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Li Lithium
Element Information, Facts, Properties, Trends, Uses, Comparison with other elements

3
Li
Lithium
Element 3 of Periodic table is Lithium with atomic number 3, atomic weight 6.941. Lithium, symbol Li, has a Body Centered Cubic structure and Silver color. Lithium is a Alkali Metal element. It is part of group 1 (lithium family). Know everything about Lithium Facts, Physical Properties, Chemical Properties, Electronic configuration, Atomic and Crystal Structure.
3 Li - Lithium | SchoolMyKids

Lithium (from Greek:λίθος lithos, 'stone') is a chemical element with the symbol Li and atomic number 3. It is a soft, silver-white metal belonging to the Alkali Metal group of chemical elements. Under standard conditions it is the lightest metal and the least dense solid element.

It belongs to group 1 of the periodic table having trivial name alkali metals*. Hydrogen resides within this column, but is not considered an alkali metal.

Lithium Facts

Read key information and facts about element Lithium

NameLithium
Atomic Number3
Atomic SymbolLi
Atomic Weight6.941
PhaseSolid
ColorSilver
Appearancesilvery-white
ClassificationAlkali Metal
Group in Periodic Table1
Group Namelithium family
Period in Periodic Tableperiod 2
Block in Periodic Tables -block
Electronic Configuration[He] 2s1
Electronic Shell Structure (Electrons per shell)2, 1
Melting Point453.69 K
Boiling Point1615 K
CAS NumberCAS7439-93-2
Neighborhood Elements
123456789101112131415161718
1
1
H
Hydrogen
1.008

Atomic #

Electronic Shell #

Symbol
Name
Atomic Weight
HGas
HgLiquid
CSolid
Metals
Metalloids
NonMetals
Alkali metals
Alkali earth metals
Lanthanoids
Transition metals
Post-transition metals
Other nonmetals
Halogens
Nobel gas
Actinoids
2
He
Helium
4.003
2
3
Li
Lithium
6.941
4
Be
Beryllium
9.012
5
B
Boron
10.811
6
C
Carbon
12.011
7
N
Nitrogen
14.007
8
O
Oxygen
15.999
9
F
Fluorine
18.998
10
Ne
Neon
20.180
3
11
Na
Sodium
22.990
12
Mg
Magnesium
24.305
13
Al
Aluminium
26.982
14
Si
Silicon
28.085
15
P
Phosphorus
30.974
16
S
Sulfur
32.065
17
Cl
Chlorine
35.453
18
Ar
Argon
39.948
4
19
K
Potassium
39.098
20
Ca
Calcium
40.078
21
Sc
Scandium
44.956
22
Ti
Titanium
47.867
23
V
Vanadium
50.941
24
Cr
Chromium
51.996
25
Mn
Manganese
54.938
26
Fe
Iron
55.845
27
Co
Cobalt
58.933
28
Ni
Nickel
58.693
29
Cu
Copper
63.546
30
Zn
Zinc
65.409
31
Ga
Gallium
69.723
32
Ge
Germanium
72.640
33
As
Arsenic
74.922
34
Se
Selenium
78.960
35
Br
Bromine
79.904
36
Kr
Krypton
83.798
5
37
Rb
Rubidium
85.468
38
Sr
Strontium
87.620
39
Y
Yttrium
88.906
40
Zr
Zirconium
91.224
41
Nb
Niobium
92.906
42
Mo
Molybdenum
95.940
43
Tc
Technetium
98
44
Ru
Ruthenium
101.070
45
Rh
Rhodium
102.906
46
Pd
Palladium
106.420
47
Ag
Silver
107.868
48
Cd
Cadmium
112.411
49
In
Indium
114.818
50
Sn
Tin
118.710
51
Sb
Antimony
121.760
52
Te
Tellurium
127.600
53
I
Iodine
126.904
54
Xe
Xenon
131.293
6
55
Cs
Cesium
132.905
56
Ba
Barium
137.327
57 - 71
La - Lu
Lanthanides
72
Hf
Hafnium
178.490
73
Ta
Tantalum
180.948
74
W
Tungsten
183.840
75
Re
Rhenium
186.207
76
Os
Osmium
190.230
77
Ir
Iridium
192.217
78
Pt
Platinum
195.078
79
Au
Gold
196.967
80
Hg
Mercury
200.590
81
Tl
Thallium
204.383
82
Pb
Lead
207.200
83
Bi
Bismuth
208.980
84
Po
Polonium
209
85
At
Astatine
210
86
Rn
Radon
222
7
87
Fr
Francium
223
88
Ra
Radium
226
89 - 103
Ac - Lr
Actinides
104
Rf
Rutherfordium
261
105
Db
Dubnium
262
106
Sg
Seaborgium
266
107
Bh
Bohrium
264
108
Hs
Hassium
277
109
Mt
Meitnerium
268
110
Ds
Darmstadtium
281
111
Rg
Roentgenium
272
112
Cn
Copernicium
285
113
Nh
Nihonium
284
114
Fl
Flerovium
289
115
Mc
Moscovium
288
116
Lv
Livermorium
292
117
Ts
Tennessine
294
118
Og
Oganesson
294
Lanthanides
57
La
Lanthanum
138.905
58
Ce
Cerium
140.116
59
Pr
Praseodymium
140.908
60
Nd
Neodymium
144.240
61
Pm
Promethium
145
62
Sm
Samarium
150.360
63
Eu
Europium
151.964
64
Gd
Gadolinium
157.250
65
Tb
Terbium
158.925
66
Dy
Dysprosium
162.500
67
Ho
Holmium
164.930
68
Er
Erbium
167.259
69
Tm
Thulium
168.934
70
Yb
Ytterbium
173.040
71
Lu
Lutetium
174.967
Actinides
89
Ac
Actinium
227
90
Th
Thorium
232.038
91
Pa
Protactinium
231.036
92
U
Uranium
238.029
93
Np
Neptunium
237
94
Pu
Plutonium
244
95
Am
Americium
243
96
Cm
Curium
247
97
Bk
Berkelium
247
98
Cf
Californium
251
99
Es
Einsteinium
252
100
Fm
Fermium
257
101
Md
Mendelevium
258
102
No
Nobelium
259
103
Lr
Lawrencium
262

