthetic
    113Rh4568113Synthetic
    114Rh4569114Synthetic
    115Rh, 116Rh, 117Rh, 118Rh, 119Rh, 120Rh, 121Rh, 122Rh4570115Synthetic

    Regulatory and Health - Health and Safety Parameters and Guidelines

    Database Search

    List of unique identifiers to search the element in various chemical registry databases

    DatabaseIdentifier number
    CAS Number - Chemical Abstracts Service (CAS)CAS7440-16-6
    RTECS NumberRTECSVI9069000
    CID Number CID23948
    Gmelin Number-
    NSC Number-