How to Locate Lithium on Periodic Table

Periodic table is arranged by atomic number, number of protons in the nucleus which is same as number of electrons. The atomic number increases from left to right. Periodic table starts at top left ( Atomic number 1) and ends at bottom right (atomic number 118). Therefore you can directly look for atomic number 3 to find Lithium on periodic table.

Another way to read periodic table and locate an element is by using group number (column) and period number (row). To locate Lithium on periodic table look for cross section of group 1 and period 2 in the modern periodic table.

Lithium History

The element Lithium was discovered by A. Arfwedson in year 1817 in Sweden. Lithium was first isolated by W. T. Brande in 1821. Lithium derived its name the Greek word lithos, meaning 'stone'.

Arfwedson discovered the alkali in petalite.

Lithium Presence: Abundance in Nature and Around Us

The table below shows the abundance of Lithium in Universe, Sun, Meteorites, Earth's Crust, Oceans and Human Body.

 ppb by weight (1ppb =10^-7 %)ppb by atoms (1ppb =10^-7 %)
Abundance in Universe61
Abundance in Sun0.060.01
Abundance in Meteorites17004600
Abundance in Earth's Crust1700050000
Abundance in Oceans180160
Abundance in Humans3027

Crystal Structure of Lithium

The solid state structure of Lithium is Body Centered Cubic.

The Crystal structure can be described in terms of its unit Cell. The unit Cells repeats itself in three dimensional space to form the structure.

Unit Cell Parameters

The unit cell is represented in terms of its lattice parameters, which are the lengths of the cell edges Lattice Constants (a, b and c)

abc
351 pm351 pm351 pm

and the angles between them Lattice Angles (alpha, beta and gamma).

alphabetagamma
π/2 π/2 π/2

The positions of the atoms inside the unit cell are described by the set of atomic positions ( xi, yi, zi) measured from a reference lattice point.

The symmetry properties of the crystal are described by the concept of space groups. All possible symmetric arrangements of particles in three-dimensional space are described by the 230 space groups (219 distinct types, or 230 if chiral copies are considered distinct.

Space Group NameIm_ 3m 3 Li Lithium - Crystal Structure | SchoolMyKids
Oxidation StatesSpace Group Number229
Crystal StructureBody Centered Cubic

Lithium Atomic and Orbital Properties

Lithium atoms have 3 electrons and the electronic shell structure is [2, 1] with Atomic Term Symbol (Quantum Numbers) 2S1/2.

Atomic Number3
Number of Electrons (with no charge)3
Number of Protons3
Mass Number7
Number of Neutrons4
Shell structure (Electrons per energy level)2, 1
Electron Configuration[He] 2s1
Valence Electrons2s1
Valence (Valency)1
Main Oxidation States1
Oxidation States1
Atomic Term Symbol (Quantum Numbers)2S1/2

Bohr Atomic Model of Lithium - Electrons per energy level

3 Li Lithium - Electron Shell Structure | SchoolMyKids
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Ground State Electronic Configuration of Lithium - neutral Lithium atom

Abbreviated electronic configuration of Lithium

The ground state abbreviated electronic configuration of Neutral Lithium atom is [He] 2s1. The portion of Lithium configuration that is equivalent to the noble gas of the preceding period, is abbreviated as [He]. For atoms with many electrons, this notation can become lengthy and so an abbreviated notation is used. This is important as it is the Valence electrons 2s1, electrons in the outermost shell that determine the chemical properties of the element.

Unabbreviated electronic configuration of neutral Lithium

Complete ground state electronic configuration for the Lithium atom, Unabbreviated electronic configuration

1s2 2s1

Electrons are filled in atomic orbitals as per the order determined by the Aufbau principle, Pauli Exclusion Principle and Hund’s Rule.

  • As per the Aufbau principle the electrons will occupy the orbitals having lower energies before occupying higher energy orbitals. According to this principle, electrons are filled in the following order: 1s, 2s, 2p, 3s, 3p, 4s, 3d, 4p, 5s, 4d, 5p, 6s, 4f, 5d, 6p, 7s, 5f, 6d, 7p…
  • The Pauli exclusion principle states that a maximum of two electrons, each having opposite spins, can fit in an orbital.
  • Hund's rule states that every orbital in a given subshell is singly occupied by electrons before a second electron is filled in an orbital.
  • Electron configuration of Lithium
    Atomic Structure of Lithium

    Lithium atomic radius is 167 pm, while it's covalent radius is 134 pm.

    Atomic Radius Calculated

    167 pm (1.67 Å)

    Atomic Radius Empirical

    145 pm (1.45 Å)

    Atomic Volume13.02 cm3/mol
    Covalent Radius134 pm (1.34 Å)
    Van der Waals Radius182 pm
    Neutron Cross Section0.045
    Neutron Mass Absorption -

    Atomic Spectrum of Lithium

    Atomic Spectrum of Lithium | SchoolMyKids

    Lithium Chemical Properties: Lithium Ionization Energies and electron affinity

    The electron affinity of Lithium is 59.6 kJ/mol.

    Valence1
    Electronegativity0.98
    ElectronAffinity59.6 kJ/mol

    Ionization Energy of Lithium

    Refer to table below for Ionization energies of Lithium

    Ionization energy numberEnthalpy - kJ/mol
    1st520.2
    2nd7298.1
    3rd11815

    Lithium Physical Properties

    Refer to below table for Lithium Physical Properties

    Density0.535 g/cm3(when liquid at m.p density is $0.512 g/cm3)
    Molar Volume13.02 cm3/mol

    Elastic Properties

    Young Modulus4.9
    Shear Modulus4.2 GPa
    Bulk Modulus 11 GPa
    Poisson Ratio-

    Hardness of Lithium - Tests to Measure of Hardness of Element

    Mohs Hardness0.6 MPa
    Vickers Hardness-
    Brinell Hardness-

    Lithium Electrical Properties

    Lithium is Conductor of electricity. Refer to table below for the Electrical properties ofLithium

    Electrical Conductivity11000000 S/m
    Resistivity9.4e-8 m Ω
    Superconducting Point-

    Lithium Heat and Conduction Properties

    Thermal Conductivity85 W/(m K)
    Thermal Expansion0.000046 /K

    Lithium Magnetic Properties

    Magnetic TypeParamagnetic
    Curie Point-
    Mass Magnetic Susceptibility2.56e-8 m3/kg
    Molar Magnetic Susceptibility1.78e-10 m3/mol
    Volume Magnetic Susceptibility0.00000137

    Optical Properties of Lithium

    Refractive Index-

    Acoustic Properties of Lithium

    Speed of Sound6000 m/s

    Lithium Thermal Properties - Enthalpies and thermodynamics

    Refer to table below for Thermal properties of Lithium

    Melting Point453.69 K (180.54°C, 356.97200000000004 °F)
    Boiling Point1615 K (1341.85°C, 2447.33 °F)
    Critical Temperature3223 K
    Superconducting Point-

    Enthalpies of Lithium

    Heat of Fusion3 kJ/mol
    Heat of Vaporization147 kJ/mol
    Heat of Combustion-298 J/(kg K)

    Lithium Isotopes - Nuclear Properties of Lithium

    Lithium has 10 isotopes, with between 3 and 12 nucleons. Lithium has 2 stable naturally occuring isotopes.

    Isotopes of Lithium - Naturally occurring stable Isotopes: 6Li, 7Li.

    IsotopeZNIsotope Mass% AbundanceT halfDecay Mode
    3Li303Synthetic
    4Li314Synthetic
    5Li325Synthetic
    6Li3367.59%StableN/A
    7Li34792.41%Stable
    8Li358Synthetic
    9Li369Synthetic
    10Li3710Synthetic
    11Li3811Synthetic
    12Li3912Synthetic

    Regulatory and Health - Health and Safety Parameters and Guidelines

    Database Search

    List of unique identifiers to search the element in various chemical registry databases

    DatabaseIdentifier number
    CAS Number - Chemical Abstracts Service (CAS)CAS7439-93-2
    RTECS NumberRTECSOJ5540000
    CID Number CID3028194
    Gmelin Number-
    NSC Number-